Bremen
Clockwise from top: Bremer Marktplatz, Bremen Hauptbahnhof, the Werdersee and the Town Musicians statue
Location of Bremen
Bremen
Bremen
Bremen
Bremen
Coordinates: 53°5′N 8°48′E / 53.083°N 8.800°E / 53.083; 8.800Coordinates: 53°5′N 8°48′E / 53.083°N 8.800°E / 53.083; 8.800
CountryGermany
StateBremen
Subdivisions5 boroughs, 19 districts, 88 subdistricts
Government
 • First MayorAndreas Bovenschulte (SPD)
 • Governing partiesSPD / Greens / Left
Area
 • City326.73 km2 (126.15 sq mi)
 • Metro
11,627 km2 (4,489 sq mi)
Elevation
12 m (39 ft)
Population
 (2019-12-31)[1]
 • City567,559
 • Density1,700/km2 (4,500/sq mi)
 • Metro
2,400,000
Demonym(s)Bremer (m), Bremerin (f)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal codes
28001–28779
Dialling codes0421
Vehicle registrationHB (with 1 to 2 letters and 1 to 4 digits)[2]
WebsiteBremen online

The City Municipality of Bremen (/ˈbrmən/, also US: /ˈbrɛmən/;[3][4][5] German: Stadtgemeinde Bremen, IPA: [ˈʃtatɡəˌmaɪndə ˈbʁeːmən] (About this soundlisten); Low German also: Breem or Bräm) is the capital of the German state Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a two-city-state consisting of the cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven. With around 570,000 inhabitants, the Hanseatic city is the 11th largest city of Germany as well as the second largest city in Northern Germany after Hamburg.

Bremen is the largest city on the River Weser, the longest river flowing entirely in Germany, lying some 60 km (37 mi) upstream from its mouth into the North Sea, and is surrounded by the state of Lower Saxony. A commercial and industrial city, Bremen is, together with Oldenburg and Bremerhaven, part of the Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region, with 2.5 million people. Bremen is contiguous with the Lower Saxon towns of Delmenhorst, Stuhr, Achim, Weyhe, Schwanewede and Lilienthal. There is an exclave of Bremen in Bremerhaven, the "Citybremian Overseas Port Area Bremerhaven" (Stadtbremisches Überseehafengebiet Bremerhaven). Bremen is the fourth largest city in the Low German dialect area after Hamburg, Dortmund and Essen.

Bremen's port, together with the port of Bremerhaven at the mouth of the Weser, is the second largest port in Germany after the Port of Hamburg. The airport of Bremen (Flughafen Bremen "Hans Koschnick") lies in the southern borough of Neustadt-Neuenland and is Germany's 12th busiest airport.

Bremen is a major cultural and economic hub of Northern Germany. The city is home to dozens of historical galleries and museums, ranging from historical sculptures to major art museums, such as the Bremen Overseas Museum (Übersee-Museum Bremen).[6] The Bremen City Hall and the Bremen Roland are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Bremen is well known through the Brothers Grimm's fairy tale "Town Musicians of Bremen" (Die Bremer Stadtmusikanten), and there is a statue dedicated to it in front of the city hall.

Bremen has a reputation as a working-class city.[7] The city is home to many multinational companies and manufacturing centers. Companies headquartered in Bremen include the Hachez chocolate company and Vector Foiltec.[8] Bremen's best known football club is Bundesliga club SV Werder Bremen, who play in the Weser Stadium (Weserstadion), that sits directly on the bank of the Weser.

History

Main articles: History of Bremen (city) and Timeline of Bremen

Geography and population

Bremen's city hall, cathedral and Bürgerschaft
Bremen's city hall, cathedral and Bürgerschaft
View from the Stephanibrücke towards the city centre and cathedral
View from the Stephanibrücke towards the city centre and cathedral

Bremen lies on both sides of the River Weser, about 60 kilometres (37 miles) upstream of its estuary on the North Sea and its transition to the Outer Weser by Bremerhaven. Opposite Bremen's Altstadt is the point where the "Middle Weser" becomes the "Lower Weser" and, from the area of Bremen's port, the river has been made navigable to ocean-going vessels. The region on the left bank of the Lower Weser, through which the Ochtum flows, is the Weser Marshes, the landscape on its right bank is part of the Elbe-Weser Triangle. The Lesum, and its tributaries, the Wümme and Hamme, the Schönebecker Aue and Blumenthaler Aue, are the downstream tributaries of the Weser.

The city's municipal area is about 38 kilometres (24 miles) long and 16 kilometres (10 miles) wide. In terms of area, Bremen is the thirteenth largest city in Germany; and in terms of population the second largest city in northwest Germany after Hamburg and the eleventh largest in the whole of Germany (see: List of cities in Germany).[contradictory]

Bremen lies about 50 kilometres (31 miles) east of the city of Oldenburg, 110 kilometres (68 miles) southwest of Hamburg, 120 kilometres (75 miles) northwest of Hanover, 100 kilometres (62 miles) north of Minden and 105 kilometres (65 miles) northeast of Osnabrück. Part of Bremerhaven's port territory forms an exclave of the City of Bremen.

Hills of Bremen

The inner city lies on a Weser dune, which reaches a natural height of 10.5 m above sea level (NN) at Bremen Cathedral; its highest point, though, is 14.4 m above sea level (NN) and lies to the east at the Polizeihaus, Am Wall 196. The highest natural feature in the city of Bremen is 32.5 m above NN and lies in Friedehorst Park in the northwestern borough of Burglesum.[9]:25 As a result, Bremen has the lowest high point of all the German states.[10]

Climate

Bremen has a moderate oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) due to its proximity to the North Sea coast and temperate maritime air masses that move in with the predominantly westerly winds from the Atlantic Ocean. However, periods in which continental air masses predominate may occur at any time of the year and can lead to heat waves in the summer and prolonged periods of frost in the winter. In general though, extremes are rare in Bremen and temperatures below −15 °C (5.0 °F) and above 35 °C (95.0 °F) occur only once every couple of years. The record high temperature was 37.6 °C (99.7 °F) on 9 August 1992, while the official record low temperature was −23.6 °C (−10.5 °F) on 13 February 1940. On 13 October 2018, Bremen recorded its warmest October day on record with 28.6 °C (83.4 °F).[11] However, the astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers reported to have measured −27,3 °C on 23. January 1823.[12] Being at some distance from the main North Sea, Bremen still has a somewhat wider temperature range than Bremerhaven that is located on the mouth of Weser.

Average temperatures have risen continually over the last decades, leading to a 0.6 °C (1.1 °F) rise in the mean annual temperature between 1961–90 and 1981–2010 reference periods. As in most parts of Germany, the year 2014 has been the warmest year on record averaging 11.1 °C (52.0 °F), making Bremen the second-warmest German state after Berlin in 2014.[13] While Bremen is located in the comparatively cloudy northwestern part of Germany, there has been a significant increase in average sunshine hours over the last decades, especially in the months of April, May, and July, causing the annual mean to rise by 62 hours between the two reference periods mentioned above.[14] This trend has continued over the last 10 years, which average 1614 hours of sunshine, a good 130 hours more than in the international reference period of 1961–90.[15] Nevertheless, especially the winters remain extremely gloomy by international standards with December averaging hardly more than one hour of sunshine (out of 7 astronomically possible) per day, a feature that Bremen shares with most of Germany and its neighbouring countries, though.

Precipitation is distributed fairly even around the year with a small peak in summer mainly due to convective precipitation, i.e. showers and thunderstorms. Snowfall and the period of snow cover are variable; whereas in some years, hardly any snow accumulation occurs, there has recently been a series of unusually snowy winters, peaking in the record year 2010 counting 84 days with a snow cover.[16] Nevertheless, snow accumulation of more than 20 centimetres (8 in) remains exceptional, the record being 68 centimetres (26.8 in) of snow on 18 February 1979.

The warmest months in Bremen are June, July, and August, with average high temperatures of 20.2 to 22.6 °C (68.4 to 72.7 °F). The coldest are December, January, and February, with average low temperatures of −1.1 to 0.3 °C (30.0 to 32.5 °F). Typical of its maritime location, autumn tends to remain mild well into October, while spring arrives later than in the southwestern parts of the country.

Climate data for Bremen
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.6
(58.3)
18.5
(65.3)
23.5
(74.3)
30.2
(86.4)
34.4
(93.9)
34.9
(94.8)
36.8
(98.2)
37.6
(99.7)
33.4
(92.1)
28.6
(83.5)
20.1
(68.2)
16.1
(61.0)
37.6
(99.7)
Average high °C (°F) 3.9
(39.0)
4.8
(40.6)
8.7
(47.7)
12.8
(55.0)
18.0
(64.4)
20.2
(68.4)
22.4
(72.3)
22.6
(72.7)
18.4
(65.1)
13.5
(56.3)
8.0
(46.4)
5.1
(41.2)
13.2
(55.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.4
(34.5)
1.9
(35.4)
5.0
(41.0)
8.1
(46.6)
12.7
(54.9)
15.3
(59.5)
17.4
(63.3)
17.4
(63.3)
13.9
(57.0)
9.7
(49.5)
5.2
(41.4)
2.7
(36.9)
9.2
(48.6)
Average low °C (°F) −1.1
(30.0)
−1.1
(30.0)
1.3
(34.3)
3.4
(38.1)
7.4
(45.3)
10.3
(50.5)
12.4
(54.3)
12.1
(53.8)
9.3
(48.7)
5.8
(42.4)
2.3
(36.1)
0.3
(32.5)
5.2
(41.4)
Record low °C (°F) −21.8
(−7.2)
−23.6
(−10.5)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−7.6
(18.3)
−3.5
(25.7)
0.5
(32.9)
3.0
(37.4)
3.4
(38.1)
−1.2
(29.8)
−7.8
(18.0)
−14.1
(6.6)
−17.5
(0.5)
−23.6
(−10.5)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 55.1
(2.17)
35.6
(1.40)
51.2
(2.02)
40.8
(1.61)
54.2
(2.13)
73.4
(2.89)
65.0
(2.56)
61.2
(2.41)
60.1
(2.37)
55.4
(2.18)
57.7
(2.27)
61.6
(2.43)
671.3
(26.43)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11.3 8.6 11.0 9.0 9.5 11.1 10.8 10.1 10.6 10.5 11.5 12.0 126
Average relative humidity (%) 87 84 80 75 71 73 75 75 81 84 87 88 80
Mean monthly sunshine hours 47 71 107 170 214 193 205 193 143 108 54 40 1,545
Source: DWD; wetterkontor.de;[17][18]

Population

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2017)

As of 2015, Bremen had a population of 557,464 of whom about 89,713 (16%) had foreign citizenship.[9]:39 Furthermore, 32% of the city population were of non-German origin/ethnicity as of 2017.[19]

Number of minorities in Bremen by nationality as of 31 December 2019:[9]:39

Rank Nationality Population (31.12.2019)
1  Turkey 20,485
2  Syria 13,475
3  Poland 8,235
4  Bulgaria 6,710
5  Afghanistan 3,150
6  Romania 3,050
7  Russia 2,950
8  Serbia 2,740
9  Italy 2,420
10  Ghana 2,340

Politics

The Stadtbürgerschaft (municipal assembly) is made up of 68 of the 83 legislators of the state legislature, the Bremische Bürgerschaft, who reside in the city of Bremen. The legislature is elected by the citizens of Bremen every four years.

Bremen has a reputation as a Left-wing city. This left wing atmosphere largely stems from a transition from an industrial economy to a service economy.[20] In elections for the Stadtbürgerschaft, the Social Democratic Party has dominated for decades. The Greens have also been very successful in city elections. The state of Bremen, which consists of the city, is governed by a coalition of the Social Democratic Party, The Greens and The Lefts.

One of the two mayors (Bürgermeister) is elected President of the Senate (Präsident des Senats) and serves as head of the city and the state. The current president is Andreas Bovenschulte.[21]

Last state election

Main article: Bremen state election, 2019

State election 2015

Main article: Bremen state election, 2015

Party Votes % +/– Seats +/–
Social Democratic Party (SPD) 32.9 Decrease5.7 30 Decrease6
Christian Democratic Union (CDU) 22.4 Increase2.0 20 Steady0
Alliance '90/The Greens 15.1 Decrease7.4 14 Decrease7
The Left 9.5 Increase3.9 8 Increase3
Free Democratic Party (FDP) 6.5 Increase4.1 6 Increase6
Alternative for Germany (AfD) 5.5 N/A 4 N/A
Citizens in Rage (BIW) 3.2 Decrease0.5 1 Steady0
The Party 1.9 N/A 0 N/A
Pirate Party Germany (PIRATEN) 1.5 Decrease0.4 0 Steady0
Human Environment Animal Protection (The Animal Protection Party) 1.2 N/A 0 N/A
National Democratic Party (NPD) 0.2 Decrease1.4 0 Steady0
Totals 100.0% 83

Provisional results; the AfD did not reach the 5% threshold in Bremerhaven (and will hence only receive seats for votes from Bremen), the BIW did not reach the threshold in Bremen (and will only receive one seat in Bremerhaven, none in Bremen).[22][23]

Administrative structure

Stadtbezirk
(borough)
Stadtteile (urban districts),
Ortsteile (subdistricts, selectively)
Area Population Density
of population
Maps
Mitte
(Central)
1
33.741 km² 17,392 515 / km²

Mitte

Häfen
Süd
(South)
2
  • Neustadt (New Town)
    • Alte Neustadt (Old New Town, near the Weser, opposite of the City)
    • Buntentor (an old suburb, southeast of Alte Neustadt)
    • Huckelriede, between Buntentor and Habenhausen
    • Hohentor, west of Alte Neustadt
    • Neuenland, with Bremen Airport and some hightech companies

Neustadt, Südervorstadt and Gartenstadt Süd between Alte Neustadt and the airport city

  • Obervieland [de]
    • Arsten (near Weser river, upstream)
    • Habenhausen (near Weser, north of Arsten)
    • Kattenesch (west of Arsten)
    • Kattenturm (northwestern section)
  • Huchting, mainly west of river Ochtum
  • Woltmershausen with Rablinghausen, between Weser river and Neustädter Hafen
  • Seehausen, a village near river Weser
  • Strom, a village
66.637 km² 123,303 1,850 / km²

Neustadt


Huchting


Seehausen


Obervieland


Woltmershausen


Strom

Ost
(East)
3
  • Östliche Vorstadt (Eastern Suburb)
    • Steintor (near the city), part of Viertel (Bremen)
    • Fesenfeld (northern part of Steintor)
    • Peterswerder (with Weserstadion)
    • Hulsberg (north of Peterswerder)
  • Schwachhausen
  • Vahr [de] (with Aalto-Hochhaus)
  • Horn-Lehe (with University of Bremen)
  • Borgfeld
  • Oberneuland [de]
  • Osterholz
  • Hemelingen
    • Hastedt (near Östliche Vorstadt)
    • Sebaldsbrück (east of Hastedt)
    • Hemelingen (south of Sebaldsbrück, near Weser river)
    • Arbergen (east of Hemelingen)
    • Mahndorf (east of Arbergen)
108.201 km² 218,843 2,023 / km²

Östliche Vorstadt


Vahr


Borgfeld


Osterholz

Schwachhausen


Horn-Lehe


Oberneuland


Hemelingen
West
4
  • Blockland
  • Findorff
  • Walle
  • Gröpelingen [de]
    • Oslebshausen
56.606 km² 89,216 1,576 / km²

Blockland


Findorff

Walle


Gröpelingen
Nord
(North)
5
60.376 km² 98,606 1,633 / km²

Burglesum


Blumenthal

Vegesack

Main sights

More contemporary tourist attractions include:

Structures

The Fallturm (Drop Tower) of the University of Bremen
The Fallturm (Drop Tower) of the University of Bremen

The Freie Waldorfschule in Bremen-Sebaldsbrück was Germany's first school built to the Passivhaus low-energy building standard.[32]

Economy

According to data from the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, Bremen had a GDP per capita of $53,379 in 2013, higher than the average for Germany as a whole. For comparison, in 2013, the World Bank reported Germany had a GDP per capita of $46,268, and the EU overall had a GDP per capita of $35,408 in the same year.[33]

Bremen is the second development centre of the region, after Hamburg. It forms part of the production network of Airbus SAS and this is where equipping of the wing units for all widebody Airbus aircraft and the manufacture of small sheet metal parts takes place. Structural assembly, including that of metal landing flaps, is another focal point. Within the framework of Airbus A380 production, assembly of the landing flaps (high lift systems) is carried out here. The pre-final assembly of the fuselage section (excluding the cockpit) of the A400M military transport aircraft takes place before delivery on to Spain.[34]

More than 3,100 persons are employed at Airbus Bremen, the second largest Airbus site in Germany. As part of the Centre of Excellence – Wing/Pylon, Bremen is responsible for the design and manufacture of high-lift systems for the wings of Airbus aircraft. The entire process chain for the high-lift elements is established here, including the project office, technology engineering, flight physics, system engineering, structure development, verification tests, structural assembly, wing equipping and ultimate delivery to the final assembly line. In addition, Bremen manufactures sheet metal parts like clips and thrust crests for all Airbus aircraft as part of the Centre of Excellence – Fuselage and Cabin.[35]

In Bremen there is a plant of EADS Astrium and the headquarters of OHB-System, respectively the first and the third space companies of European Union.

There is also a Mercedes-Benz factory in Bremen, building the C, CLK, SL, SLK, and GLK series of cars.[36]

Beck & Co's headlining brew Beck's and St Pauli Girl beers are brewed in Bremen. In past centuries when Bremen's port was the "key to Europe", the city also had a large number of wine importers, but the number is down to a precious few. Apart from that there is another link between Bremen and wine: about 800 years ago, quality wines were produced here. The largest wine cellar in the world is located in Bremen (below the city's main square),[citation needed] which was once said to hold over 1 million bottles, but during WWII was raided by occupying forces.

A large number of food producing or trading companies are located in Bremen with their German or European headquarters: Anheuser-Busch InBev (Beck's Brewery), Kellogg's, Kraft Foods (Kraft, Jacobs Coffee, Milka Chocolate, Milram, Miràcoli), Frosta (frosted food), Nordsee (chain of sea fast food), Melitta Kaffee, Eduscho Kaffee, Azul Kaffee, Vitakraft (pet articles and food for cats, dogs, birds, fish, rodents and other pets), Atlanta AG (Chiquita banana), chocolatier Hachez (fine chocolate and confiserie), feodora chocolatier.

Bremer Woll-Kämmerei (BWK), a worldwide operating company for manufacturing wool and trading in wool and similar products, is headquartered in Bremen.

Transport

Bremen Central Station
Map of the Bremen S-Bahn
Map of the Bremen S-Bahn

Bremen has an international airport situated 3 km (2 mi) south of the city centre.

Trams in Bremen and local bus services are offered by the Bremer Straßenbahn AG (translates from German as Bremen Tramways Corporation), often abbreviated BSAG, the public transport provider for Bremen.[37]

The Bremen S-Bahn covers the Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region, from Bremerhaven in the north to Twistringen in the south and from Oldenburg in the west, centred on Bremen Central Station. It has been in operation since 2010.[38] This network unified existing regional transport in Bremen as well as surrounding cities, including Bremerhaven, Delmenhorst, Twistringen, Nordenham, Oldenburg, and Verden an der Aller. The network lies completely within the area of the Bremen-Lower Saxony Transport Association, whose tariff structure applies.

Events

Sports

Weser-Stadion is the home ground of Werder Bremen
Weser-Stadion is the home ground of Werder Bremen

Bremen is home to the football team Werder Bremen, who won the German Football Championship for the fourth time and the German Football Cup for the fifth time in 2004, making them only the fourth team in German football history to win the double; the club won the German Football Cup for the sixth time in 2009. Only Bayern Munich has won more titles. In the final match of the 2009–10 season, Werder Bremen lost to Bayern Munich. The home stadium of SV Werder Bremen is the Weserstadion, a pure football stadium, almost completely surrounded by solar cells. It is one of the biggest buildings in Europe delivering alternative energy.

Education

With 18000 students,[40] the University of Bremen is the largest university in Bremen, and is also home to the international Goethe-Institut and the Fallturm Bremen. Additionally, Bremen has a University of the Arts and the Bremen University of Applied Sciences. In 2001, the private Jacobs University Bremen was founded. All major German research foundations maintain institutes in Bremen, with a focus on marine sciences: The Max Planck Society with the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, and the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Scientific Community with the Center for Tropical Marine Ecology (zmt).[41] The Bremerhaven-based Alfred-Wegener-Institute of the Helmholtz Association closely cooperates with the aforementioned institutes, especially within the MARUM[42] a center for marine environmental sciences, affiliated to the University of Bremen. Furthermore, The Fraunhofer Society is present in Bremen with centers for applied material research (IFAM[43]) and medical image computing (MEVIS[44]).

Miscellanea

Notable people

Main articles: List of people from Bremen and List of mayors of Bremen

Twin towns – sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany

Bremen is twinned with:[45]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Bevölkerungsentwicklung im Land Bremen" (PDF). Statistisches Landesamt Bremen (in German). June 2020.
  2. ^ The carsign HB with 1 letter and 4 digits is reserved for vehicle registration in Bremerhaven.
  3. ^ "Bremen". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  4. ^ "Bremen" (US) and "Bremen". Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  5. ^ "Bremen". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  6. ^ "Museums and Galleries – bremen.de". www.bremen.de. Retrieved 2015-08-28.
  7. ^ "Bremen city report". Retrieved 2015-08-28.[dead link]
  8. ^ "Bremen – Made in Bremen". www.bremen.de. Retrieved 2015-08-28.
  9. ^ a b c "Statistisches Jahrbuch 2016" (PDF). Statistisches Landesamt Bremen. Retrieved 2017-07-04.
  10. ^ 100 schräge Fakten über diese Stadt. In: Zitty 16/2012, p. 15.
  11. ^ "Wetterrekorde" (in German). Wetterdienst.de. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  12. ^ -21,8 °Ré reports Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers in a letter to Carl Friedrich Gauss from 6 February 1823, printed in: Carl Friedrich Gauß, Briefwechsel mit H.W.M. Olbers, Georg Olms Verlag, 1860 S. 233 (Bremen, p. 233, at Google Books).
  13. ^ "Wetter und Klima im Überblick" (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst.
  14. ^ "Wetter und Klima im Überblick" (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Archived from the original on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2015-01-09.
  15. ^ "Datenbankabfrage ausgewählter DWD Stationen Deutschlands" (in German). SKlima. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  16. ^ "Wetter im Rückblick" (in German). wetteronline. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ [2]
  19. ^ "Bevölkerung mit Migrationshintergrund I", (German). Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  20. ^ Buse, Dieter K. (2005-01-01). The Regions of Germany: A Reference Guide to History and Culture. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-32400-0.
  21. ^ "Bovenschulte zu Bremens Bürgermeister gewählt". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
  22. ^ "Bürgerschafts- und Beirätewahlen 2015, Vorläufiges Endergebnis" [2015 elections for Bürgerschaft and Beiräte (state, city, and local legislature), preliminary results] (in German). Statistisches Landesamt Bremen (Statistical Office of the State of Bremen). Archived from the original on 26 September 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  23. ^ "Bürgerschaftswahl am 10. Mai 2015 in Bremen".
  24. ^ "Böttcherstraße: Welcome". Böttcherstraße GmbH. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  25. ^ "St. Martin's Church". Bremen-tourism.de. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
  26. ^ "Birgittenkloster" (in German). Katholischer Gemeindeverband in Bremen. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
  27. ^ "Schlachte Embankment". bremen-tourism.de. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  28. ^ "Das Viertel" (in German). dasviertel.de. Archived from the original on May 30, 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  29. ^ "Nasir Moschee in Stuhr-Brinkum". Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  30. ^ "Focke Museum". Archived from the original on 2014-05-17. Retrieved 2009-02-22.
  31. ^ "Weserburg: Weserburg". weserburg.de.
  32. ^ Wolfgang Feist (2007-05-27). "Passivhaus-Schulgebäude" [Passive house school building] (in German). Passive House Institute. Archived from the original on 2007-08-27. Retrieved 2007-05-30.
  33. ^ "GDP per capita (current US$) – Data". worldbank.org.
  34. ^ "EADS in Germany". Eads.com.[dead link]
  35. ^ "Airbus in Germany". Airbus.com. Archived from the original on 2010-01-16.
  36. ^ "Mercedes-Benz Bremen Plant". www.daimler.com. Archived from the original on April 14, 2010.
  37. ^ "BSAG Public transportation in Bremen" (in German). bsag.de.
  38. ^ "Regio-S-Bahn in Bremen gestartet" [Regio-S-Bahn in Bremen started] (in German). Radio Bremen. 12 December 2010. Archived from the original on December 14, 2010.
  39. ^ "Message of Greeting". Imo2009.de. Retrieved 2009-06-18.
  40. ^ "Zahlen und Fakten zur Universität" (in German). University of Bremen. Archived from the original on 2011-10-20. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
  41. ^ Center for Tropical Marine Ecology (zmt)
  42. ^ MARUM
  43. ^ IFAM
  44. ^ MEVIS
  45. ^ "Städtepartnerschaften / Internationale Beziehungen". bremen.de (in German). Bremen. Retrieved 2021-02-10.

Bibliography