Krasnodar
Краснодар
Top: View of Rosneft Building and Kubanskaya Naberezhnaya Street,
Middle upper left: Krasnodar Splash Fountain,
Middle lower left: Krasnodar-1 Railway Station,
Middle right: Catherine the Great Monument,
Bottom: Krasnodar Glavnaya Gorodskaya Square
Location of Krasnodar
Krasnodar
Krasnodar
Location of Krasnodar
Krasnodar
Krasnodar
Krasnodar (European Russia)
Krasnodar
Krasnodar
Krasnodar (Europe)
Coordinates: 45°02′N 38°58′E / 45.033°N 38.967°E / 45.033; 38.967Coordinates: 45°02′N 38°58′E / 45.033°N 38.967°E / 45.033; 38.967
CountryRussia
Federal subjectKrasnodar Krai[2]
FoundedJanuary 12, 1794[3]
City status since1867[4]
Government
 • BodyCity Duma[5]
 • Head[5]Andrey Alekseenko[6]
Elevation
25 m (82 ft)
Population
 • Total744,995
 • Estimate 
(2018)[8]
899,541 (+20.7%)
 • Rank16th in 2010
 • Subordinated toCity of Krasnodar[1]
 • Capital ofKrasnodar Krai[2], City of Krasnodar[1]
 • Urban okrugKrasnodar Urban Okrug[9]
 • Capital ofKrasnodar Urban Okrug[9]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[10])
Postal code(s)[11]
List
350000–350005, 350007, 350010–350012, 350014–350016, 350018–350020, 350033, 350035, 350038–350040, 350042, 350044, 350047, 350049, 350051, 350058, 350059, 350061–350067, 350072, 350075, 350078, 350080, 350086–350090, 350500, 350880, 350890, 350899–350901, 350910–350912, 350931, 350960, 350961, 350963–350965, 350991–350999
Dialing code(s)+7 861
OKTMO ID03701000001
City DayLast non-working day of September[3]
Websitewww.krd.ru
Krasnodar population
2010 Census744,995[7]
2002 Census646,175[12]
1989 Census620,516[13]
1979 Census560,438[14]

Krasnodar (/ˌkrɑːsnəˈdɑːr, -n-/;[15] Russian: Краснода́р, IPA: [krəsnɐˈdar]), formerly Yekaterinodar (until 1920), is the largest city and the administrative centre of Krasnodar Krai, Russia. The city stands on the Kuban River in southern Russia, with a population of 932,629 residents,[16] and up to 1 million residents in the urban agglomeration.[17] Krasnodar is the sixteenth-largest city in Russia, and the second-largest city in Southern Russia, as well as the Southern Federal District.

The city originated in 1793 as a fortress built by the Cossacks, and became a trading center for southern Russia. The city sustained heavy damage in World War II but was rebuilt and renovated after the war. Krasnodar is a major economic hub in southern Russia. In 2012, Forbes named Krasnodar the best city for business in Russia.[18] Krasnodar is home to numerous sights, including Krasnodar Stadium. Its main airport is Krasnodar International Airport.

Name

Oz Mall, the largest mall in southern Russia
Oz Mall, the largest mall in southern Russia
A 19th-century photograph of the Kuban Cossacks Obelisk in Yekaterinodar
A 19th-century photograph of the Kuban Cossacks Obelisk in Yekaterinodar

Krasnodar was founded on January 12, 1794 (Gregorian calendar)[3] as Yekaterinodar (Екатеринода́р). The original name meant "Catherine's Gift", recognizing both Catherine the Great's grant of land in the Kuban region to the Black Sea Cossacks[19] (created from former Zaporozhian Cossacks) and Saint Catherine of Alexandria, who is considered to be the patron of the city. City status was granted in 1867.[4]

On December 7, 1920, as a result of the October Revolution, Yekaterinodar was renamed Krasnodar (Gift of the Reds).[20] The new name consists of Krasno- (Красно- – 'red', i.e. Communist, but also archaic/poetic form of 'beautiful'); and dar (дар – 'gift').[21]

History

See also: Timeline of Krasnodar

Yekaterinodar in the early 20th century
Yekaterinodar in the early 20th century

The city originated in 1793 as a military camp, then as a fortress built by the Cossacks to defend imperial borders and to assert Russian dominion over Circassia, a claim which Ottoman Turkey contested. In the first half of the 19th century, Yekaterinodar grew into a busy center of the Kuban Cossacks, gaining official town status in 1867.[22] By 1888 about 45,000 people lived in the city, which had become a vital trade center for southern Russia. In 1897 an obelisk commemorating the two-hundred-year history of the Kuban Cossacks (seen as founded in 1696) was erected in Yekaterinodar.

During the Russian Civil War (1917-1922) the city changed hands several times, coming successively under the control of the Red Army and of the Volunteer Army. Many Kuban Cossacks, as committed anti-Bolsheviks, supported the White Movement. Lavr Kornilov, a White general, captured the city on April 10, 1918, only to be killed a week later when a Bolshevik artillery shell blew up the farmhouse where he had set up his headquarters. During the Soviet famine of 1932–1933 Krasnodar lost over 14% of its population.[23]

During World War II units of the German Army occupied Krasnodar between August 12, 1942, and February 12, 1943. The city sustained heavy damage in the fighting but was rebuilt and renovated after the war. German forces, including Gestapo and "mobile SS execution squads", killed thousands of Jews, Communists, and "supposed Communist 'partisans.'" Shooting, hanging, burning, and even gas vans were used.[24]

In the summer of 1943, the Soviets began trials, including of their own citizens, for collusion with the Nazis and for participation in war crimes. The first such trial took place at Krasnodar from July 14 to 17, 1943. The Krasnodar tribunal pronounced eight death sentences, which were summarily carried out in the city square in front of a crowd of about thirty thousand people.

On June 14, 1971, a bombing occurred on a bus in the city, when a homemade suitcase bomb placed near the gas tank by a mentally ill Peter Volynsky exploded. The bomb killed 10 persons and wounded 20–90 others.

Geography

Main article: Geography of Krasnodar

Krasnodar is the largest city and capital of Krasnodar Krai by population and the second-largest by area. It is the 17th-largest city in Russia as of 2010. It is located on the right bank of the Kuban River. It is 1300 km south of the Russian capital, Moscow. The Black Sea is lies 120 km to the west.

Administrative and municipal status

Krasnodar is the administrative center of the krai.[2] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with twenty-nine rural localities, incorporated as the City of Krasnodar—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the City of Krasnodar is incorporated as Krasnodar Urban Okrug.[9]

Main sights

Shukhov's Hyperboloid Tower near Krasnodar's Circus
The Splash Fountain in Krasnodar
The Splash Fountain in Krasnodar
Obelisk to Red Army soldiers
Obelisk to Red Army soldiers

Krasnodar is home to the steel lattice hyperboloid tower built by the Russian engineer and scientist Vladimir Grigorievich Shukhov in 1928; it is located near Krasnodar Circus.

Other attractions include St. Catherine's Cathedral, the State Arts Museum, a park and theater named after Maxim Gorky, the beautiful concert hall of the Krasnodar Philharmonic Society, which is considered to have some of the best acoustics in southern Russia, State Cossack Choir and the Krasnodar circus

The most interesting place in Krasnodar is Krasnaya Street (which translates as "Red, Beautiful Street"). There are situated many sights of Krasnodar. At the beginning of the street, one can see the Central Concert Hall; at the other end, one can see the Avrora cinema center. A "Triumphal Arch" is situated in the middle of Krasnaya Street.

Theater Square is home to the largest splash fountain in Europe.[25] This fountain was officially inaugurated on September 25, 2011 along with an official ceremony to celebrate the City Day in Krasnodar.

Also in the city is the famous Krasnodar Park (also called Galitsky Park) — a city park located in the northeast of the center of Krasnodar in the Shkolny microdistrict, between Vostochno-Kruglikovskaya and Hero Vladislav Posadsky streets, next to the FC Krasnodar stadium. The park was built at the expense of entrepreneur Sergey Galitsky and opened on September 28, 2017. The area is 22.7 hectares. This is twice as much as the Novorossiysk forest! More than 2.5 thousand trees are planted in the park: oak, hornbeam, alder, bonsai, poplar, pine, tulip tree, maple, thuja, decorative plum.

Economy

Krasnodar is the economic center of southern Russia. For several years, Forbes magazine named Krasnodar the best city for business in Russia.[18] The industrial sector of the city has more than 130 large and medium-sized enterprises.

The main industries of Krasnodar:

Krasnodar is a highly developed commercial area, and has the largest annual turnover in the Southern Federal District of Russia. Retail trade turnover in 2010 reached 290 billion rubles. Per capita, Krasnodar has the highest number of malls in Russia. Note that in the crisis year 2009 turnover of Krasnodar continued to grow, while most of the cities showed a negative trend in the sale of goods.

Krasnodar has the lowest unemployment rate among the cities of the Southern Federal District at 0.3% of the total working-age population. In addition, Krasnodar holds the first place in terms of highest average salary - 21,742 rubles per capita.[26]

Tourism comprises a large part of Krasnodar's economy. There are more than 80 hotels in Krasnodar. The Hilton Garden Inn, opened in 2013, is the first world-class hotel in the city.[27]

Transportation

As in many other major cities in Russia, the primary mode of local transportation in Krasnodar is the automobile, though efforts have been made to increase the availability of alternative modes of transportation, including the construction of light railways (projected), biking paths, and wide sidewalks. Public transportation within Krasnodar consists of city buses, trolleybuses, trams, and marshrutkas (routed taxis). Trolleybuses and trams, both powered by overhead electric wires, are the main form of public transportation in Krasnodar, which does not have a metro system.

The main airline was Kuban Airlines (at Krasnodar International Airport), but it closed down in 2012 and now the main ones are Aeroflot and Rossiya Airlines. The largest hotels in the city include the Intourist, Hotel Moskva, and Hotel Platan. Krasnodar uses a 220 V/50 Hz power supply with two round-pin outlets, like most European countries.

There are also two railway stations in Krasnodar: Krasnodar-1 and Krasnodar-2.

Education

In Krasnodar there are 15 gymnasiums (academic secondary schools) 5 lyceums (colleges of higher education), 110 schools of general education and 20 specialized schools, as well as 7 non-state lyceums and schools.[28]

The city has numerous institutions of higher education, including some state universities (Kuban State University, Kuban State Technological University, Kuban State Agrarian University, Kuban State Medical University, etc.). Other universities include: Marketing and Social Technology University of Krasnodar.

Demographics

As of 2020, the population of Krasnodar is 932,629 people, up from 744,995 in the 2010 census.[29]

Zapadnyy okrug in Krasnodar
Zapadnyy okrug in Krasnodar

Culture

Pushkin Library
Pushkin Library

The oldest part of the city is Krasnodar Historic Center, which consists of many historic buildings, several from the 19th century. Buildings have been preserved, restored or reconstructed, and the district is now a substantial tourist attraction.

There are several major theater venues in Krasnodar:

Krasnodar has several major museums. The Kovalenko Krasnodar Regional Art Museum, the oldest public art museum in the North Caucasus, is one of the finest.

The largest public library of the city is the Pushkin Krasnodar Regional Universal Scientific Library, founded in 1900.

Sports

In amateur sport shinty in Russia has its centre in Krasnodar. Several professional sports clubs are active in the city:

Club Sport Founded Current League League
Level
Stadium
Kuban Krasnodar (defunct) Football 1928
FC Krasnodar Football 2008 Premier League 1st Krasnodar Stadium
WFC Krasnodar Football 2020 Women's Supreme Division 1st Krasnodar Academy Stadium
Kubanochka Krasnodar (defunct) Football 1988
Urozhay Krasnodar Football 2018 PFL 3rd Kuban Stadium
Lokomotiv Kuban Basketball 2009 VTB United League 1st Basket Hall
Kuban Krasnodar Rugby union 1996 Professional Rugby League 1st Trud Stadium
Kuban Krasnodar (defunct) Ice hockey 2012
Dinamo Krasnodar Volleyball 1994 Volleyball Super League 3rd Olimp Sports Palace
Dinamo Krasnodar Volleyball 1946 Women's Volleyball Super League 1st Olimp Sports Palace
SKIF Krasnodar Handball 1963 Handball Super League 1st Olimp Sports Palace
Kuban Krasnodar Handball 1965 Women's Handball Super League 1st Olimp Sports Palace
Krasnodar Bisons American Football 2006 League of American Football 1st UTB Kuban

Coat of arms

The coat of arms of Yekaterinodar was introduced in 1841 by the Cossack yesaul Ivan Chernik. The royal letter "E" in the middle is for Ekaterina II (Russian for Catherine II). It also depicts the date the city was founded, the Imperial double headed eagle (symbolizing Tsar's patronage of the Black Sea Cossacks), a bulawa of a Cossack ataman, Yekaterinodar fortress, and flags with letters "E", "P", "A", and "N" standing for Catherine II, Paul I, Alexander I and Nicholas I. Yellow stars around the shield symbolized 59 Black Sea stanitsas around the city.

Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, Krasnodar has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa).

Winters are cold and damp, with unstable snow cover. The average temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is 1 °C (34 °F). Weather conditions in winter vary greatly in the city; temperatures can exceed 20 °C (68 °F) for a few days, but temperatures below −20 °C (−4 °F) are not uncommon for Krasnodar as the city is not protected by mountains from cold waves. Summers are typically hot, with a July average of 24.1 °C (75.4 °F).

The city receives 735 millimeters (28.9 in) of precipitation annually, fairly spread throughout the year. Extreme storms are rare in the Krasnodar area. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −32.9 to 40.7 °C (−27.2 to 105.3 °F), recorded on January 11, 1940 and July 30, 2000, respectively.

Climate data for Krasnodar (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1881–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.8
(69.4)
22.2
(72.0)
28.5
(83.3)
34.7
(94.5)
35.1
(95.2)
39.3
(102.7)
40.7
(105.3)
40.0
(104.0)
38.5
(101.3)
33.9
(93.0)
28.5
(83.3)
23.0
(73.4)
40.7
(105.3)
Average high °C (°F) 4.5
(40.1)
6.7
(44.1)
11.8
(53.2)
18.6
(65.5)
23.9
(75.0)
28.2
(82.8)
31.1
(88.0)
31.4
(88.5)
25.6
(78.1)
19.0
(66.2)
11.2
(52.2)
6.4
(43.5)
18.2
(64.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.8
(33.4)
1.9
(35.4)
6.5
(43.7)
12.4
(54.3)
17.9
(64.2)
22.2
(72.0)
24.9
(76.8)
24.7
(76.5)
19.2
(66.6)
12.9
(55.2)
6.3
(43.3)
2.4
(36.3)
12.7
(54.9)
Average low °C (°F) −1.9
(28.6)
−1.5
(29.3)
2.7
(36.9)
7.4
(45.3)
12.9
(55.2)
17.0
(62.6)
19.4
(66.9)
18.9
(66.0)
13.8
(56.8)
8.4
(47.1)
2.9
(37.2)
−0.4
(31.3)
8.3
(46.9)
Record low °C (°F) −32.9
(−27.2)
−29.8
(−21.6)
−25.5
(−13.9)
−5.6
(21.9)
−1.2
(29.8)
4.2
(39.6)
9.5
(49.1)
3.9
(39.0)
−2.2
(28.0)
−9.9
(14.2)
−20.4
(−4.7)
−27.6
(−17.7)
−32.9
(−27.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 65
(2.6)
53
(2.1)
65
(2.6)
49
(1.9)
65
(2.6)
80
(3.1)
66
(2.6)
41
(1.6)
51
(2.0)
61
(2.4)
66
(2.6)
69
(2.7)
731
(28.8)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 3
(1.2)
4
(1.6)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
2
(0.8)
4
(1.6)
Average rainy days 13 11 14 15 14 14 10 8 10 12 14 15 150
Average snowy days 11 10 6 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 9 39
Average relative humidity (%) 81 76 72 66 66 68 63 62 68 75 81 82 72
Mean monthly sunshine hours 71 84 136 181 247 277 303 286 238 173 88 55 2,139
Source 1: Погода и Климат[30]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[31]

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia

Krasnodar is twinned with:[32]

Partner cities

Krasnodar cooperates with:[32]

See also

Notable people

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Reference Information #34.01-707/13-03
  2. ^ a b c Charter of Krasnodar Krai, Article 13
  3. ^ a b c Charter of Krasnodar, Article 1
  4. ^ a b Cities and Towns of Russia Encyclopedia, pp. 217–218
  5. ^ a b Charter of Krasnodar, Article 23
  6. ^ Андрей Алексеенко стал новым мэром Краснодара
  7. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  8. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  9. ^ a b c Law #670-OZ
  10. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  11. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  12. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  13. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  14. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 г. Национальный состав населения по регионам России [All Union Population Census of 1979. Ethnic composition of the population by regions of Russia] (XLS). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года [All-Union Population Census of 1979] (in Russian). 1979 – via Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics.
  15. ^ Roach, Peter (2011). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-15253-2.
  16. ^ "RUSSIA: Južnyj Federal'nyj Okrug". City Population.de. August 8, 2020. Retrieved September 22, 2020.
  17. ^ "Оценка численности населения на 1 января 2020 года по муниципальным образованиям Краснодарского края". Russian Federal State Statistics Service. January 1, 2020. Retrieved September 22, 2020.
  18. ^ a b "Krasnodar again was named best city for business in Russia. RU". Vesti.kz. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
  19. ^ Azarenkova et al., pp. 9ff.
  20. ^ Azarenkova et al., p. 253.
  21. ^ "Renaming of the city of Yekaterinodar" (in Russian). Official site of the Education and Science Department of Krasnodar Krai. Archived from the original on August 22, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
  22. ^ "'Rachel's Challenge' promotes little acts of kindness among Calgary kids". britannica.com. January 14, 2009. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
  23. ^ Wolowyna, Oleh (October 2020). "A Demographic Framework for the 1932–1934 Famine in the Soviet Union". Journal of Genocide Research. 23 (4): 501–526. doi:10.1080/14623528.2020.1834741.
  24. ^ Lichtblau (2014), p. 47-48
  25. ^ "The Splash Fountain in Krasnodar". Sergio-zevs.blogspot.com. September 25, 2011. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
  26. ^ В рейтинге Минрегионразвития Краснодар лидирует по 16-ти из 26-ти позиций Archived May 4, 2013, at archive.today
  27. ^ Центральная Югополис, 30.04.2013
  28. ^ Рейтинг школ: кто первый? «Югополис», 05.01.2011
  29. ^ "The Population of Krasnodar Reached 990 Thousand People". investment.krd.ru (in Russian). Retrieved November 30, 2018.
  30. ^ "Climate Krasnodar". Pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  31. ^ "KRASNODAR 1961–1990". NOAA. Retrieved October 29, 2021.
  32. ^ a b "Города-побратимы и города-партнёры". krd.ru (in Russian). Krasnodar. Retrieved February 3, 2020.

Sources

Bibliography

Krasnaya Street boulevard, Krasnodar
Krasnaya Street boulevard, Krasnodar