Southern Federal District
Южный федеральный округ
|Coordinates: 47°14′N 39°43′E / 47.233°N 39.717°E|
|Established||18 May 2000|
|• Presidential Envoy||Vladimir Ustinov|
|• Total||447,900 km2 (172,900 sq mi)|
|• Density||33.1/km2 (86/sq mi)|
|Federal constituent entity||6 contained|
|Economic regions||1 contained|
very high · 6th
The Southern Federal District (Russian: Ю́жный федера́льный о́круг, tr. Yuzhny federalny okrug, IPA: [ˈjuʐnɨj fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnɨj ˈokrʊk]) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia. Its territory lies mostly on the Pontic–Caspian steppe of Southern Russia. The Southern Federal District shares borders with Ukraine, the Azov Sea, and the Black Sea in the west, and Kazakhstan and the Caspian Sea in the east.
The Southern Federal District was originally called the North Caucasian Federal District when it was founded in May 2000, but was renamed for political reasons on 21 June 2000. On 19 January 2010, the Southern Federal District was split in two, with its former southern territories forming a new North Caucasian Federal District.
On 28 July 2016, Crimean Federal District (which contains the Republic of Crimea and the Federal city of Sevastopol) was abolished and merged into Southern Federal District in order to "improve the governance". Crimean Federal District was established on 21 March 2014 after the Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation. The federal district includes both the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol, both recognized as part of Ukraine by most of the international community. Ukraine considers the area, along with the areas of Luhansk People's Republic, the Donetsk People's Republic, Kherson Oblast and Zaporizhzhia Oblast, as temporarily occupied territories. Its population was 13,854,334 (62.4% urban) according to the 2010 Census, living in an area of 420,900 square kilometers (162,500 sq mi).
Main article: Federal subjects of Russia
An official government translation of the constitution of Russia from Russian to English uses the term "constituent entities of the Russian Federation". For example, Article 5 reads: "The Russian Federation shall consist of republics, krays, oblasts, cities of federal significance, an autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs, which shall have equal rights as constituent entities of the Russian Federation." A translation provided by Garant-Internet instead uses the term "subjects of the Russian Federation".
Tom Fennell, a translator, told the 2008 American Translators Association conference that "constituent entity of the Russian Federation" is a better translation than "subject". This was supported by Tamara Nekrasova, Head of Translation Department at Goltsblat BLP, saying in a 2011 presentation at a translators conference that "constituent entity of the Russian Federation is more appropriate than subject of the Russian Federation (subject would be OK for a monarchy)".
|#||Flag||Coat of Arms||Constituent entities||Area in km2||Population||Capital/administrative center||Map of Administrative Division|
|1||Republic of Adygea||7,800||447,109||Maykop|
|3||Republic of Kalmykia||74,700||292,410||Elista|
|A||Republic of Crimea[a]||26,100||1,966,801||Simferopol|
|-||Donetsk People's Republic[b]||26,517||4,100,280||Donetsk|
|-||Lugansk People's Republic[b]||26,684||2,121,322||Lugansk|
|B||City of Sevastopol[a]||900||379,200||Sevastopol|
Ethnic composition, according to the 2010 census: Total - 13 854 334 people.
See also: List of federal subjects of Russia by life expectancy
|Federal districts of Russia|
|Central | Southern | Northwestern | Far Eastern | Siberian | Urals | Privolzhsky (Volga)|