Kazakhs
қазақтар

قازاقتار

qazaqtar
SB - Kazakh man on horse with golden eagle 1911-1914.jpg
Total population
c. 16.9 million
Regions with significant populations
 Kazakhstan 13,012,645 (2021)[1]
 China1,562,518[2]
 Uzbekistan803,400[3]
 Russia647,732[4]
 Mongolia102,526[5]
 Kyrgyzstan33,200[6]
 United States24,636[7]
 Turkey10,000[8]
 Canada9,600[9]
 Iran3,000–15,000[10][11]
 Czech Republic5,639[12]
 Ukraine5,526[13]
 United Kingdom5,432[14]
 United Arab Emirates5,000[15]
 Italy4,631[16]
 Australia2,310[17]
 Austria1,685[18]
 Belarus1,355[19]
 Germany1,000[20]
 Portugal633[21]
 Afghanistan200[22]
 Philippines178-215[23]
Languages
Kazakh (majority) • Russian (minority)
Religion
predominantly Sunni Islam[24]
Related ethnic groups
Other Turkic peoples
(especially Nogais and Karakalpaks)

The Kazakhs (also spelled Qazaqs; Kazakh: sg. қазақ, qazaq, [qɑˈzɑq] (listen), pl. қазақтар, qazaqtar, [qɑzɑqˈtɑr] (listen); the English name is transliterated from Russian; Russian: казахи) are a Turkic ethnic group, who mainly inhabit the northern parts of Central Asia, chiefly Kazakhstan, but also parts of Uzbekistan and Russia, as well as China (Northern Xinjiang) and Mongolia (Bayan-Ölgii Province) in Eurasia.

Kazakh identity is of medieval origin and was strongly shaped by the foundation of the Kazakh Khanate between 1456 and 1465, when several tribes under the rule of the sultans Janibek and Kerei departed from the Khanate of Abu'l-Khayr Khan in hopes of forming a powerful khanate of their own. Other notable Kazakh khans include Ablai Khan and Abul Khair Khan.

The Kazakhs are descendants of the ancient Turkic tribes – Kipchaks[25] and the medieval Mongolic or Turco-Mongol tribes – Dughlats, Jalairs, Keraits.[26]

Kazakh is used to refer to ethnic Kazakhs, while the term Kazakhstani usually refers to all inhabitants or citizens of Kazakhstan, regardless of ethnicity.[27][28]

Etymology

The Kazakhs likely began using that name during the 15th century.[29] There are many theories on the origin of the word Kazakh or Qazaq. Some speculate that it comes from the Turkic verb qaz ("wanderer, vagabond, warrior, free, independent") or that it derives from the Proto-Turkic word *khasaq (a wheeled cart used by the Kazakhs to transport their yurts and belongings).[30][31]

Another theory on the origin of the word Kazakh (originally Qazaq) is that it comes from the ancient Turkic word qazğaq, first mentioned on the 8th century Turkic monument of Uyuk-Turan.[32] According to Turkic linguist Vasily Radlov and Orientalist Veniamin Yudin, the noun qazğaq derives from the same root as the verb qazğan ("to obtain", "to gain"). Therefore, qazğaq defines a type of person who wanders and seeks gain.[33]

History

Kazakh was a common term throughout medieval Central Asia, generally with regard to individuals or groups who had taken or achieved independence from a figure of authority. Timur described his own youth without direct authority as his Qazaqliq ("freedom", "Qazaq-ness").[34]

In Turko-Persian sources, the term Özbek-Qazaq first appeared during the middle of the 16th century, in the Tarikh-i-Rashidi by Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat, a Chagatayid prince of Kashmir. In this manuscript, the author locates Kazakh in the eastern part of Desht-i Qipchaq. According to Tarikh-i-Rashidi, the first Kazakh union was created c. 1465/1466 AD. The state was formed by nomads who settled along the border of Moghulistan, and was called Uzbeg-Kazák.[35]

At the time of the Uzbek conquest of Central Asia, Abu'l-Khayr Khan, a descendant of Shiban, had disagreements with the Kazakh sultans Kerei and Janibek, descendants of Urus Khan. These disagreements probably resulted from the crushing defeat of Abu'l-Khayr Khan at the hands of the Kalmyks.[36] Kerei and Janibek moved with a large following of nomads to the region of Zhetysu on the border of Moghulistan and set up new pastures there with the blessing of the Chagatayid khan of Moghulistan, Esen Buqa II, who hoped for a buffer zone of protection against the expansion of the Oirats.[37]

Regarding these events, Haidar Dughlat in his Tarikh-i-Rashidi reports:[38]

At that time, Abulkhair Khan exercised full power in Dasht-i-Kipchak. He had been at war with the Sultánis of Juji; while Jáni Beg Khán and Karáy Khán fled before him into Moghulistán. Isán Bughá Khán received them with great honor, and delivered over to them Kuzi Báshi, which is near Chu, on the western limit of Moghulistán, where they dwelt in peace and content. On the death of Abulkhair Khán the Ulus of the Uzbegs fell into confusion, and constant strife arose among them. Most of them joined the party of Karáy Khán and Jáni Beg Khán. They numbered about 200,000 persons, and received the name of Uzbeg-Kazák. The Kazák Sultáns began to reign in the year 870 [1465–1466] (but God knows best), and they continued to enjoy absolute power in the greater part of Uzbegistán, till the year 940 [1533–1534 A. D.].

In the 17th century, Russian convention seeking to distinguish the Qazaqs of the steppes from the Cossacks of the Imperial Russian Army suggested spelling the final consonant with "kh" instead of "q" or "k", which was officially adopted by the USSR in 1936.[39]

The Ukrainian term Cossack probably comes from the same Kipchak etymological root, meaning wanderer, brigand, or independent free-booter.[40][41]

Oral history

Their nomadic pastoral lifestyle made Kazakhs keep an epic tradition of oral history. The nation, which amalgamated nomadic tribes of various Kazakh origins, managed to preserve the distant memory of the original founding clans. It was important for Kazakhs to know their genealogical tree for no less than seven generations back (known as şejire, from the Arabic word shajara – "tree").

Three Kazakh Zhuz (Hordes)

Main article: Kazakh tribes

Approximate areas occupied by the three Kazakh jüz in the early 20th century.   .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Junior juz    Middle Juz    Great juz
Approximate areas occupied by the three Kazakh jüz in the early 20th century.

In modern Kazakhstan, tribalism is fading away in business and government life. Still it is common for Kazakhs to ask each other the tribe they belong to when they become acquainted with one another. Now, it is more of a tradition than necessity, and there is no hostility between tribes. Kazakhs, regardless of their tribal origin, consider themselves one nation.

Those modern-day Kazakhs who yet remember their tribes know that their tribes belong to one of the three Zhuz (juz, roughly translatable as "horde" or "hundred"):

History of the Hordes

There is much debate surrounding the origins of the Hordes. Their age is unknown so far in extant historical texts, with the earliest mentions in the 17th century. The Turkologist Velyaminov-Zernov believed that it was the capture of the important cities of Tashkent, Yasi, and Sayram in 1598 by Tevvekel (Tauekel/Tavakkul) Khan that separated the Qazaqs, as they possessed the cities for only part of the 17th century.[42] The theory suggests that the Qazaqs then divided among a wider territory after expanding from Zhetysu into most of the Dasht-i Qipchaq, with a focus on the trade available through the cities of the middle Syr Darya, to which Sayram and Yasi belonged. The Junior juz originated from the Nogais of the Nogai Horde.

Language

Main articles: Kazakh language and Kazakh alphabet

Distribution of the Kazakh language
Distribution of the Kazakh language

The Kazakh language is a member of the Turkic language family, as are Uzbek, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Uyghur, Turkmen, modern Turkish, Azeri and many other living and historical languages spoken in Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Xinjiang, and Siberia.

Kazakh belongs to the Kipchak (Northwestern) group of the Turkic language family. Kazakh is characterized, in distinction to other Turkic languages, by the presence of /s/ in place of reconstructed proto-Turkic */ʃ/ and /ʃ/ in place of */tʃ/; furthermore, Kazakh has /ʒ/ where other Turkic languages have /j/.

Kazakh, like most of the Turkic language family lacks phonemic vowel length, and as such there is no distinction between long and short vowels.

Kazakh was written with the Arabic script until the mid-19th century, when a number of educated Kazakh poets from Muslim madrasahs incited a revolt against Russia. Russia's response was to set up secular schools and devise a way of writing Kazakh with the Cyrillic alphabet, which was not widely accepted. By 1917, the Arabic script for Kazakh was reintroduced, even in schools and local government.

In 1927, a Kazakh nationalist movement sprang up against the Soviet Union but was soon suppressed. As a result, the Arabic script for writing Kazakh was banned and the Latin alphabet was imposed as a new writing system. In an effort to Russianize the Kazakhs, the Latin alphabet was in turn replaced by the Cyrillic alphabet in 1940 by Soviet interventionists. Today, there are efforts to return to the Latin script.

Kazakh is a state (official) language in Kazakhstan. It is also spoken in the Ili region of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China, where the Arabic script is used, and in western parts of Mongolia (Bayan-Ölgii and Khovd province), where Cyrillic script is in use. European Kazakhs use the Latin alphabet.

Religion

In the late 14th century, the Golden Horde propagated Islam among Kazakhs and other tribes. Islam in Kazakhstan peaked during the era of the Kazakh Khanate, especially under rulers such as Ablai Khan and Kasym Khan. Another wave of conversions among the Kazakhs occurred during the 15th and 16th centuries via the efforts of Sufi orders.[43] During the 18th century, Russian influence toward the region rapidly increased throughout Central Asia. Led by Catherine, the Russians initially demonstrated a willingness in allowing Islam to flourish as Muslim clerics were invited into the region to preach to the Kazakhs, whom the Russians viewed as "savages" and "ignorant" of morals and ethics.[44][45] However, Russian policy gradually changed toward weakening Islam by introducing pre-Islamic elements of collective consciousness.[46] Such attempts included methods of eulogizing pre-Islamic historical figures and imposing a sense of inferiority by sending Kazakhs to highly elite Russian military institutions.[46] In response, Kazakh religious leaders attempted to bring in pan-Turkism, though many were persecuted as a result.[47] During the Soviet era, Muslim institutions survived only in areas that Kazakhs significantly outnumbered non-Muslims, such as non-indigenous Russians, by everyday Muslim practices.[48] In an attempt to conform Kazakhs into Communist ideologies, gender relations and other aspects of Kazakh culture were key targets of social change.[45]

A Kazakh wedding ceremony in a mosque
A Kazakh wedding ceremony in a mosque

In more recent times, however, Kazakhs have gradually employed a determined effort in revitalizing Islamic religious institutions after the fall of the Soviet Union. Most Kazakhs continue to identify with their Islamic faith,[49] and even more devotedly in the countryside. Those who claim descent from the original Muslim soldiers and missionaries of the 8th-century command substantial respect in their communities.[50] Kazakh political figures have also stressed the need to sponsor Islamic awareness. For example, the Kazakh Foreign Affairs Minister, Marat Tazhin, recently emphasized that Kazakhstan attaches importance to the use of "positive potential Islam, learning of its history, culture and heritage."[51]

Pre-Islamic beliefs, such as worship of the sky, the ancestors, and fire, continued to a great extent to be preserved among the common people, however. Kazakhs believed in the supernatural forces of good and evil spirits, of wood goblins and giants. To protect themselves from them and from the evil eye, Kazakhs wore protection beads and talismans. Shamanic beliefs are still widely preserved among Kazakhs, as well as the belief in the strength of the bearers of that worship, the shamans, which Kazakhs call bakhsy. Unlike the Siberian shamans, who used drums during their rituals, Kazakh shamans, who could also be men or women, played (with a bow) on a stringed instrument similar to a large violin. At present both Islamic and pre-Islamic beliefs continue to be found among Kazakhs, especially among the elderly. According to 2009 national census 39,172 Kazakhs are Christians.[52]

Origin and ethnogenesis

Genetic, archeologic and linguistic evidence links the early Turkic peoples with the 'Northeast Asian gene pool'. Early Turkic-speakers may have been millet agriculturalists in Northeast Asia, which later adopted a nomadic lifestyle and expanded from eastern Mongolia westwards.[53]
Genetic, archeologic and linguistic evidence links the early Turkic peoples with the 'Northeast Asian gene pool'. Early Turkic-speakers may have been millet agriculturalists in Northeast Asia, which later adopted a nomadic lifestyle and expanded from eastern Mongolia westwards.[53]

Kazakhs are a Turkic-speaking ethnic group, who formed from various nomadic tribes and clans, sharing a common lifestyle.

Recent linguistic, genetic and archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest Turkic peoples descended from agricultural communities in Northeast Asia and Northeast China who moved westwards into Mongolia in the late 3rd millennium BC, where they adopted a pastoral lifestyle.[54][55][56][57][58] By the early 1st millennium BC, these peoples had become equestrian nomads.[54] In subsequent centuries, the steppe populations of Central Asia appear to have been progressively replaced and Turkified by East Asian nomadic Turks, moving out of Mongolia.[59][60]

Kazakhs formed as own ethno-linguistic group during the early 15th century, from a confederation of several pastoral nomadic groups of Northern Central Asia. The Kazakhs are the most northerly of the Central Asian peoples, inhabiting a large expanse of territory in northern Central Asia and southern Siberia known as the Kazakh Steppe. The tribal groups formed a powerful confederation that grew wealthy on the trade passing through the steppe lands along the fabled Silk Road.[61]

Genetic studies

Genetic distances between various Western and Eastern Eurasian populations. Analyzed Kazakh samples cluster close to East and Southeast Asian samples, with the relative closest affinity to Mongolian people.[62]
Genetic distances between various Western and Eastern Eurasian populations. Analyzed Kazakh samples cluster close to East and Southeast Asian samples, with the relative closest affinity to Mongolian people.[62]
The suggested East-West admixture among modern Eurasian populations. In this analysis, Kazakhs are inferred to have slightly less than 30% Western (European-like) admixture.
The suggested East-West admixture among modern Eurasian populations. In this analysis, Kazakhs are inferred to have slightly less than 30% Western (European-like) admixture.

Genomic research found that Kazakhs are of primarily East Asian origin, and harbor two East Asian-related components, one dominant component, commonly found among Northern Asian populations (associated with the Northeast Asian "Devil’s Gate_N" sample from the Amur region) and another minor component associated with historical Yellow River farmers. According to one study, West-Eurasian related admixture among Kazakhs is estimated at a mean average of about 35% to 37.5%, and is suggested to have been derived from assimilated Bronze Age Steppe pastoralists.[63] Another study estimated a lower average Western admixture of slightly less than 30%.[62][64] These results are inline with the historical expansion of Turkic peoples westwards, and replacement and assimilation of previous groups.[65] Neighboring Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Tubalar, and the Xinjiang Ölöd tribe, have the strongest resemblance to the Kazakh genome.[66]

A study on allele frequency and genetic polymorphism by Katsuyama et al., found that Kazakhs cluster together with Japanese people, Hui people, Han Chinese, and Uyghurs.[67]

A 2020 genetic study on the Kazakh genome, by Seidualy et al., found that the Kazakh people formed from highly mixed historical Central Asian populations. Ethnic Kazakhs derive about ~61.7% ancestry from East Asian-related populations (specifically Eastern Asian Han and Northern Asian Nganasan), ~30.8% ancestry from West-Eurasian (European-related) populations (presumably Scythians), and ~7,5% ancestry from a broadly South Asian (Indian) population. Overall, Kazakhs show their closest genetic affinity with other Central Asian populations, namely, Kalmyk, Uzbek and Kyrgyz people.[68]

Maternal lineages

According to mitochondrial DNA studies[69] (where sample consisted of only 246 individuals), the main maternal lineages of Kazakhs are: D (17.9%), C (16%), G (16%), A (3.25%), F (2.44%) of East-Eurasian origin (55%), and haplogroups H (14.1), T (5.5), J (3.6%), K (2.6%), U5 (3%), and others (12.2%) of West-Eurasian origin (41%). An analysis of ancient Kazakhs found that East Asian haplogroups such as A and C did not begin to move into the Kazakh steppe region until around the time of the Xiongnu (1st millennia BCE), which is around the onset of the Sargat Culture as well (Lalueza-Fox 2004).[70]

Gokcumen et al. (2008) tested the mtDNA of a total of 237 Kazakhs from Altai Republic and found that they belonged to the following haplogroups: D(xD5) (15.6%), C (10.5%), F1 (6.8%), B4 (5.1%), G2a (4.6%), A (4.2%), B5 (4.2%), M(xC, Z, M8a, D, G, M7, M9a, M13) (3.0%), D5 (2.1%), G2(xG2a) (2.1%), G4 (1.7%), N9a (1.7%), G(xG2, G4) (0.8%), M7 (0.8%), M13 (0.8%), Y1 (0.8%), Z (0.4%), M8a (0.4%), M9a (0.4%), and F2 (0.4%) for a total of 66.7% mtDNA of Eastern Eurasian origin or affinity and H (10.5%), U(xU1, U3, U4, U5) (3.4%), J (3.0%), N1a (3.0%), R(xB4, B5, F1, F2, T, J, U, HV) (3.0%), I (2.1%), U5 (2.1%), T (1.7%), U4 (1.3%), U1 (0.8%), K (0.8%), N1b (0.4%), W (0.4%), U3 (0.4%), and HV (0.4%) for a total of 33.3% mtDNA of West-Eurasian origin or affinity.[71] Comparing their samples of Kazakhs from Altai Republic with samples of Kazakhs from Kazakhstan and Kazakhs from Xinjiang, the authors have noted that "haplogroups A, B, C, D, F1, G2a, H, and M were present in all of them, suggesting that these lineages represent the common maternal gene pool from which these different Kazakh populations emerged."[71]

In every sample of Kazakhs, D (predominantly northern East Asian, such as Japanese, Okinawan, Korean, Manchu, Mongol, Han Chinese, Tibetan, etc., but also having several branches among indigenous peoples of the Americas) is the most frequently observed haplogroup (with nearly all of those Kazakhs belonging to the D4 subclade), and the second-most frequent haplogroup is either H (predominantly European) or C (predominantly indigenous Siberian, though some branches are present in the Americas, East Asia, and eastern and northern Europe).[71]

Paternal lineages

Main article: Y-DNA haplogroups in Kazakh tribes

In a sample of 54 Kazakhs and 119 Altaian Kazakh, the main paternal lineages of Kazakhs are: C (66.7% and 59.5%), O (9% and 26%), N (2% and 0%), J (4% and 0%), R (9% and 1%) respectively.[72]

Population

Main article: Demographics of Kazakhstan

Ethnic Kazakhs in percent of total population of Kazakhstan
1897 1917 1926 1939 1959 1979 1989 1999 2009 2018
81.7% 58.0% 58.5% 37.8% 29.8% 36.2% 37.8% 53.5% 63.1% 67.5%

Historical population of Kazakhs: Huge drop in population of Ethnic Kazakhs between 1897 and 1959 years caused by colonial politics of Russian Empire, then genocide which occurred during Stalin Regime. Sarah Cameron (Associate Professor of University of Maryland) described this genocide on her book, "The Hungry Steppe: Famine, Violence, and the Making of Soviet Kazakhstan".

Year Population
1897 3,392,700
1917 3,615,000
1926 3,627,612
1939 2,327,625
1959 2,794,966
1979 5,289,349
1989 6,227,549
1999 8,011,452
2009 10,096,763
2018 12,212,645

Kazakh minorities

Russia

Main article: Kazakhs in Russia

Muhammad Salyk Babazhanov – Kazakh anthropologist, a member of Russian Geographical Society.
Muhammad Salyk Babazhanov – Kazakh anthropologist, a member of Russian Geographical Society.
Shoqan Walikhanov and Fyodor Dostoyevsky

In Russia, the Kazakh population lives primarily in the regions bordering Kazakhstan. According to latest census (2002) there are 654,000 Kazakhs in Russia, most of whom are in the Astrakhan, Volgograd, Saratov, Samara, Orenburg, Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Tyumen, Omsk, Novosibirsk, Altai Krai and Altai Republic regions. Though ethnically Kazakh, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, those people acquired Russian citizenship.

Ethnic Kazakhs of Russia[73]
national censuses data
1939 % 1959 % 1970 % 1979 % 1989 % 2002 % 2010 %
356 646 0.33 382 431 0.33 477 820 0.37 518 060 0.38 635 865 0.43 653 962 0.45 647 732 0.45

China

Main article: Kazakhs in China

See also: Kazakh exodus from Xinjiang and Xinjiang re-education camps

Kazakhs in Xinjiang, China
Kazakhs in Xinjiang, China

Kazakhs migrated into Dzungaria in the 18th century after the Dzungar genocide resulted in the native Buddhist Dzungar Oirat population being massacred.

Kazakhs, called "哈萨克" in Chinese (pinyin: Hāsàkè Zú; lit. '"Kazakh people" or "Kazakh tribe"') are among 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. According to the census data of 2010, Kazakhs had a population of 1.462 million, ranking 17th among all ethnic groups in China. Thousands of Kazakhs fled to China during the 1932–1933 famine in Kazakhstan.

In 1936, after Sheng Shicai expelled 30,000 Kazakhs from Xinjiang to Qinghai, Hui led by General Ma Bufang massacred their fellow Muslim Kazakhs, until there were 135 of them left.[74][75][76]

From Northern Xinjiang over 7,000 Kazakhs fled to the Tibetan-Qinghai plateau region via Gansu and were wreaking massive havoc so Ma Bufang solved the problem by relegating Kazakhs to designated pastureland in Qinghai, but Hui, Tibetans, and Kazakhs in the region continued to clash against each other.[when?][77] Tibetans attacked and fought against the Kazakhs as they entered Tibet via Gansu and Qinghai.[citation needed][when?] In northern Tibet, Kazakhs clashed with Tibetan soldiers, and the Kazakhs were sent to Ladakh.[when?][78] Tibetan troops robbed and killed Kazakhs 640 kilometres (400 miles) east of Lhasa at Chamdo when the Kazakhs were entering Tibet.[when?][79][80]

In 1934, 1935, and from 1936 to 1938 Qumil Elisqan led approximately 18,000 Kerey Kazakhs to migrate to Gansu, entering Gansu and Qinghai.[81]

In China there is one Kazakh autonomous prefecture, the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and three Kazakh autonomous counties: Aksai Kazakh Autonomous County in Gansu, Barkol Kazakh Autonomous County and Mori Kazakh Autonomous County in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Many Kazakhs in China are not fluent in Standard Chinese, instead speaking the Kazakh language. "In that place wholly faraway", based on a Kazakh folk song, is very popular outside the Kazakh regions, especially in the Far Eastern countries of China, Japan and Korea.[citation needed]

At least one million Uyghurs, Kazakhs and other ethnic Muslims in Xinjiang have been detained in mass detention camps, termed "reeducation camps", aimed at changing the political thinking of detainees, their identities, and their religious beliefs.[82][83][84]

Mongolia

Kazakh hunters with eagles in Bayan-Ölgii Province, Mongolia
Kazakh hunters with eagles in Bayan-Ölgii Province, Mongolia

In the 19th century, the advance of the Russian Empire troops pushed Kazakhs to neighboring countries. In around 1860, part of the Middle Jüz Kazakhs came to Mongolia and were allowed to settle down in Bayan-Ölgii, Western Mongolia and for most of the 20th century they remained an isolated, tightly knit community. Ethnic Kazakhs (so-called Altaic Kazakhs or Altai-Kazakhs) live predominantly in Western Mongolia in Bayan-Ölgii Province (88.7% of the total population) and Khovd Province (11.5% of the total population, living primarily in Khovd city, Khovd sum and Buyant sum). In addition, a number of Kazakh communities can be found in various cities and towns spread throughout the country. Some of the major population centers with a significant Kazakh presence include Ulaanbaatar 90% in khoroo #4 of Nalaikh düüreg,[85] Töv and Selenge provinces, Erdenet, Darkhan, Bulgan, Sharyngol (17.1% of population total)[86] and Berkh cities.

Ethnic Kazakhs of Mongolia[87]
national censuses data
1956 % 1963 % 1969 % 1979 % 1989 % 2000 % 2010[5] % 2020[88] %
36,729 4.34 47,735 4.69 62,812 5.29 84,305 5.48 120,506 6.06 102,983 4.35 101,526 3.69 120,999 3.81

Uzbekistan

400,000[citation needed] Kazakhs live in Karakalpakstan and 100,000[citation needed] in Tashkent province. Since the fall of the Soviet Union, the vast majority of Kazakhs are returning to Kazakhstan, mainly to Manghistau Oblast. Most Kazakhs in Karakalpakstan are descendants of one of the branches of "Junior juz" (Kişi juz) – Adai tribe.

Iran

During the Qajar period, Iran bought Kazakh slaves who were falsely masqueraded as Kalmyks by slave dealers from the Khiva and Turkmens.[89][90]

Kazakhs of the Aday tribe inhabited the border regions of the Russian Empire with Iran since the 18th century. The Kazakhs made up 20% of the population of the Trans-Caspian region according to the 1897 census. As a result of the Kazakhs' rebellion against the Russian Empire in 1870, a significant number of Kazakhs became refugees in Iran.

Iranian Kazakhs live mainly in Golestan Province in northern Iran.[91] According to ethnologue.org, in 1982 there were 3000 Kazakhs living in the city of Gorgan.[92][93] Since the fall of the Soviet Union, the number of Kazakhs in Iran decreased because of emigration to their historical motherland.[94]

Afghanistan

Kazakhs fled to Afghanistan in the 1930s escaping Bolshevik persecution. Kazakh historian Gulnar Mendikulova cites that there were between 20,000 and 24,000 Kazakhs in Afghanistan as of 1978. Some assimilated locally and cannot speak the Kazakh language.[22]

As of 2021, there are about 200 Kazakhs remaining in Afghanistan according to Kazakhstan's foreign ministry. Locals claim that many live in Kunduz and others in Takhar Province, Baghlan Province, Mazar-i-Sharif and Kabul.[22]

Afghan Kypchaks are Aimak (Taymani) tribe of Kazakh origin that can be found in Obe District to the east of the western Afghan province of Herat, between the rivers Farāh Rud and Hari Rud. There are approximately 440,000 Afghan Kipchaks.

Turkey

Turkey received refugees from among the Pakistan-based Kazakhs, Turkmen, Kirghiz, and Uzbeks numbering 3,800 originally from Afghanistan during the Soviet–Afghan War.[95] Kayseri, Van, Amasya, Çiçekdağ, Gaziantep, Tokat, Urfa, and Serinyol received via Adana the Pakistan-based Kazakh, Turkmen, Kirghiz, and Uzbek refugees numbering 3,800 with UNHCR assistance.[96]

In 1954 and 1969 Kazakhs migrated into Anatolia's Salihli, Develi and Altay regions.[97] Turkey became home to refugee Kazakhs.[98]

The Kazakh Turks Foundation (Kazak Türkleri Vakfı) is an organization of Kazakhs in Turkey.[99]

Culture

Main article: Culture of Kazakhstan

Music

One of the most commonly used traditional musical instruments of the Kazakhs is the dombra, a plucked lute with two strings. It is often used to accompany solo or group singing. Another popular instrument is kobyz, a bow instrument played on the knees. Along with other instruments, both instruments play a key role in the traditional Kazakh orchestra. A notable composer is Kurmangazy, who lived in the 19th century. After studying in Moscow, Gaziza Zhubanova became the first woman classical composer in Kazakhstan, whose compositions reflect Kazakh history and folklore. A notable singer of the Soviet epoch is Roza Rymbaeva, she was a star of the trans-Soviet-Union scale. A notable Kazakh rock band is Urker, performing in the genre of ethno-rock, which synthesises rock music with the traditional Kazakh music.

Notable Kazakhs

Main article: List of Kazakhs

See also

References

  1. ^ "Агентство Республики Казахстан по статистике. Этнодемографический сборник Республики Казахстан 2014".
  2. ^ "Main Data of the Seventh National Population Census". Stats.gov.cn. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  3. ^ "DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN". Archived from the original on 22 August 2018.
  4. ^ "Russia National Census 2010".
  5. ^ a b Mongolia National Census 2010 Provision Results. National Statistical Office of Mongolia Archived 15 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine (in Mongolian.)
  6. ^ In 2009 National Statistical Committee of Kyrgyzstan. National Census 2009 Archived 8 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "Place of birth for the foreign-born population in the United States, Universe: Foreign-born population excluding population born at sea, 2014 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 12 February 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  8. ^ "Казахское общество Турции готово стать объединительным мостом в крепнущей дружбе двух братских народов – лидер общины Камиль Джезер". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  9. ^ "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables". 8 May 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  10. ^ "Казахи "ядерного" Ирана". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  11. ^ ""Казахи доказали, что являются неотъемлемой частью иранского общества и могут служить одним из мостов, связующих две страны" – представитель диаспоры Тойжан Бабык". 20 March 2010. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  12. ^ "Population data". czso.cz.
  13. ^ Ukrainian population census 2001[dead link]: Distribution of population by nationality. Retrieved 23 April 2009
  14. ^ "Main Language in England & Wales by Proficiency in English 2011". Office for National Statistics. 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  15. ^ "UAE´s population – by nationality". BQ Magazine. 12 April 2015. Archived from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
  16. ^ "Italia - Inmigración".
  17. ^ "Kazakhstan country brief". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
  18. ^ "Bevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit und Geburtsland". Statistik Austria. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  19. ^ population census 2009 Archived 18 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine: National composition of the population.
  20. ^ "Kasachische Diaspora in Deutschland. Botschaft der Republik Kasachstan in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland" (in German). botschaft-kaz.de. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016.
  21. ^ "Sefstat".
  22. ^ a b c "Ауғанстанда қанша қазақ тұрады?".
  23. ^ "how many kazakhs live in philippines?".
  24. ^ "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The World’s Muslims: Unity and Diversity. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2013
  25. ^ Togan, Z. V. (1992). "The Origins of the Kazaks and the Uzbeks". Central Asian Survey. 11 (3). doi:10.1080/02634939208400781.
  26. ^ Zhabagin, Maxat; Sabitov, Zhaxylyk; Tarlykov, Pavel; Tazhigulova, Inkar; Junissova, Zukhra; Yerezhepov, Dauren; Akilzhanov, Rakhmetolla; Zholdybayeva, Elena; Wei, Lan-Hai; Akilzhanova, Ainur; Balanovsky, Oleg (22 October 2020). "The medieval Mongolian roots of Y-chromosomal lineages from South Kazakhstan". BMC Genetics. 21 (1): 87. doi:10.1186/s12863-020-00897-5. ISSN 1471-2156. PMC 7583311. PMID 33092538.
  27. ^ Kolsto, Pal (January 1998). "Anticipating Demographic Superiority: Kazakh Thinking on Integration and Nation". Europe-Asia Studies. 50 (1): 51–69. doi:10.1080/09668139808412523. hdl:10852/25215. JSTOR 153405. PMID 12348666 – via JSTOR.
  28. ^ Buri, Tabea (2016). "Urbanisation and Changing Kazakh Ethnic Subjectivities in Gansu, China". Inner Asia. 18 (1): 79–96 (87). doi:10.1163/22105018-12340054. JSTOR 44645086 – via JSTOR.
  29. ^ Barthold, V. V. (1962). Four Studies on the History of Central Asia. Vol. &thinsp, 3. Translated by V. & T. Minorsky. Leiden: Brill Publishers. p. 129.
  30. ^ Olcott, Martha Brill (1995). The Kazakhs. Hoover Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-8179-9351-1. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
  31. ^ Caroe, Olaf (1953). Soviet Empire : the Turks of Central Asia and Stalinism. Macmillan. p. 38. OCLC 862273470.
  32. ^ Уюк-Туран [Uyuk-Turan] (in Russian). Archived from the original on 5 February 2006.
  33. ^ Yudin, Veniamin P. (2001). Центральная Азия в 14–18 веках глазами востоковеда [Central Asia in the eyes of 14th–18th century Orientalists]. Almaty: Dajk-Press. ISBN 978-9965-441-39-4.
  34. ^ Subtelny, Maria Eva (1988). "Centralizing Reform and Its Opponents in the Late Timurid Period". Iranian Studies. Taylor & Francis, on behalf of the International Society of Iranian Studies. 21 (1/2: Soviet and North American Studies on Central Asia): 123–151. doi:10.1080/00210868808701712. JSTOR 4310597.
  35. ^ Kenzheakhmet Nurlan (2013). The Qazaq Khanate as Documented in Ming Dynasty Sources. p. 133.
  36. ^ Bregel, Yuri (1982). "Abu'l-Kayr Khan". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. 1. Routledge & Kegan Paul. pp. 331–332.
  37. ^ Barthold, V. V. (1962). "History of the Semirechyé". Four Studies on the History of Central Asia. Vol. &thinsp, 1. Translated by V. & T. Minorsky. Leiden: Brill Publishers. pp. 137–65.
  38. ^ Kenzheakhmet Nurlan (2013). The Qazaq Khanate as Documented in Ming Dynasty Sources. p. 140.
  39. ^ Постановление ЦИК и СНК КазАССР № 133 от 5 February 1936 о русском произношении и письменном обозначении слова «казак»
  40. ^ "Cossack". Online Etymology Dictionary. Etymonline.com. Archived from the original on 3 October 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
  41. ^ "Cossack | Russian and Ukrainian people". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 May 2015. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
  42. ^ Russian, Mongolia, China in the 16th, 17th, and early 18th centuries. Vol II. Baddeley (1919, MacMillan, London). Reprint – Burt Franklin, New York. 1963 p. 59
  43. ^ Bennigsen, Alexandre; Wimbush, S. Enders (1986). Muslims of the Soviet Empire: A Guide. Indiana University Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-253-33958-4.
  44. ^ Khodarkovsky, Michael. Russia's Steppe Frontier: The Making of a Colonial Empire, 1500–1800, pg. 39.
  45. ^ a b Ember, Carol R. and Melvin Ember. Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender: Men and Women in the World's Cultures, pg. 572
  46. ^ a b Hunter, Shireen. "Islam in Russia: The Politics of Identity and Security", pg. 14
  47. ^ Farah, Caesar E. Islam: Beliefs and Observances, pg. 304
  48. ^ Farah, Caesar E. Islam: Beliefs and Observances, pg. 340
  49. ^ Page, Kogan. Asia and Pacific Review 2003/04, pg. 99
  50. ^ Atabaki, Touraj. Central Asia and the Caucasus: transnationalism and diaspora.
  51. ^ inform.kz | 154837 Archived 20 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  52. ^ Итоги национальной переписи населения 2009 года (Summary of the 2009 national census) (in Russian). Agency of Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Archived from the original on 12 June 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
  53. ^ Uchiyama, Junzo; Gillam, J. Christopher; Savelyev, Alexander; Ning, Chao (2020). "Populations dynamics in Northern Eurasian forests: a long-term perspective from Northeast Asia". Evolutionary Human Sciences. 2. doi:10.1017/ehs.2020.11. ISSN 2513-843X. S2CID 219470000.
  54. ^ a b Robbeets 2017, pp. 216–218.
  55. ^ Robbeets 2020.
  56. ^ Nelson et al. 2020.
  57. ^ Li et al. 2020.
  58. ^ Uchiyama et al. 2020.
  59. ^ Damgaard et al. 2018, pp. 4–5. "These results suggest that Turkic cultural customs were imposed by an East Asian minority elite onto central steppe nomad populations... The wide distribution of the Turkic languages from Northwest China, Mongolia and Siberia in the east to Turkey and Bulgaria in the west implies large-scale migrations out of the homeland in Mongolia.
  60. ^ Lee & Kuang 2017, p. 197. "Both Chinese histories and modern dna studies indicate that the early and medieval Turkic peoples were made up of heterogeneous populations. The Turkicisation of central and western Eurasia was not the product of migrations involving a homogeneous entity, but that of language diffusion."
  61. ^ "Kazakh | People, Religion, Language, & Culture | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  62. ^ a b Kidd et al. 2009, Am J Hum Genet. Dec 11, 2009; 85(6): 934–937. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.10.024
  63. ^ Zhao, Jing; Wurigemule; Sun, Jin; Xia, Ziyang; He, Guanglin; Yang, Xiaomin; Guo, Jianxin; Cheng, Hui-Zhen; Li, Yingxiang; Lin, Song; Yang, Tie-Lin (16 November 2020). "Genetic substructure and admixture of Mongolians and Kazakhs inferred from genome-wide array genotyping". Annals of Human Biology. 47 (7–8): 620–628. doi:10.1080/03014460.2020.1837952. ISSN 0301-4460. PMID 33059477. S2CID 222839155.
  64. ^ Kairov, Ulykbek; Molkenov, Askhat; Rakhimova, Saule; Kozhamkulov, Ulan; Sharip, Aigul; Karabayev, Daniyar; Daniyarov, Asset; H.Lee, Joseph; D.Terwilliger, Joseph; Akilzhanova, Ainur; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay (4 February 2021). "Whole-genome sequencing data of Kazakh individuals". BMC Research Notes. 14 (1): 45. doi:10.1186/s13104-021-05464-4. ISSN 1756-0500. PMC 7863413. PMID 33541395.
  65. ^ Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Metspalu, Mait; Metspalu, Ene; Valeev, Albert; Litvinov, Sergei; Valiev, Ruslan; Akhmetova, Vita; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Turdikulova, Shahlo; Dalimova, Dilbar (21 April 2015). "The Genetic Legacy of the Expansion of Turkic-Speaking Nomads across Eurasia". PLOS Genetics. 11 (4): e1005068. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005068. ISSN 1553-7404. PMC 4405460. PMID 25898006.
  66. ^ Seidualy, Madina; Blazyte, Asta; Jeon, Sungwon; Bhak, Youngjune; Jeon, Yeonsu; Kim, Jungeun; Eriksson, Anders; Bolser, Dan; Yoon, Changhan; Manica, Andrea; Lee, Semin (1 May 2020). "Decoding a highly mixed Kazakh genome". Human Genetics. 139 (5): 557–568. doi:10.1007/s00439-020-02132-8. ISSN 1432-1203. PMC 7170836. PMID 32076829.
  67. ^ Katsuyama, Y.; Inoko, H.; Imanishi, T.; Mizuki, N.; Gojobori, T.; Ota, M. (May 1998). "Genetic relationships among Japanese, northern Han, Hui, Uygur, Kazakh, Greek, Saudi Arabian, and Italian populations based on allelic frequencies at four VNTR (D1S80, D4S43, COL2A1, D17S5) and one STR (ACTBP2) loci". Human Heredity. 48 (3): 126–137. doi:10.1159/000022793. ISSN 0001-5652. PMID 9618060. S2CID 46853437.
  68. ^ Seidualy, Madina; Blazyte, Asta; Jeon, Sungwon; Bhak, Youngjune; Jeon, Yeonsu; Kim, Jungeun; Eriksson, Anders; Bolser, Dan; Yoon, Changhan; Manica, Andrea; Lee, Semin (1 May 2020). "Decoding a highly mixed Kazakh genome". Human Genetics. 139 (5): 557–568. doi:10.1007/s00439-020-02132-8. ISSN 1432-1203. PMC 7170836. PMID 32076829.
  69. ^ "Полиморфизм митохондриальной ДНК в казахской популяции".
  70. ^ Bennett, Casey; Kaestle, Frederika (April 2010). ""aDNA from the Sargat Culture" by Casey C. Bennett and Frederika A. Kaestle". Human Biology. 82 (2). Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  71. ^ a b c Omer Gokcumen, Matthew C. Dulik, Athma A. Pai, Sergey I. Zhadanov, Samara Rubinstein, Ludmila P. Osipova, Oleg V. Andreenkov, Ludmila E. Tabikhanova, Marina A. Gubina, Damian Labuda, and Theodore G. Schurr, "Genetic Variation in the Enigmatic Altaian Kazakhs of South-Central Russia: Insights into Turkic Population History." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 136:278–293 (2008). DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20802
  72. ^ Zerjal T, Wells RS, Yuldasheva N, Ruzibakiev R, Tyler-Smith C (September 2002). "A genetic landscape reshaped by recent events: Y-chromosomal insights into central Asia". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 71 (3): 466–82. doi:10.1086/342096. PMC 419996. PMID 12145751.
  73. ^ "Ethnic composition of Russia (national censuses)". Demoscope.ru. 27 May 2007. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
  74. ^ American Academy of Political and Social Science (1951). The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 277. American Academy of Political and Social Science. p. 152. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  75. ^ American Academy of Political and Social Science (1951). Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volumes 276–278. American Academy of Political and Social Science. p. 152. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  76. ^ American Academy of Political and Social Science (1951). The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 277. American Academy of Political and Social Science. p. 152. Retrieved 29 September 2012. A group of Kazakhs, originally numbering over 20000 people when expelled from Sinkiang by Sheng Shih-ts'ai in 1936, was reduced, after repeated massacres by their Chinese coreligionists under Ma Pu-fang, to a scattered 135 people.
  77. ^ Hsaio-ting Lin (1 January 2011). Tibet and Nationalist China's Frontier: Intrigues and Ethnopolitics, 1928–49. UBC Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-7748-5988-2.
  78. ^ Hsaio-ting Lin (1 January 2011). Tibet and Nationalist China's Frontier: Intrigues and Ethnopolitics, 1928–49. UBC Press. pp. 231–. ISBN 978-0-7748-5988-2.
  79. ^ Blackwood's Magazine. William Blackwood. 1948. p. 407.
  80. ^ Devlet, Nadir. STUDIES IN THE POLITICS, HISTORY AND CULTURE OF TURKIC PEOPLES. p. 192.
  81. ^ Linda Benson (1988). The Kazaks of China: Essays on an Ethnic Minority. Ubsaliensis S. Academiae. p. 195. ISBN 978-91-554-2255-4.
  82. ^ "Central Asians Organize to Draw Attention to Xinjiang Camps". The Diplomat. 4 December 2018.
  83. ^ "Majlis Podcast: The Repercussions Of Beijing's Policies In Xinjiang". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL). 9 December 2018.
  84. ^ "Families Of The Disappeared: A Search For Loved Ones Held In China's Xinjiang Region". NPR. 12 November 2018.
  85. ^ Education of Kazakh children: A situation analysis. Save the Children UK, 2006 [1]
  86. ^ Sharyngol city review[dead link]
  87. ^ "Монгол улсын ястангуудын тоо, байршилд гарч буй өөрчлөлтуудийн асуудалд" М.Баянтөр, Г.Нямдаваа, З.Баярмаа pp.57–70 Archived 27 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  88. ^ "2020 POPULATION AND HOUSING CENSUS OF MONGOLIA /summary/".
  89. ^ electricpulp.com. "BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI iv. From the Mongols – Encyclopaedia Iranica". iranicaonline.org.
  90. ^ Keith Edward Abbott; Abbas Amanat (1983). Cities & trade: Consul Abbott on the economy and society of Iran, 1847–1866. Published by Ithaca Press for the Board of the Faculty of Oriental Studies, Oxford University. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-86372-006-2.
  91. ^ "گلستان". Anobanini.ir. Archived from the original on 28 February 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
  92. ^ "Ethnologue report for Iran". Ethnologue.com. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
  93. ^ www.golestanstate.ir https://web.archive.org/web/20091207144216/http://www.golestanstate.ir/layers.aspx?quiz=page&PageID=23. Archived from the original on 7 December 2009. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  94. ^ "قزاق". Jolay.blogfa.com. Archived from the original on 25 October 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
  95. ^ News Review on South Asia and Indian Ocean. Institute for Defence Studies & Analyses. July 1982. p. 861.
  96. ^ Problèmes politiques et sociaux. Documentation française. 1982. p. 15.
  97. ^ Espace populations sociétés. Université des sciences et techniques de Lille, U.E.R. de géographie. 2006. p. 174.
  98. ^ Andrew D. W. Forbes (9 October 1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. CUP Archive. pp. 156–. ISBN 978-0-521-25514-1.Andrew D. W. Forbes (9 October 1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. CUP Archive. pp. 236–. ISBN 978-0-521-25514-1.
  99. ^ "Kazakh Turks Foundation Official Website". Kazak Türkleri Vakfı Resmi Web Sayfası. Archived from the original on 13 September 2016.