Kypchak-Bolgar   Kypchak-Cuman   Kazakh-Nogay 

Linguistic classificationTurkic
  • Kypchak
  • Kypchak-Bolgar Group
  • Kypchak-Cuman Group
  • Kazakh-Nogay Group

The Kypchak languages, a major branch of the Turkic language family, are spoken by more than 12 million people in an area spanning from Lithuania to China.

Linguistic Features

The Kypchak languages share a number of features that have led linguists to classify them together. Some of these features are shared with other Turkic languages; others are unique to the Kypchak language family.

Shared Features

Unique Features


The Kypchak languages may be broken down into three groups, based on geography and shared features:

Literary Kyrgyz has been heavily influenced by the Kypchak languages, especially Kazakh, but it appears that it belongs in a separate family with Altay.

The Uzbek language's Kypchak dialect contains the remainder of Kypchak languages that were once spoken in Uzbekistan, and there is a dialect continuum between Uzbek and Kazakh.

The language of the Mamluks in Egypt appears to have been a Kypchak language, probably one belonging to the Kypchak-Cuman group.

See also