Siberian Tatar
сибирца, татарца, sibirca, tatarca
СФО.png
Map of the Siberian Tatar dialects in the Russian Federal District.
Native toRussia
RegionOmsk, Tyumen, Novosibirsk, Tomsk, Kemerovo, Sverdlovsk, Kurgan Oblasts (regions)
EthnicitySiberian Tatars
Native speakers
100,000 (2012)[1]
Turkic
Cyrillic, Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3sty
Glottologsibe1250
Lang Status 60-DE.png
Siberian Tatar is classified as Definitely Endangered by the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger

Siberian Tatar language (себер татар теле, seber tatar tele, көнбатыш себер татарлары теле, könbatış seber tatarları tele[2] көнчыгыш диалект, könçıgış dialekt, себер татарца, seber tatarca) is a Turkic language spoken in Western Siberia region of Russia, primarily in the oblasts of Tyumen, Novosibirsk, Omsk but also in Tomsk and Kemerovo.

Dialects

Siberian Tatar consists of three dialects: Tobol-Irtysh, Baraba and Tom. According to D. G. Tumasheva, the Baraba dialect is grammatically closest to the southern dialect of Altai, Kyrgyz and has significant grammatical similarities with Chulym, Khakas, Shor, and Tuvan. The Tomsk dialect is, in her opinion, even closer to Altai and similar languages. The Tevriz sub-dialect of the Tobol-Irtysh dialect shares significant elements with the Siberian Turkic languages, namely with Altai, Khakas and Shor.

Although Gabdulkhay Akhatov was a Volga Tatar, he immersed into studying of the phonetic peculiarities of Siberian Tatar language of the indigenous population of Siberia, the Siberian Tatars. In his work "The Dialect of the West Siberian Tatars" (1963) Akhatov wrote about Tobol-Irtysh Siberian Tatars, a western group of Siberian Tatars, who are indigenous to the Omsk and Tyumen Oblasts.

Professor G. Akhatov. The Map of the Tobol-Irtysh Dialect of the Siberian Tatars, 1965.
Professor G. Akhatov. The Map of the Tobol-Irtysh Dialect of the Siberian Tatars, 1965.

In his work "Dialect of the West Siberian Tatars" (1963) Gabdulkhay Akhatov wrote about a territorial resettlement of the Tobol-Irtysh Tatars Tyumen and Omsk areas. Subjecting a comprehensive integrated analysis of the phonetic system, the lexical composition and grammatical structure, the scientist concluded that the language of the Siberian Tatars is a separate language, it is divided into three dialects and it is one of the most ancient Turkic languages.[3] Professor G.Akhatov named Siberian Tatar dialects of Tyumen and Omsk Oblasts dialects of the West Siberian Tatars, while dialects of Baraba and Tom Tatars he named dialects of the East Siberian Tatars.

Some works further differentiate sub-dialects of three aforementioned dialects, breaking them down as follows:[4]

Some sources consider Kalmak to be a separate variety, or even a dialect of the Teleut language, as it differs greatly from other Siberian Tatar varieties.[5][6][7]

Alphabet

Siberian Tatar Cyrillic, Latin alphabet and IPA Pronunciation:

Cyrillic Latin Pronunciation Notes
А а A a [a]
Ә ә Ä ä [æ]
Б б B b [b]
В в W w, V v [w]; [v] V v in loanwords
Г г G g [ɡ]
Ғ ғ Ğ ğ [ɣ]
Д д D d [d]
Е е E e, Ye ye [e] Cyrillic Е е also used as [je] in Russian loandwords, in other cases Siberian tatars use Йе йе (Ye ye)
Ё ё Yo yo, Yö yö [jo] used in Russian loandwords, in other cases Siberian tatars use Йо йо, Йө йө (Yo yo, Yö yö)
Ж ж J j [ʒ]; [ʑ]
З з Z z [z]
И и İ i [i]
Й й Y y [j]
К к K k [k]
Ҡ ҡ Q q [q]
Л л L l [l]
М м M m [m]
Н н N n [n]
Ң ң Ŋ ŋ [ŋ]
О о O o [ʊ̞]; [o]
Ө ө Ö ö [ø]
П п P p [p]
Р р R r [ɾ]; [r]
С с S s [s]
Т т T t [t]
У у U u, W w [u]; [w] ул – ul; уаҡыт – waqıt
Ү ү Ü ü, W w [y]; [w] күреү – kürew
Ф ф F f [f]
Х х X x [χ]
Һ һ H h [h]
Ц ц C c [t͡s]
Ч ч Ç ç [tʃ]; [tɕ]
Ш ш Ş ş [ʃ]; [ɕ]
Щ щ Şç şç [ɕɕ] Only in Russian loanwords
Ъ ъ - [-]
Ы ы I ı [ɤ]; [ɯ]
Ь ь - [ʲ]
Э э E e [e]
Ю ю Yu yu, Yü yü [ju] used in Russian loanwords, in other cases Siberian tatars use Йу йу, Йү йү (Yu yu, Yü yü)
Я я Ya ya, Yä yä [ja] used in Russian loanwords, in other cases Siberian tatars use Йа йа, Йә йә (Ya ya, Yä yä)

This alphabet based on Common Turkic Alphabet.[citation needed]

Phonology

Vowels

Front Back
Close и /i/ ү /y/ у /u/
Mid е /e/ ө /ø/ о /o/ ы /ɤ/
Open ә /æ/ а /a/

Consonants

Bilabial Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Velar Uvular
Plosive п /p/ т /t/ к /k/ ҡ /q/
Fricative б /β/ с /s/ ш /ʃ/ г /ɣ/ ғ /ʁ/
Affricate ц /t͡s/
Nasal м /m/ н /n/ (ң /ŋ/) ң /ɴ/
Trill р /r/
Approximant в /w/ л /l/ й /j/

/ŋ/ can be an allophone of /ɴ/.

References

  1. ^ Siberian Tatar at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Тумашева, Д.Г. Көнбатыш себер татарлары теле: Грамматик очерк һәм сүзлек /Д.Г.Тумашева. - Казан, 1961. - 240 с.
  3. ^ Gabdulkhay Akhatov. The Dialect of the West Siberian Tatars. Ufa, 1963, 195 p. (in Russian)
  4. ^ "Сибирскотатарский язык | Малые языки России". minlang.iling-ran.ru. Retrieved 2022-06-06.
  5. ^ Уртегешев, Н.С. (2016). "Kalmaksky yazyk" Калмакский язык [The Kalmak language]. Yazyk i obshchestvo. Entsiklopediya Язык и общество. Энциклопедия [Language and society. Encyclopedia] (PDF) (in Russian). Москва: ООО Издательский центр "Азбуковник". pp. 186–189. ISBN 978-5-91172-129-9.
  6. ^ "Калмакский | Малые языки России". minlang.iling-ran.ru. Retrieved 2022-06-06.
  7. ^ Уртегешев, Николай С. (2018). "Kalmakov yazyk" Калмаков язык [The language of the Kalmaks]. Tehlikedeki Diller Dergisi. 8 (12): 65–96.

Bibliography