Siberian Tatar
Native toRussia
RegionOmsk, Tyumen, Novosibirsk, Tomsk, Kemerovo, Sverdlovsk, Kurgan Oblasts (regions)
EthnicitySiberian Tatars
Native speakers
100,000 (2012)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3sty
Siberian Tatar is classified as Definitely Endangered by the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger

Siberian Tatar (Сыбырца) is a Turkic language spoken in Western Siberia, Russia, primarily in the oblasts of Tyumen, Novosibirsk, Omsk but also in Tomsk and Kemerovo. According to Marcel Erdal, due to its particular characteristics, Siberian Tatar can be considered as a bridge to Siberian Turkic languages.


Siberian Tatar consists of three dialects: Tobol-Irtysh, Baraba and Tom. According to D. G. Tumasheva, the Baraba dialect is grammatically closest to the southern dialect of Altai, Kyrgyz and has significant grammatical similarities with Chulym, Khakas, Shor, and Tuvan. The Tomsk dialect is, in her opinion, even closer to Altai and similar languages. The Tevriz sub-dialect of the Tobol-Irtysh dialect shares significant elements with the Siberian Turkic languages, namely with Altai, Khakas and Shor.

Although Gabdulkhay Akhatov was a Volga Tatar, he immersed into studying of the phonetic peculiarities of Siberian Tatar language of the indigenous population of Siberia, the Siberian Tatars. In his work "The Dialect of the West Siberian Tatars" (1963) Akhatov wrote about Tobol-Irtysh Siberian Tatars, a western group of Siberian Tatars, who are indigenous to the Omsk and Tyumen Oblasts.

Professor G. Akhatov. Map of the Tobol-Irtysh Dialect of the Siberian Tatars, 1965.

In his work "Dialect of the West Siberian Tatars" (1963) Gabdulkhay Akhatov wrote about a territorial resettlement of the Tobol-Irtysh Tatars Tyumen and Omsk areas. Subjecting a comprehensive integrated analysis of the phonetic system, the lexical composition and grammatical structure, the scientist concluded that the language of the Siberian Tatars is a separate language, it is divided into three dialects and it is one of the most ancient Turkic languages.[2] Professor G. Akhatov named Siberian Tatar dialects of Tyumen and Omsk Oblasts dialects of the West Siberian Tatars, while dialects of Baraba and Tom Tatars he named dialects of the East Siberian Tatars.

Some works further differentiate sub-dialects of three aforementioned dialects, breaking them down as follows:[3]

Baraba and Tom dialects of Siberian Tatar language belong to Kyrgyz–Kipchak subdivision of Turkic languages, together with Kyrgyz, Southern Altai, Teleut, and Telengit. Tobol-Irtysh dialect belongs to Kipchak–Nogai subdivision of Turkic languages, which also includes Nogai, Karagash, steppe dialect of Crimean Tatar, Kazakh, Karakalpak, and Kipchak dialects of Uzbek.[4]



Front Back
Close и /i/ ү /y/ у /u/
Mid е /e/ ө /ø/ о /o/ ы /ɤ/
Open ә /æ/ а /a/


Bilabial Alveolar Post-
Velar Uvular
Nasal м /m/ н /n/ /ŋ/) ң /ɴ/
Plosive п /p/ т /t/ к /k/ ҡ /q/
Fricative б /β/ с /s/ ш /ʃ/ г /ɣ/ ғ /ʁ/
Affricate ц /t͡s/
Trill р /r/
Approximant в /w/ л /l/ й /j/

/ŋ/ can be an allophone of /ɴ/.


Siberian Tatar alphabet and IPA pronunciation:

Letter Pronunciation Notes
А а [a]
Ә ә [æ]
Б б [b]
В в [v]
Г г [ɡ]
Ғ ғ [ɣ]
Д д [d]
Е е [e] Letter Е е also used as [je] in Russian loanwords
Ё ё [jo] used in Russian loanwords
Ж ж [ʒ]; [ʑ]
З з [z]
И и [i]
Й й [j]
К к [k]
Ҡ ҡ [q]
Л л [l]
М м [m]
Н н [n]
Ң ң [ŋ]
О о [ʊ̞]; [o]
Ө ө [ø]
П п [p]
Р р [ɾ]; [r]
С с [s]
Т т [t]
У у [u]; [w] ул – ul; уаҡыт – uaqıt [waqıt]
Ү ү [y]; [w] күреү – küreü [kürew]
Ф ф [f]
Х х [χ]
Ц ц [t͡s]
Ч ч [tʃ]; [tɕ]
Ш ш [ʃ]; [ɕ]
Щ щ [ɕɕ] Only in Russian loanwords
Ъ ъ [-] Only in Russian loanwords
Ы ы [ɤ]; [ɯ]
Ь ь [ʲ] Only in Russian loanwords
Э э [e] The Cyrillic letter "э" in Siberian Tatar words is used only at the beginning of the word.
Ю ю [ju] used in Russian loanwords
Я я [ja] used in Russian loanwords


  1. ^ Siberian Tatar at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Gabdulkhay Akhatov. The Dialect of the West Siberian Tatars. Ufa, 1963, 195 p. (in Russian)
  3. ^ "Сибирскотатарский язык | Малые языки России". Retrieved 2022-06-06.
  4. ^ "Сибирскотатарский язык | Малые языки России". Retrieved 2023-10-03.