Tuvan
Тыва дыл
Tıva dıl
Native toRussia, Mongolia, China
RegionTuva
EthnicityTuvans
Native speakers
257,750 (2020)[1]
Turkic
Cyrillic script
Official status
Official language in
 Russia
Language codes
ISO 639-2tyv
ISO 639-3tyv
Glottologtuvi1240  Tuvinian
todj1234  Todja
ELPTuva
 Tuha[3]
Tuvan is classified as Vulnerable by the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
PeopleTuvan / Tyvans
Тывалар (Tıvalar)
Тувинцы (Tuvintsy)
LanguageTuvan / Tyvan
Тыва дыл (Tyva dyl)
CountryTuva / Tyva
Тува́ (Tuvá)
Тыва (Tıva)
A Tuvan speaker
Inscription in Kyzyl using Turkic script

Tuvan (/ˈtvən/) or Tyvan[a] is a Turkic language spoken in the Republic of Tuva in South Central Siberia, Russia. The language has borrowed a great number of roots from the Mongolian language, Tibetan and the Russian languages. There are small diaspora groups of Tuvan people that speak distinct dialects of Tuvan in China and Mongolia.

History

While this history focuses on mostly the people of Tuva, many linguists argue that language is inevitably intertwined with the socio-historical situation of a language itself.[4] The earliest record of Tuvan is from the early 19th century by Wūlǐyǎsūtái zhìlüè (Chinese: 烏里雅蘇台志略), Julius Klaproth 1823, Matthias Castrén 1857, Nikolay Katanov, Vasily Radlov, etc.[5]

The name Tuva goes back as early as the publication of The Secret History of the Mongols. The Tuva (as they refer to themselves) have historically been referred to as Soyons, Soyots or Uriankhais.[6]

Classification

Tuvan (also spelled Tyvan) is linguistically classified as a Northeastern or Siberian Turkic language, closely related to several other Siberian Turkic languages including Khakas and Altai. Its closest relative is the moribund Tofa.

Tuvan, as spoken in Tuva, is principally divided into four dialect groups; Western, Central, Northeastern, Southeastern.

Other dialects include those spoken by the Dzungar, the Tsengel and the Dukha Tuvans, but currently these uncommon dialects are not comprehensively documented. Different dialects of the language exist across the geographic region in which Tuvan is spoken. K. David Harrison, who completed his dissertation on the Tuvan language in 2001, argues that the divergence of these dialects relates to the nomadic nature of the Tuvan nation.[7] One subset is the Jungar Tuvan language, originating in the Altai Mountains in the western region of Mongolia. There is no accurate number of Jungar-Tuvan speakers because most currently reside in China, and the Chinese include Tuvan speakers as Mongolians in their census.[6]

Phonology

Consonants

Tuvan has 19 native consonant phonemes:

Consonant phonemes of Tuvan
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive lenis[b] p t ɡ
fortis[b] k
Affricate t͡s[c] t͡ʃ
Fricative voiceless f[c] s ʃ x
voiced z ʒ
Approximant ʋ l j
Flap ɾ
  1. ^ Tuvan: Тыва дыл, romanized: Tyva dyl, [tʰɯˈʋa tɯɫ]
  2. ^ a b The distinction between initial bilabial and alveolar stops is based on aspiration for most speakers and voicing for others.
  3. ^ a b /f/ and /ts/ are found in some Russian loanwords.

Vowels

Vowels in Tuvan exist in three varieties: short, long and short with low pitch. Tuvan long vowels have a duration that is at least (and often more than) twice as long as that of short vowels. Contrastive low pitch may occur on short vowels, and when it does, it causes them to increase in duration by at least a half. When using low pitch, Tuvan-speakers employ a pitch that is at the very low end of their modal voice pitch. For some speakers, it is even lower and using what is phonetically known as creaky voice. When a vowel in a monosyllabic word has low pitch, speakers apply low pitch only to the first half of that vowel (e.g. [àt] 'horse').[8] That is followed by a noticeable pitch rise, as the speaker returns to modal pitch in the second half of the vowel.

The acoustic impression is similar to that of a rising tone like the rising pitch contour of the Mandarin second tone, but the Tuvan pitch begins much lower. However, Tuvan is considered a pitch accent language with contrastive low pitch instead of a tonal language. When the low pitch vowel occurs in a multisyllabic word, there is no rising pitch contour or lengthening effect: [àdɯ] 'his/her/its horse'. Such low pitch vowels were previously referred to in the literature as either kargyraa or pharyngealized vowels. Phonetic studies have demonstrated that the defining characteristic of such vowels is low pitch. See Harrison 2001 for a phonetic and acoustic study of Tuvan low pitch vowels.

In her PhD thesis, "Long Vowels in Mongolic Loanwords in Tuvan", Baiarma Khabtagaeva states that the history of long vowels is ambiguous. While the long vowels may originate from Mongolic languages, they could also be of Tuvan origin. In most Mongolic languages, the quality of the long vowel changes depending on the quality of the second vowel in the conjunction. The only exception to this rule is if the conjunction is labial. The ancient Tuvan languages, in contrast, depended upon the first vowel rather than the second to determine the long vowels.[9]

Khabtagaeva divided the transformation of these loanwords into two periods: the early layer and the late layer. The words in the early layer are words in which the Mongolic preserved the conjunction, the VCV conjunction was preserved but the long vowel still developed when it entered the Tuvan language, or the stress is on the last syllable and a long vowel in the loanword replaced a short vowel in the original word. The Late Layer includes loanwords in which the long vowel does not change when the word entered Tuvan.[9]

Vowel phonemes of Tuvan
Short Long Low pitch
High Low High Low High Low
Front Unrounded i e ì è
Rounded y ø øː ø̀
Back Unrounded ɯ a ɯː ɯ̀ à
Rounded u o ù ò

Vowels may also be nasalized in the environment of nasal consonants, but nasalization is non-contrastive. Most Tuvan vowels in word-initial syllables have a low pitch and do not contrast significantly with short and long vowels.[7]

Vowel harmony

Tuvan has two systems of vowel harmony that strictly govern the distribution of vowels within words and suffixes. Backness harmony, or what is sometimes called 'palatal' harmony, requires all vowels within a word to be either back or front. Rounding harmony, or what is sometimes called 'labial' harmony, requires a vowel to be rounded if it is a high vowel and appears in a syllable immediately following a rounded vowel. Low rounded vowels [ø] [o] are restricted to the first syllable of a word, and a vowel in a non-initial syllable may be rounded only if it meets the conditions of rounding harmony (it must both be a high vowel [y] [u] and be preceded by a rounded vowel). See Harrison (2001) for a detailed description of Tuvan vowel harmony systems.[7]

Grammar

Tuvan builds morphologically complex words by adding suffixes. For example, теве teve is 'camel', тевелер teveler is 'camels', тевелерим tevelerim is 'my camels', тевелеримден tevelerimden is 'from my camels'.

Nouns

Tuvan marks nouns with six cases: genitive, accusative, dative, ablative, locative, and allative. The suffixes below are in front vowels, however, except -Je the suffixes follow vowel harmony rules. Each case suffix has a rich variety of uses and meanings, only the most basic uses and meanings are shown here.

Root Allomorphs
When after: voiceless nasals voiced/vowel After
Nominative -∅
Genitive (-NIŋ) -тиң (-tiŋ) -ниң (-niŋ)) -диң (-diŋ)
Accusative (-NI) -ти (-ti) -ни (-ni) -ди (-di)
Dative (-KA) -ке (-ke) -ге (-ge)
Locative (-DA) -те (-te) -де (-de)
Ablative (-DAn) -тен (-ten) -ден (-den)
Allative I (-Je) -че (-če) -же (-že)
Allative II (-DIvA)[10] -тиве (-tive) -диве (-dive)
Plural
Nominative (-LAr) -тер (-ter) -нер (-ner) -лер (-ler) -дер (-der)
Oblique cases: by adding voiced variant into the plural suffix (-лерниң, -лерге, ...)
Example of declensions
Case Form Meaning
Nominative теве (teve) "camel"
Genitive тевениң (teveniŋ) "of the camel"
Accusative тевени (teveni) "the camel" (definite direct object of verb)
Dative тевеге (tevege) "for the camel" or "at the camel" (in the past tense)
Locative теведе (tevede) "at the camel" or "in the camel"
Ablative теведен (teveden) "from the camel" or "than a/the camel"
Allative I тевеже (teveže) "to(wards) the camel"
Allative II теведиве (tevedive)

Verbs

Verbs in Tuvan take a number of endings to mark tense, mood, and aspect. Auxiliary verbs are also used to modify the verb. For a detailed scholarly study of auxiliary verbs in Tuvan and related languages, see Anderson 2004.

Syntax

Tuvan employs SOV word order. For example, теве сиген чипкен (camel hay eat-PAST) "The camel ate the hay."

Vocabulary

Name of family members in Tuvan.

Tuvan vocabulary is mostly Turkic in origin but marked by a large number of Mongolian loanwords. The language has also borrowed several Mongolian suffixes. In addition, there exist Ketic and Samoyedic substrata.[citation needed] A Tuvan talking dictionary is produced by the Living Tongues Institute.[11]

In contrast with most Turkic languages, which have many Arabic and Persian loanwords that even cover some basic concepts, these loanwords are very few in Tuvan, if any, as Tuvans never adopted Islam like most Turkic peoples.

Writing system

Cyrillic script

The current Tuvan alphabet is a modified version of the Russian alphabet, with three additional letters: ң (Latin "ng" or International Phonetic Alphabet [ŋ]), Өө (Latin "ö", [ø]), Үү (Latin "ü", IPA [y]). The sequence of the alphabet follows Russian exactly, with ң located after Russian Н, Ө after О, and Ү after У.

А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж
З з И и Й й К к Л л М м Н н Ң ң
О о Ө ө П п Р р С с Т т У у Ү ү
Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы
Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

The letters Е and Э are used in a special way. Э is used for the short /e/ sound at the beginning of words while Е is used for the same sound in the middle and at the end of words. Е is used at the beginning of words, mostly of Russian origin, to reflect the standard Russian pronunciation of that letter, /je/. Additionally, ЭЭ is used in the middle and at the end of words for the long /e/ sound.

The letter ъ is used to indicate pitch accent, as in эът èt 'meat'.

Historic scripts

Mongol script

In the past, Tuvans used Mongolian as their written language.

Mongolian script was later developed by Nikolaus Poppe to suit the Tuvan language. This is the first known written form of the Tuvan language.[12]

Tuvan Latin

Example of Latin-based alphabet on the Tuvan People's Republic coat of arms. It says "PYGY TELEGEJNIꞐ PROLETARLARЬ POLGAŞ TARLATKAN ARATTARЬ KATTЬƵЬꞐAR".

The Latin-based alphabet for Tuvan was devised in 1930 by a Tuvan Buddhist monk, Mongush Lopsang-Chinmit (a.k.a. Lubsan Zhigmed). A few books and newspapers, including primers intended to teach adults to read, were printed using this writing system. Lopsang-Chinmit was later executed in Stalinist purges on 31 December 1941.[13]

A a B ʙ C c D d E e F f G g Ƣ ƣ
H h I i J j Ɉ ɉ K k L l M m N n
Ꞑ ꞑ O o Ө ө P p R r S s Ş ş T t
U u V v X x Y y Z z Ƶ ƶ Ь ь

The letter Ɉ ɉ was excluded from the alphabet in 1931.

Examples

Pirgi tьʙa dьldьꞑ yƶykteri PYGY TELEGEJNIꞐ PROLETARLARЬ POLGAŞ TARLATKAN ARATTARЬ KATTЬƵЬꞐAR!
Бирги тыва дылдың үжүктери Бүгү телегейниң пролетарлары болгаш дарлаткан араттары каттыжыңар!
First Tuvan language alphabet All the world's workers and oppressed peoples, unite!

By September 1943, this Latin-based alphabet was replaced by a Cyrillic-based one, which is still in use to the present day. In the post-Soviet era, Tuvan and other scholars have taken a renewed interest in the history of Tuvan letters.

Transliteration

For bibliographic purposes, transliteration of Tuvan generally follows the guidelines described in the ALA-LC Romanization tables for non-Slavic languages in Cyrillic script.[14] Linguistic descriptions often employ the IPA or Turcological standards for transliteration.[15]

Status

Tuvans in China, who live mostly in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, are included under the Mongol nationality.[16] Some Tuvans reportedly live at Kanas Lake in the northwestern part of Xinjiang, where they are not officially recognized, and are counted as a part of the local Oirat Mongol community that is counted under the general PRC official ethnic label of "Mongol". Oirat and Tuvan children attend schools in which they use Chakhar Mongolian[17] and Mandarin Standard Chinese, native languages of neither group.

Notes

  1. ^ Although most Tuvan dialects are classified as Steppe Sayan Turkic, the Tozhu and Tere-Khöl dialects are classified as Taiga Sayan Turkic.[2]

References

  1. ^ "Tuvan". Ethnologue.
  2. ^ a b Elisabetta Ragagnin (2011), Dukhan, a Turkic Variety of Northern Mongolia, Description and Analysis, Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden
  3. ^ Endangered Languages Project data for Tuha.
  4. ^ Nettle, Romaine; Daniel, Suzanne (2000). Vanishing Voices: The Extinction of the World's Languages. New York, New York: Oxford University Press.
  5. ^ Todoriki (2011), pp. 234–230
  6. ^ a b Mawkanuli, Talant (2001). "The Jungar Tuvas: Language and National Identity in the PRC". Central Asian Survey. 20 (4): 497–517. doi:10.1080/02634930120104654. S2CID 143405271.
  7. ^ a b c d Harrison (2001)
  8. ^ Anderson, Greg; Harrison, K. David (2002). A Grammar of Tuvan. Gaithersburg, MD: Scientific Consulting Services International. pp. 3–5. ISBN 9781584900450.
  9. ^ a b Khabtagaeva, Baiarma (2004). "Long Vowels in Mongolic Loanwords in Tuvan". Turkic Languages. 8: 191–197.
  10. ^ Obsolete or dialectal version of current allative I
  11. ^ see Tuvan Talking Dictionary
  12. ^ Cf. Otgonbayar Chuluunbaatar: Einführung in die mongolischen Schriften. Buske Verlag, Hamburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-87548-500-4, S. 70. "Daher wurde der Sprachforscher Nikolaus Poppe von der tuwinischen Regierung mit der Entwicklung eines für die eigene Sprache geeigneten Alphabets beauftragt. "
  13. ^ Mänchen-Helfen (1992), p. 133n
  14. ^ "Non-Slavic languages (in Cyrillic Script)" (PDF). Library of Congress. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 November 2021. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  15. ^ Harrison, K. David; Anderson, Gregory D.S.; Ondar, Alexander. "Tuvan Talking Dictionary". Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  16. ^ Mongush (1996)
  17. ^ "Öbür mongγul ayalγu bol dumdadu ulus-un mongγul kelen-ü saγuri ayalγu bolqu büged dumdadu ulus-un mongγul kelen-ü barimǰiy-a abiy-a ni čaqar aman ayalγun-du saγurilaγsan bayidaγ." (Sečenbaγatur et al. 2005: 85).

Sources

Further reading