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Qarluq, Southeastern Turkic
Central Asia
Linguistic classificationTurkic
Early forms
  • Western Turkic
  • Eastern Turkic
uygh1240  (Eastern Karluk (Uyghur))
uzbe1247  (Western Karluk (Uzbek))
Karluk Turkic Languages distribution map.png
  Uzbek     Uyghur     Äynu     Ili

The Karluk or Qarluq languages are a sub-branch of the Turkic language family that developed from the varieties once spoken by Karluks.[1]

Many Middle Turkic works were written in these languages. The language of the Kara-Khanid Khanate was known as Turki, Ferghani, Kashgari or Khaqani. The language of the Chagatai Khanate was the Chagatai language.

Karluk Turkic was spoken in the Kara-Khanid Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Yarkent Khanate and the Uzbek-speaking Khanate of Bukhara, Emirate of Bukhara, Khanate of Khiva and Khanate of Kokand.



Proto-Turkic Common Turkic Karluk Western

Number of native speakers

The number of speakers derived from statistics or estimates (2019) and were rounded:[3][full citation needed][4][full citation needed]

Number Name Status Native speakers Country
1 Uzbek Normal 30,000,000





Central Asia

2 Uyghur Normal 25,000,000  China
3 Äynu Critically endangered 6,000  China
4 Ili Turki Severely endangered 100  China
Total Karluk languages Normal 62,400,000


  1. ^ Austin, Peter (2008). One Thousand Languages: Living, Endangered, and Lost. University of California Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-520-25560-9.
  2. ^ Uzbek at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required) Northern at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required) Southern at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  3. ^[bare URL]
  4. ^