Qarluq, Southeastern Turkic, Turkestan Turkic
Central Asia
Linguistic classificationTurkic
Early forms
  • Western Karluk (Uzbek)
  • Eastern Karluk
  Uzbek     Uyghur     Ili

The Karluk or Qarluq languages are a sub-branch of the Turkic language family that developed from the varieties once spoken by Karluks.[1]

Many Middle Turkic works were written in these languages. The language of the Kara-Khanid Khanate was known as Turki, Ferghani, Kashgari or Khaqani. The language of the Chagatai Khanate was the Chagatai language.

Karluk Turkic was once spoken in the Kara-Khanid Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Timurid Empire, Mughal Empire, Yarkent Khanate and the Uzbek-speaking Khanate of Bukhara, Emirate of Bukhara, Kokand Khanate, Khiva Khanate, Maimana Khanate.[2]



Proto-Turkic Common Turkic Karluk Western

Glottolog v.5.0 refers to the Karluk languages as "Turkestan Turkic" and classifies them as follows:[6]



  1. ^ Austin, Peter (2008). One Thousand Languages: Living, Endangered, and Lost. University of California Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-520-25560-9.
  2. ^ McChesney, R. D. (14 July 2014). Waqf in Central Asia: Four Hundred Years in the History of a Muslim Shrine, 1480-1889. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-6196-5.
  3. ^ Uzbek at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required) Northern at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required) Southern at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  4. ^ "Uyghur". Ethnologue. Retrieved 7 December 2022.
  5. ^ Glottlog 5.0 places this with Old Turkic.
  6. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Karluk languages". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.