Old Anatolian Turkish
Native toAnatolia
EraEmerged in Anatolia late 11th century. Developed into Early Ottoman Turkish and Ajem-Turkic c. 15th century[1]
Ottoman Turkish alphabet augmented with ḥarakāt[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3
1ca Old Anatolian Turkish

Old Anatolian Turkish[a] (Turkish: Eski Anadolu Türkçesi) is the stage in the history of the Turkish language spoken in Anatolia from the 11th to 15th centuries. It developed into Early Ottoman Turkish. It was written in the Arabic script. Unlike in later Ottoman Turkish, short-vowel diacritics were used.[2]

It had no official status until 1277, when Mehmet I of Karaman declared a firman in an attempt[3] to break the dominance of Persian:[4]


It has been erroneously assumed that the Old Anatolian Turkish literary language was created in Anatolia and that its authors transformed a primitive language into a literary medium by submitting themselves to Persian influence. In reality, the Oghuz Turks who came to Anatolia brought their own written language, literary traditions and models from Khwarezm and Transoxiana.[6]

The Ajem Turkic language descended from Old Anatolian Turkish. Ajem Turkic started to form its shape in the Aq Qoyunlu, Qara Qoyunlu eras, and, especially, the Safavid era.[7]


Following texts are excerpts of the Qabus-nama taken from Turan Fikret's Old Anatolian Turkish: Syntactic Structure (1996):[8]


Old Anatolian Turkish Ottoman Turkish
(Kamus-ı Türkî spelling)
Modern Turkish English
گُزلٔر كوزلر gözler eyes
دَ دده dede grandfather
كُچُك كوچك küçük little


See also: Ottoman Turkish alphabet

Letter Modern Turkish Letter Modern Turkish
ا a, e, i ص s
ب b ض d
پ p ط t
ت t ظ z
ث s ع a
ج c غ ğ, g
چ ç ف f
ح h ق k
خ h ك k
د d ل l
ذ d, z م m
ر r ن n
ز z و o, ö, u, ü, v
ژ j ه h
س s لا la, le
ش ş ى i, y, ı

See also


  1. ^ Abbreviated as OAT (EAT in Turkish)


  1. ^ a b Old Anatolian Turkish at MultiTree on the Linguist List
  2. ^ Ergin, Muharrem, Osmanlıca Dersleri, BOĞAZİÇİ YAYINLARI, ISBN 975-451-053-9 [page needed]
  3. ^ Leiser, Gary (2010). "The Turks in Anatolia before the Ottomans". In Fierro, Maribel (ed.). The New Cambridge History of Islam, Volume 2: The Western Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 310. ISBN 978-0-521-83957-0. His ally the Qaramanid Muhammad (r. 660–77/1261–78) did capture Konya in 675/1276 and attempted to replace Persian with Turkish as the official government language.
  4. ^ Yazıcı, Tahsin (2010). "Persian authors of Asia Minor part 1". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Persian language and culture were actually so popular and dominant in this period that in the late 14th century, Moḥammad (Meḥmed) Bey, the founder and the governing head of the Qaramanids, published an official edict to end this supremacy, saying that: "The Turkish language should be spoken in courts, palaces, and at official institutions from now on!"
  5. ^ Culture and Tourism Ministry Karaman page (in Turkish) Archived August 11, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Lars Johanson; Christiane Bulut; Otto Harrassowitz Verlag (2006). Turkic-Iranian Contact Areas: Historical and Linguistic Aspects. p. 5.
  7. ^ Stein, Heidi (2014-02-01), "Ajem-Turkic", Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE, Brill, retrieved 2022-09-11
  8. ^ Mahsun Atsız, (2020), A Syntactic Analysis on Gonbad Manuscript of the Book of Dede Korkut, pp. 190–196