Crimean Tatar
Crimean
qırımtatar tili, къырымтатар тили, قریم تاتار تلی
qırım tili, къырым тили, قریم تلی
Crimean Tatar in Latin, Cyrillic, and Perso-Arabic scripts.
Native toUkraine, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Romania, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus
RegionEastern Europe
EthnicityCrimean Tatars
Native speakers
580,000 (2001–2019)[1]
Turkic
Dialects
  • Northern
  • Central
  • Southern
Crimean Tatar alphabet (Latin and Cyrillic; previously Arabic)
Official status
Official language in
Republic of Crimea[a][2] (Russia)
Autonomous Republic of Crimea[a][3] (Ukraine)
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-2crh
ISO 639-3crh
Glottologcrim1257
ELPCrimean Tatar
Crimean Tatar-speaking world
Crimean Tatar is classified as Severely Endangered by the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger
[5]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
"Welcome to Crimea" (Qırımğa hoş keldiñiz!) written in Crimean Tatar Cyrillic, airport bus, Simferopol International Airport
Crimean Tatar Latin script on a plate in Bakhchysarai in 2009, along with Ukrainian
Crimean Tatar Latin script sign in Saky Raion in 2021, along with Russian and Ukrainian
An example of Crimean Tatar Arabic script

Crimean Tatar (qırımtatar tili, къырымтатар тили, قریم تاتار تلی), also called Crimean (qırım tili, къырым тили, قریم تلی),[1] is a moribund Kipchak Turkic language spoken in Crimea and the Crimean Tatar diasporas of Uzbekistan, Turkey, Romania, and Bulgaria, as well as small communities in the United States and Canada. It should not be confused with Tatar, spoken in Tatarstan and adjacent regions in Russia; the two languages are related, but belong to different subgroups of the Kipchak languages, while maintaining a significant degree of mutual intelligibility. Crimean Tatar has been extensively influenced by nearby Oghuz dialects and is also mutually intelligible with them to varying degrees.

A long-term ban on the study of the Crimean Tatar language following the deportation of the Crimean Tatars by the Soviet government has led to the fact that at the moment UNESCO ranked the Crimean Tatar language among the languages under serious threat of extinction (severely endangered).[6][7] However, according to the Institute of Oriental Studies, due to negative situations, the real degree of threat has elevated to critically endangered languages in recent years, which are highly likely to face extinction in the coming generation.[8]

Crimean language is one of the official languages of Autonomous Republic of Crimea[9][10][a] (Ukraine), along with Ukrainian and Russian. It is also one of the state languages of Republic of Crimea (Russian occupation, considered "temporarily occupied territories" by the Ukrainian government), the other ones being Ukrainian and Russian.[11][12][a]

Number of speakers

Today, more than 260,000 Crimean Tatars live in Crimea. Approximately 150,000 reside in Central Asia (mainly in Uzbekistan), where their ancestors had been deported in 1944 during World War II by the Soviet Union. However, of all these people, mostly the older generations are the only ones still speaking Crimean Tatar.[1] In 2013, the language was estimated to be on the brink of extinction, being taught in only around 15 schools in Crimea.

Turkey has provided support to Ukraine, to aid in bringing the schools teaching in Crimean Tatar to a modern state.[13] An estimated 5 million people of Crimean origin live in Turkey, descendants of those who emigrated in the 19th and early 20th centuries.[14] Of these an estimated 110,000 still speak the language.[1] Smaller Crimean Tatar communities are also found in Romania (22,000) and Bulgaria (1,400).[1]

Crimean Tatar is one of the seriously endangered languages in Europe.[15] Almost all Crimean Tatars are bilingual or multilingual, using as their first language the dominant languages of their respective home countries, such as Russian, Turkish, Romanian, Uzbek, Bulgarian or Ukrainian.

Classification and dialects

Main article: Crimean Tatar dialects

The Crimean Tatar language consists of three dialects. There is also the southern dialect, also known as the coastal dialect (yalıboyu, cenübiy), which is in the Oghuz branch spoken in Turkey and Azerbaijan.[16] Crimean Tatar has a unique position among the Turkic languages, because its three "dialects" belong to three different groups of Turkic languages.

History

See also: Crimean Tatar literature

The formation period of the Crimean Tatar spoken dialects began with the first Turkic invasions of Crimea by Cumans and Pechenegs and ended during the period of the Crimean Khanate. However, the official written languages of the Crimean Khanate were Chagatai and Ottoman Turkish. After Islamization, Crimean Tatars wrote with an Arabic script.

In 1876, the different Turkic Crimean dialects were made into a uniform written language by Ismail Gasprinski. A preference was given to the Oghuz dialect of the Yalıboylus, in order to not break the link between the Crimeans and the Turks of the Ottoman Empire. In 1928, the language was reoriented to the middle dialect spoken by the majority of the people.

In 1928, the alphabet was replaced with the Uniform Turkic Alphabet based on the Latin script. The Uniform Turkic Alphabet was replaced in 1938 by a Cyrillic alphabet. During the 1990s and 2000s, the government of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea under Ukraine encouraged replacing the script with a Latin version again, but the Cyrillic has still been widely used (mainly in published literature, newspapers and education). The current Latin-based Crimean Tatar alphabet is the same as the Turkish alphabet, with two additional characters: Ñ ñ and Q q. In the Russian-annexed "Republic of Crimea" all official communications and education in Crimean Tatar are conducted exclusively in the Cyrillic alphabet.[17]

Phonology

Vowels

Front Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close i y ɯ u
Mid/Open e ø ɑ o

The vowel system of Crimean Tatar is similar to some other Turkic languages.[18] Because high vowels in Crimean Tatar are short and reduced, /i/ and /ɯ/ are realized close to [ɪ], even though they are phonologically distinct.[19]

Consonants

Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Post-
alveolar
Velar Uvular
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p b t d t͡ʃ d͡ʒ k ɡ q
Fricative f v s z ʃ x ɣ
Trill r
Approximants l j

In addition to these phonemes, Crimean also displays marginal phonemes that occur in borrowed words, especially palatalized consonants.[20]

The southern (coastal) dialect substitutes /x/ for /q/, e.g. standard qara 'black', southern xara.[21] At the same time the southern and some central dialects preserve glottal /h/ which is pronounced /x/ in the standard language.[21] The northern dialect on the contrary lacks /x/ and /f/, substituting /q/ for /x/ and /p/ for /f/.[21] The northern /v/ is usually [w], often in the place of /ɣ/, compare standard dağ and northern taw 'mountain' (also in other Oghuz and Kipchak languages, such as Azerbaijani: dağ and Kazakh: taw).

/k/ and /ɡ/ are usually fronted, close to [c] and [ɟ].

Grammar

The grammar of Crimean Tatar, like all Turkic languages, is agglutinating,[22] with the exclusive use of suffixing to express grammatical categories.[23] Generally, suffixes are attached to the ends of word stems, although derivational morphology makes uses of compounding as well.[24] Overall, the grammatical structure of the language is similar to that of other West Kipchak varieties.[25] Crimean Tatar is a pro-drop language[26] with a generally SOV word order.[27]

Morphophonology

Crimean Tatar, like most Turkic languages, features pervasive vowel harmony, which results in sound changes when suffixes are added to verb or noun stems.[28] Essentially, the vowel in a suffix undergoes assimilation to agree in certain categories with the vowel in the stem.[29] The two main types of assimilation that characterize this agreement in Crimean Tatar morphophonology are backness harmony and rounding harmony.[30]

Using the transliteration system in Kavitskaya (2010), non-high vowels undergoing backness harmony vary between [a] and [e], and are represented as A. High vowels that undergo both backness and rounding harmony alternate between [i], [y], [ɪ] and [u] and are represented as I. High vowels in suffixes that are never rounded and alternate between [i] and [ɪ] are represented as Y, whereas high vowels in suffixes that are always round and alternate between [u] and [y] are represented as U.[31]

Some consonants undergo similar harmonizing changes depending on whether the preceding segment is voiced or voiceless, or whether the segment demonstrates backness harmony. Consonants that alternate between [k], [q], [g] and [ɣ] are represented as K, alternating [k] and [g] as G, alternating [t] and [d] by D, and alternating [tʃ] and [dʒ] as Ç.[32]

Thus, the suffix -şAr could be rendered as "şar" or "şer" depending on the vowel in the morpheme preceding it.[33]

Verbs

Crimean Tatar verbal morphology is fairly complex, inflecting for tense, number, person, aspect, mood and voice.[34] Verbs are conjugated according to the following paradigm:[35]

[STEM] + [reflexive] + [causative] + [passive] + [negation] + [tense/aspect/mood] + [person/number]

It is possible, albeit rare, for a single verb to contain all of these possible components, as in:

Мен

Men

I

ювундырылмадым.

yuvundırılmadım.

wash-REFL-CAUS-PASS-NEG-PAST-1SG

Мен ювундырылмадым.

Men yuvundırılmadım.

I wash-REFL-CAUS-PASS-NEG-PAST-1SG

"I was not forced to wash myself."[36]

For the most part, each type of suffix would only appear once in any given word, although it is possible in some circumstances for causative suffixes to double up.[37]

Infinitive verbs take the -mAK suffix and can be negated by the addition of the suffix -mA between the verb stem and the infinitive suffix, creating verb constructions that do not easily mirror English.[38]

яшамакъ

yaşamaq

яшамакъ

yaşamaq

"to live"

яшамамакъ

yaşamamaq

яшамамакъ

yaşamamaq

"not to live"

Verb derivation

Novel verb stems are derived chiefly by applying a verbalizing suffix to a noun or adjective, as demonstrated in the following examples:[39]

тишле

tişle

tooth-VB

тишле

tişle

tooth-VB

"bite"

къарар

qarar

black-VB

къарар

qarar

black-VB

"become black"

кечик

keçik

late-VB

кечик

keçik

late-VB

"be late"

Bare verb stems can also be compounded with noun stems to create new verbs,[40] as in:

чекеле

çekele

pull-carry-VB

чекеле

çekele

pull-carry-VB

"to overhaul"

Person markers

There are two types of person markers for finite verbs, pronominal and possessive. Depending on tense and mood, verbs will take one or the other set of endings.[41]

Pronominal
Singular Plural
1st Person -(I)m -mIz
2nd Person -sIñ -sI(ñI)z
3rd Person Ø -(lAr)
Possessive
Singular Plural
1st Person -(I)m -mIz
2nd Person -sIñ -sI(ñI)z
3rd Person Ø -(lAr)

Grammatical person is not marked in third person singular, and the marker is optional in third person plural.[42] As shown above, these markers come as the last element in the broader verb complex.

Tense and aspect markers

Grammatical tense and aspect are expressed in combination by the addition of various markers to the verb stem. Some of these markers match with pronominal person markers, while others take possessive person markers. Each tense/aspect has an associated negation marker; most of these are -mA but there is some variation.[43]

Marker Negation Person Marker Example
General Present -A/y -mAy pronominal alam ("I take")
Present Progressive -mAKtA -mA pronominal yazmaqtamız ("We are writing.")
Future/Present -Ar/Ir -mAz pronominal bağırırım ("I will yell.")
Categorical Future -cAK -mAy pronominal alacağım ("I will [probably] take")
General Past -DY -mA possessive Qırımğa keldik ("We returned to Crimea.")
Evidential Past -KAn -mA pronominal bergenler ("they [apparently] gave")
Conditional -sA -mA possessive alsam ("if I take")

A separate set of compound tenses are formed by adding the past tense copula edi- to the derived forms listed above.[44]

Formed With Negation Example
Habitual Past Future/Present -mAz alır edim ("I often used to take")
Compound Past General Present -A/y ala edik ("we were taking")
Pluperfect Evidential Past -mA alğan edim ("I had taken")
Counterfactual Past Categorical Future -mA yazacaq edim ("I would have written")
Progressive Past Progressive -mA Ketmekte edim. ("I kept going.")
Past Conditional Conditional -mA alsa edim ("if I had taken")

Mood

The imperative is formed using a specific set of person markers, and negated using -mA. In second person imperatives, only the bare verb stem is used. A first person imperative expresses an "I/we should do X" sentiment, whereas third person expresses "let him/her do X," as shown below with unut ("to forget"):[45]

Singular Plural
1st Person -(A)yIm -(A)yIK
2nd Person Ø -IñIz
3rd Person -sIn -sInlAr

Унутайым.

Unutayım

Унутайым.

Unutayım

"I should have to forget."

Унут!

Unut!

Унут!

Unut!

"Forget!"

Унутсын.

Unutsın.

Унутсын.

Unutsın.

"Let him/her forget."

Other moods are constructed similarly to tense/aspect forms.[46]

Marker Negation Person Marker Example
Optative -KAy(dI) -mAy pronominal Aytqaydım ("I wish I had spoken.")
Obligative -mAlY -mA possessive Aytmalım ("I have to speak.")

Voice

Grammatical voice is expressed by the addition of suffixes which come in sequence before negation, tense, aspect, mood and person markers.[47] There are several causative suffixes which vary depending on the ending of the verb stem.[48]

Voice
Marker Example
Passive -(I)l aşal ("be eaten")
Reflexive -(I)n boğul ("drown oneself")
Reciprocal -(I)ş tapış ("find each other")
Causative
Marker Added To Example
-t polysyllabic stems ending in vowel işlet ("force to work")
-It stems ending in -rk, -lk, -k qorqut ("to scare [someone]")
-Ir monosyllabic stems ending in -t, -ç, -ş uçur ("allow to fly away")
-Ar monosyllabic stems qopar ("break off [something]")
-DIrm most remaining stems töktür ("force to spill")

Participles

Past, future and present participles are formed by the addition of suffixes and are negated in the same way as other verbs.[49]

Marker Negation
Past -KAn -mA
Future -cAK -mAy
Present -r -mAz

язылгъан

yazılğan

write-PTCP.PAST

мектюп

mektüp

letter

язылгъан мектюп

yazılğan mektüp

write-PTCP.PAST letter

"written letter"

сынаджакъ

sınacaq

break-PTCP.FUT

араба

araba

cart

сынаджакъ араба

sınacaq araba

break-PTCP.FUT cart

"cart that will break"

янар

yanar

burn-PTCP.PRES

дагъ

dağ

forest

янар дагъ

yanar dağ

burn-PTCP.PRES forest

"burning forest"

Copula

The copula ol ("to be, become, exist") is generally expressed as a predicate suffix in the present tense, closely resembling the pronominal person endings, as displayed below.[50] The third person endings are frequently deleted in colloquial speech. The copula’s past tense form, edi, is suppletive. Future tense copular forms are constructed by the addition of the categorical future suffix -cAK.[51]

Singular Plural
1st Person -(I)m -mIz
2nd Person -sIñ -sI(ñI)z
3rd Perso (-dır) (-dır)

VB:Verbalizing Suffix

Мен

Men

I

оджам.

ocam.

teacher-COP.1SG

Мен оджам.

Men ocam.

I teacher-COP.1SG

"I am a teacher."

Мен

Men

I

оджа

oca

teacher

эдим.

edim.

COP.PAST.1SG

Мен оджа эдим.

Men oca edim.

I teacher COP.PAST.1SG

"I was a teacher."

Мен

Men

I

оджа

oca

teacher

oладжагъым.

olacağım.

COP.FUT.1SG

Мен оджа oладжагъым.

Men oca olacağım.

I teacher COP.FUT.1SG

"I will be a teacher."

Converbs

Converbs, a characteristic of many Turkic languages,[52] express sequential or dependent action. Present tense converbs are formed by the addition of the suffixes -A (used after consonants) and -y (used after vowels). In past tense, converbs take the suffix -Ip.[53] Thus:

Acaн

Asan

Asan

эвгe

evge

house-DAT

кeлип

kelip

come-CVB.PAST

эвни

evni

house-ACC

темизледи.

temizledi.

clean-VB-PAST

Acaн эвгe кeлип эвни темизледи.

Asan evge kelip evni temizledi.

Asan house-DAT come-CVB.PAST house-ACC clean-VB-PAST

"Asan came home and cleaned the house."

Nouns

Crimean Tatar noun stems take suffixes which express grammatical number, case and possession. As in all other Turkic languages, there is no grammatical gender in Crimean Tatar.[54] Nouns are declined according to the following paradigm:[55]

[STEM] + [number] + [possession] + [case]

Noun derivation

Noun stems are derived in a number of ways. Most commonly, a bare noun stem can take a denominal suffix which alters its basic meaning.[56] Similarly, a bare verb stem can take a deverbal suffix that converts it into a noun.[57] There are many such denominal and deverbal suffixes in Crimean Tatar;[58] some common suffixes are shown below:

Denominal
Marker Meaning Example Gloss
-dAş belonging to group yaşdaş ("of same age") age-SUF
-kir association/inclination işkir ("hard worker") work-SUF
-lIK abstraction dostluq ("friendship") friend-SUF
-şınas performer of act tilşınas ("linguist") tongue-SUF
-ÇI performer of act arabaçı ("driver") cart-SUF
-çYK diminutive buzçıq ("piece of ice") ice-SUF
Deverbal
Marker Meaning Example Gloss
-mA result of action aşıqma ("a hurry") hurry-SUF
-KI instrument of action bilgi ("knowledge") know-SUF
-KIç utility of action tutquç ("holder, handle") hold-SUF
-I general noun formation ölü ("dead man") die-SUF
-(I)k general noun formation kürek ("shovel") scoop-SUF
-(U)v general noun formation quruv ("building") build-SUF

Noun stems can also be reduplicated, which lends a more generalized meaning.[59] The last method of noun derivation is through the compounding of two noun stems.[60] Thus:

къартоп-мaртоп

qartop-martop

potato-REDUP

къартоп-мaртоп

qartop-martop

potato-REDUP

"potatoes and the like"

aнa-бaбa

ana-baba

mother-father

aнa-бaбa

ana-baba

mother-father

"parents"

Number

Nouns are pluralized by the addition of the suffix -lAr to the noun stem. The vowel in this plural suffix agrees phonetically with the final vowel in the stem.[61]

aрaбалар

arabalar

car-PL

aрaбалар

arabalar

car-PL

"cars"

Use of the plural can also express respect,[62] as in:

Oсмановлар

Osmanovlar

кельди.

keldi.

Oсмановлар кельди.

Osmanovlar keldi.

"Osmanov came."

Possession

Possession is expressed through person-specific suffixing. As with the plural suffix, possession suffixes harmonize with the preceding vowel in regular ways.[63]

Singular Plural
1st Person -(I)m -(I)mIz
2nd Person -(I)ñ -(I)ñIz
3rd Person -s(I) -(lar)-(s)I

балам

balam

child-1SG.POSS-NOM

балам

balam

child-1SG.POSS-NOM

"my child"

баланъ

balañ

child-2SG.POSS-NOM

баланъ

balañ

child-2SG.POSS-NOM

"your child"

баласы

balası

child-3SG.POSS-NOM

баласы

balası

child-3SG.POSS-NOM

"his/her child"

Case

Crimean Tatar has six grammatical cases.[64] The nominative case is unmarked, and the remaining cases are expressed through suffixing. These suffixes come last in a fully declined noun.[65]

Suffix Example with bala ("child")
Nominative Ø bala ("the child" [subject])
Accusative -nY balanı ("the child" [direct object])
Genitive -nYñ balanıñ ("of the child")
Dative -KA balağa ("to the child")
Locative -DA balada ("at the child")
Ablative -Dan baladan ("away from the child")

Pronouns

Like nouns, pronouns are inflected for number, person and case but not for gender.[66]

Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Nominative men sen o biz siz olar
Accusative meni seni onı bizni sizni olarnı
Genitive menim seniñ onıñ bizim siziñ olarnıñ
Dative maña saña oña bizge sizge olarǧa
Locative mende sende onda bizde sizde olarda
Ablative menden senden ondan bizden sizden olardan

The second person plural pronoun can be used to denote formality or respect, even if its referent is a single person.[67]

There are two roots, öz- and kendi-, that express reflexivity. Of the two, kendi- is more common in the southern dialect, but both are used throughout the entire area in which Crimean Tatar is spoken.[68]

Possessive pronouns are formed by adding the suffix -ki to the genitive form of a personal pronoun,[69] as in:

Singular Plural
1st Person menimki bizimki
2nd Person seniñki siziñki
3rd Person onıñki olarnıñki

Adjectives

Adjectives in Crimean Tatar precede the nouns they modify. They do not show agreement, and as such do not take any of the case, person or possession suffixes.[70]

Adjectives can be derived by the addition of certain suffixes to a noun or verb stem.[71]

SUF:adjectival suffix

кескин

keskin

cut-SUF

кескин

keskin

cut-SUF

"sharp"

кюндеки

kündeki

day-SUF

кюндеки

kündeki

day-SUF

"daily"

Къырымлы

Qırım

Crimea-SUF

Къырымлы

Qırım

Crimea-SUF

"Crimean"

The comparative and superlative forms of adjectives are expressed, respectively, by the suffix -ÇA and the particle ,[72] as in the following examples:

узунджур

uzuncur

узунджур

uzuncur

"hotter"

энъ

балабан

balaban

энъ балабан

eñ balaban

"biggest"

An idiomatic superlative form using episi ("all") in the ablative case is also possible.[73]

О

O

she

эписинден

episinden

all-POSS-ABL

татлы

tatlı

sweet

бакълава

baqlava

baklava

пишире.

pişire.

boil-CAUS-PRES

О эписинден татлы бакълава пишире.

O episinden tatlı baqlava pişire.

she all-POSS-ABL sweet baklava boil-CAUS-PRES

"She cooks the sweetest baklava."

Postpositions

Crimean Tatar uses postpositions. Each postposition governs a specific case, either dative, genitive or ablative.[74] Some common postpositions are shown below:

Postposition English Case'
qadar until DAT
taba towards DAT
zarfında during GEN
ile with GEN
içün for GEN
soñ after ABL
sebep due to ABL

Writing systems

Main article: Crimean Tatar alphabet

Crimean Tatar is written in either the Cyrillic or Latin alphabets, both modified to the specific needs of Crimean Tatar, and either used respective to where the language is used.

Historically, Arabic script was used from the sixteenth century. In the Soviet Union, it was replaced by a Latin alphabet based on Yañalif in 1928, and by a Cyrillic alphabet in 1938.

After Russia's annexation of Crimea in 2014, Cyrillic became the sole script allowed in Russian occupied Crimea because according to the Constitutional Court of Russia decision made in 2004, all languages of Russia must use Cyrillic.[17] However there are some contradictions to the decision: virtually all Finnic languages, including distantly-related Skolt Sámi, spoken in Russia, however, currently use the Latin script as their sister languages Finnish and Estonian do, despite the historical existence of Karelian Cyrillic alphabet.

In 1992, a Latin alphabet based on Common Turkic Alphabet was adopted by the decision of the Qurultay of the Crimean Tatar People, which was formally supported by the Supreme Council of Crimea in 1997 but never implemented officially on practical level. However, in 2021, the Ministry of Reintegration of Temporarily Occupied Territories of Ukraine has announced it begins the implementation of the decision, with vice premier Oleksii Reznikov supporting the transition by stating that Latin corresponds better to Turkic phonetics. The ministry revealed it plans to finish the transition to Latin by 2025, which was supported by the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People. The alphabet is co-developed by A. Yu. Krymskyi Institute of Oriental Studies, Potebnia Institute of Linguistics, Institute of Philology of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv and Tavrida National V.I. Vernadsky University.[75][76]

Arabic alphabet

Crimean Tatars used Arabic script from 16th[citation needed] century to 1928.

Latin alphabet

 â is not considered to be a separate letter. Usually it represents the near-open front unrounded vowel, /æ/.

a b c ç d e f g ğ h ı i (ĭ) j k l m n ñ o ö p q r s ş t u ü v (w) y z
[a] [b] [dʒ] [tʃ] [d] [e] [f] [ɡ] [ɣ] [x] [ɯ] [i], [ɪ] [ʒ] [k] [l] [m] [n] [ŋ] [o] [ø] [p] [q] [r] [s] [ʃ] [t] [u] [y] [v], [w] [j] [z]

Cyrillic alphabet

а б в г гъ д е ё ж з и й к къ л м н нъ о п р с т у ф х ц ч дж ш щ ъ ы ь э ю я
[a] [b] [v],[w] [ɡ] [ɣ] [d] [ɛ],[jɛ] [ø],[jø],[jo],[ʲo] [ʒ] [z] [i],[ɪ] [j] [k] [q] [l],[ɫ] [m] [n] [ŋ] [o],[ø] [p] [r] [s] [t] [u],[y] [f] [x] [ts] [tʃ] [dʒ] [ʃ] [ʃtʃ] [(.j)] [ɯ] [ʲ] [ɛ] [y],[jy],[ju],[ʲu] [ʲa],
[ja]

The digraphs гъ, къ, нъ and дж are separate letters.

Legal status

The Crimean peninsula is internationally recognized as territory of Ukraine, but since the 2014 annexation by the Russian Federation is de facto administered as part of the Russian Federation.

According to Russian law, by the April 2014 constitution of the Republic of Crimea and the 2017 Crimean language law,[17] the Crimean Tatar language is a state language in Crimea alongside Russian and Ukrainian, while Russian is the state language of the Russian Federation, the language of interethnic communication, and required in public postings in the conduct of elections and referendums.[17]

In Ukrainian law, according to the constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, as published in Russian by its Verkhovna Rada,[77] Russian and Crimean Tatar languages enjoy a "protected" (Russian: обеспечивается ... защита) status; every citizen is entitled, at his request (ходатайство), to receive government documents, such as "passport, birth certificate and others" in Crimean Tatar; but Russian is the language of interethnic communication and to be used in public life. According to the constitution of Ukraine, Ukrainian is the state language. Recognition of Russian and Crimean Tatar was a matter of political and legal debate.

Before the Sürgünlik, the 18 May 1944 deportation by the Soviet Union of Crimean Tatars to internal exile in Uzbek SSR, Crimean Tatar had an official language status in the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.

Media

The first Crimean Tatar newspaper was Terciman published in 1883-1918 by Ismail Gasprinsky. Some other Crimean Tatar media include: ATR, Qırım Aqiqat, Qırım, Meydan, Qırım Alemi, Avdet, Yañı Dünya, Yıldız.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d The status of Crimea and of the city of Sevastopol is since March 2014 under dispute between Russia and Ukraine; Ukraine and the majority of the international community consider Crimea to be an autonomous republic of Ukraine and Sevastopol to be one of Ukraine's cities with special status, whereas Russia considers Crimea to be a federal subject of Russia and Sevastopol to be one of Russia's three federal cities like Russians cities Moscow and Saint Petersburg.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Crimean Tatar at Ethnologue (25th ed., 2022) Closed access icon
  2. ^ "Глава 1. ОСНОВЫ КОНСТИТУЦИОННОГО СТРОЯ | Конституция Республики Крым 2014". Archived from the original on 31 March 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
  3. ^ "To which languages does the Charter apply?". European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Council of Europe. p. 2. Archived from the original on 2013-12-27. Retrieved 2014-04-03.
  4. ^ "Reservations and Declarations for Treaty No.148 – European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages". Council of Europe. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2016.
  5. ^ "UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in danger". www.unesco.org. Archived from the original on August 2, 2018. Retrieved Mar 3, 2021.
  6. ^ "World Atlas of Languages - Crimean Tatar".
  7. ^ "National Corpus of the Crimean Tatar Language | Фонд Східна Європа". East Europe Foundation. 2023-12-21. Retrieved 2024-04-02.
  8. ^ "The Crimean Tatar language belongs to the languages that are under serious threat". Представництво Президента України в Автономній Республіці Крим. Archived from the original on June 1, 2023. Retrieved 2024-04-02.
  9. ^ Verkhovna Rada of Crimea. "Constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea". pp. Section 1, Article 10. Retrieved 19 December 2022. In the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, along with the official language, the application and development, use and protection of Russian, Crimean Tatar and other ethnic groups' languages shall be secured.
  10. ^ "To which languages does the Charter apply?". European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Council of Europe. p. 2. Archived from the original on 2013-12-27. Retrieved 2014-04-03.
  11. ^ "Глава 1. ОСНОВЫ КОНСТИТУЦИОННОГО СТРОЯ | Конституция Республики Крым 2014". Archived from the original on 31 March 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
  12. ^ "Activist: Ukrainian, Crimean-Tatar Language Learning Being Squeezed In Crimea". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-01-02. Retrieved 2024-04-09.
  13. ^ Crimean Tatar language in danger Archived 2017-10-11 at the Wayback Machine, Avrupa Times, 02/19/2013
  14. ^ "e-Tatars: Virtual Community of the Crimean Tatar Diaspora". iccrimea.org. Retrieved 2023-02-08.
  15. ^ "Tapani Salminen, UNESCO Red Book on Endangered Languages: Europe, September 1999". University of Helsinki, Finland. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  16. ^ National movements and national identity among the Crimean Tatars: (1905-1916). BRILL. 1996. ISBN 9789004105096.
  17. ^ a b c d "Закон Республики Крым "О государственных языках Республики Крым и иных языках в Республике Крым"" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on August 29, 2017. Retrieved Mar 3, 2021.
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  22. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.33
  23. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.85
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  25. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.2
  26. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.99
  27. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.84
  28. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.25
  29. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.26
  30. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.25
  31. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.33
  32. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.34
  33. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.34
  34. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.61
  35. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.75
  36. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.75
  37. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.73
  38. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.75
  39. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.78
  40. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.79
  41. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.62
  42. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.63
  43. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.63
  44. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, pp.67-69
  45. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.70
  46. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, pp.70-71
  47. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.74
  48. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.73
  49. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, pp.76-77
  50. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.61
  51. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.61
  52. ^ Johanson 1995, p.314
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  55. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.35
  56. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.39
  57. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.41
  58. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, pp.39-43
  59. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.43
  60. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.44
  61. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.35
  62. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.36
  63. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.36
  64. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.37
  65. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.37
  66. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.44
  67. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.45
  68. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.45
  69. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.49
  70. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.52
  71. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.54
  72. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.52
  73. ^ Kavitskaya 2010, p.52
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  75. ^ "Урядовий комітет підтримав затвердження алфавіту кримськотатарської мови на основі латинської графіки". minre.gov.ua (in Ukrainian). 2021-09-16. Archived from the original on 2021-09-18. Retrieved 2021-09-20.
  76. ^ "Cabinet approves Crimean Tatar alphabet based on Latin letters". www.ukrinform.net. 2021-09-22. Archived from the original on 2021-10-07. Retrieved 2021-10-07.
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Bibliography