Council of Europe
Conseil de l'Europe
Council of Europe logo (2013 revised version).svg
Flag of Europe.svg
Council of Europe (blue).svg
Abbreviation
CoE
FormationTreaty of London
TypeRegional intergovernmental organisation
HeadquartersPalace of Europe, Strasbourg, France
Location
Membership
Official languages
English, French
Other working languages: German, Italian[1][2]
Secretary General
Marija Pejčinović Burić
Deputy Secretary General
Gabriella Battaini-Dragoni
Tiny Kox
Simon Coveney
President of the Congress
Leendert Verbeek
Websitecoe.int

The Council of Europe (CoE; French: Conseil de l'Europe, CdE) is an international organisation founded in the wake of World War II to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.[3] Founded in 1949, it has 46 member states, with a population of approximately 675 million; it operates with an annual budget of approximately 500 million euros.[4]

The organisation is distinct from the European Union (EU), although it is sometimes confused with it, partly because the EU has adopted the original European flag, created for the Council of Europe in 1955,[5] as well as the European anthem.[6] No country has ever joined the EU without first belonging to the Council of Europe.[7] The Council of Europe is an official United Nations Observer.[8]

Being an international organization, the Council of Europe cannot make laws, but it does have the ability to push for the enforcement of select international agreements reached by member states on various topics. The best-known body of the Council of Europe is the European Court of Human Rights, which functions on the basis of the European Convention on Human Rights.

The council's two statutory bodies are the Committee of Ministers, comprising the foreign ministers of each member state, and the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE), which is composed of members of the national parliaments of each member state. The Commissioner for Human Rights is an institution within the Council of Europe, mandated to promote awareness of and respect for human rights in the member states. The Secretary General presides over the secretariat of the organisation. Other major CoE bodies include the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (EDQM) and the European Audiovisual Observatory.

The headquarters of the Council of Europe, as well as its Court of Human Rights, are situated in Strasbourg, France. English and French are its two official languages. The Committee of Ministers, the PACE, and the Congress of the Council of Europe also use German and Italian for some of their work.

History

Plaque commemorating the first session of the Council of Europe Assembly at Strasbourg University
Plaque commemorating the first session of the Council of Europe Assembly at Strasbourg University

Founding

In a speech in 1929, French Foreign Minister Aristide Briand floated the idea of an organisation which would gather European nations together in a "federal union" to resolve common problems.[9] But it was Britain's wartime leader Sir Winston Churchill who first publicly suggested the creation of a "Council of Europe" in a BBC radio broadcast on 21 March 1943,[10] while the Second World War was still raging. In his own words,[11] he tried to "peer through the mists of the future to the end of the war", and think about how to re-build and maintain peace on a shattered continent. Given that Europe had been at the origin of two world wars, the creation of such a body would be, he suggested, "a stupendous business". He returned to the idea during a well-known speech at the University of Zurich on 19 September 1946,[12][13] throwing the full weight of his considerable post-war prestige behind it. But there were many other statesmen and politicians across the continent, many of them members of the European Movement, who were quietly working towards the creation of the council. Some regarded it as a guarantee that the horrors of war could never again be visited on the continent, others came to see it as a "club of democracies", built around a set of common values that could stand as a bulwark against totalitarian states belonging to the Eastern Bloc. Others again saw it as a nascent "United States of Europe", the resonant phrase that Churchill had reached for at Zurich in 1946.

Session of the Council of Europe's Parliamentary Assembly in the former House of Europe in Strasbourg in 1967. Willy Brandt, German Minister for Foreign Affairs, is speaking.
Session of the Council of Europe's Parliamentary Assembly in the former House of Europe in Strasbourg in 1967. Willy Brandt, German Minister for Foreign Affairs, is speaking.

The future structure of the Council of Europe was discussed at the Congress of Europe which brought together several hundred leading politicians, government representatives and members of civil society in The Hague, Netherlands, in 1948. There were two competing schools of thought: some favoured a classical international organisation with representatives of governments, while others preferred a political forum with parliamentarians. Both approaches were finally combined through the creation of a Committee of Ministers (in which governments were represented) and a Consultative Assembly (in which parliaments were represented), the two main bodies mentioned in the Statute of the Council of Europe. This dual intergovernmental and inter-parliamentary structure was later copied for the European Communities, NATO and OSCE.

The Council of Europe was signed into existence on 5 May 1949 by the Treaty of London, the organisation's founding Statute which set out the three basic values that should guide its work: democracy, human rights and the rule of law. It was signed in London on that day by ten states: Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom, though Turkey and Greece joined three months later. On 10 August 1949, 100 members of the council's Consultative Assembly, parliamentarians drawn from the twelve member nations, met in Strasbourg for its first plenary session, held over 18 sittings and lasting nearly a month. They debated how to reconcile and reconstruct a continent still reeling from war, yet already facing a new East–West divide, launched the concept of a trans-national court to protect the basic human rights of every citizen, and took the first steps in a process that would eventually lead to the creation of the European Union.

In August 1949, Paul-Henri Spaak resigned as Belgium's foreign minister in order to be elected as the first president of the assembly. Behind the scenes, he too had been quietly working towards the creation of the council, and played a key role in steering its early work. However, in December 1951, after nearly three years in the role, Spaak resigned in disappointment after the Assembly rejected proposals for a "European political authority".[14] Convinced that the Council of Europe was never going to be in a position to achieve his long-term goal of a unified Europe,[15] he soon tried again in a new and more promising format, based this time on economic integration, becoming one of the founders of the European Union.[16]

Early years

There was huge enthusiasm for the Council of Europe in its early years, as its pioneers set about drafting what was to become the European Convention on Human Rights, a charter of individual rights which – it was hoped – no member government could ever again violate. They drew, in part, on the tenets of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, signed only a few months earlier in Paris. But crucially, where the Universal Declaration was essentially aspirational, the European Convention from the beginning featured an enforcement mechanism - an international Court - which was to adjudicate on alleged violations of its articles and hold governments to account, a dramatic leap forward for international justice. Today, this is the European Court of Human Rights, whose rulings are binding on 47 European nations, the most far-reaching system of international justice anywhere in the world.

One of the council's first acts was to welcome West Germany into its fold on 2 May 1951,[17] setting a pattern of post-war reconciliation that was to become a hallmark of the council, and beginning a long process of "enlargement" which was to see the organisation grow from its original ten founding member states to the 47 nations that make up the Council of Europe today.[18] Iceland had already joined in 1950, followed in 1956 by Austria, Cyprus in 1961, Switzerland in 1963 and Malta in 1965.

Historic speeches at the Council of Europe

Winston Churchill's inaugural speech of the Council of Europe in The Hague
Winston Churchill's inaugural speech of the Council of Europe in The Hague

In 2018, an archive of all speeches made to the PACE by heads of state or government since the Council of Europe's creation in 1949 appeared online, the fruit of a two-year project entitled "Voices of Europe".[19] At the time of its launch,[20] the archive comprised 263 speeches delivered over a 70-year period by some 216 presidents, prime ministers, monarchs and religious leaders from 45 countries – though it continues to expand, as new speeches are added every few months.

Some very early speeches by individuals considered to be "founding figures" of the European institutions, even if they were not heads of state or government at the time, are also included (such as Sir Winston Churchill or Robert Schuman). Addresses by eight monarchs appear in the list (such as King Juan Carlos I of Spain, King Albert II of Belgium and Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg) as well as the speeches given by religious figures (such as Pope John Paul II, and Pope Francis) and several leaders from countries in the Middle East and North Africa (such as Shimon Peres, Yasser Arafat, Hosni Mubarak, Léopold Sédar Senghor or King Hussein of Jordan).

The full text of the speeches is given in both English and French, regardless of the original language used. The archive is searchable by country, by name, and chronologically.[21]

Aims and achievement

Article 1(a) of the Statute states that "The aim of the Council of Europe is to achieve a greater unity between its members for the purpose of safeguarding and realising the ideals and principles which are their common heritage and facilitating their economic and social progress."[22] Membership is open to all European states who seek harmony, cooperation, good governance and human rights, accepting the principle of the rule of law and are able and willing to guarantee democracy, fundamental human rights and freedoms.

Whereas the member states of the European Union transfer part of their national legislative and executive powers to the European Commission and the European Parliament, Council of Europe member states maintain their sovereignty but commit themselves through conventions/treaties (international law) and co-operate on the basis of common values and common political decisions. Those conventions and decisions are developed by the member states working together at the Council of Europe. Both organisations function as concentric circles around the common foundations for European co-operation and harmony, with the Council of Europe being the geographically wider circle. The European Union could be seen as the smaller circle with a much higher level of integration through the transfer of powers from the national to the EU level. "The Council of Europe and the European Union: different roles, shared values."[23] Council of Europe conventions/treaties are also open for signature to non-member states, thus facilitating equal co-operation with countries outside Europe.

The Council of Europe's most famous achievement is the European Convention on Human Rights, which was adopted in 1950 following a report by the PACE, and followed on from the United Nations 'Universal Declaration of Human Rights' (UDHR).[24] The Convention created the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. The Court supervises compliance with the European Convention on Human Rights and thus functions as the highest European court. It is to this court that Europeans can bring cases if they believe that a member country has violated their fundamental rights and freedoms.

The various activities and achievements of the Council of Europe can be found in detail on its official website. The Council of Europe works in the following areas:

Institutions

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The institutions of the Council of Europe are:

Council's Parliamentary Assembly hemicycle
European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines.

The CoE system also includes a number of semi-autonomous structures known as "Partial Agreements", some of which are also open to non-member states:

Headquarters and buildings

See also: European Institutions in Strasbourg

Aerial shot of the Palais de l'Europe in Strasbourg
Aerial shot of the Palais de l'Europe in Strasbourg
Council of Europe's Agora building
Council of Europe's Agora building

The seat of the Council of Europe is in Strasbourg, France. First meetings were held in Strasbourg's University Palace in 1949, but the Council of Europe soon moved into its own buildings. The Council of Europe's eight main buildings are situated in the Quartier européen, an area in the northeast of Strasbourg spread over the three districts of Le Wacken, La Robertsau and Quartier de l'Orangerie, where are also located the four buildings of the seat of the European Parliament in Strasbourg, the Arte headquarters and the seat of the International Institute of Human Rights.

Building in the area started in 1949 with the predecessor of the Palais de l'Europe, the House of Europe (demolished in 1977), and came to a provisional end in 2007 with the opening of the New General Office Building, later named "Agora", in 2008.[45] The Palais de l'Europe (Palace of Europe) and the Art Nouveau Villa Schutzenberger (seat of the European Audiovisual Observatory) are in the Orangerie district, and the European Court of Human Rights, the EDQM and the Agora Building are in the Robertsau district. The Agora building has been voted "best international business center real estate project of 2007" on 13 March 2008, at the MIPIM 2008.[46] The European Youth Centre is located in the Wacken district.

Besides its headquarters in Strasbourg, the Council of Europe is also present in other cities and countries. The Council of Europe Development Bank has its seat in Paris, the North-South Centre of the Council of Europe is established in Lisbon, Portugal, and the Centre for Modern Languages is in Graz, Austria. There are European Youth Centres in Budapest, Hungary, and in Strasbourg. The European Wergeland Centre, a new Resource Centre on education for intercultural dialogue, human rights and democratic citizenship, operated in cooperation with the Norwegian Government, opened in Oslo, Norway, in February 2009.[47]

The Council of Europe has offices in Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia, and Ukraine; information offices in Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, North Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Ukraine; and a projects office in Turkey. All these offices are establishments of the Council of Europe and they share its juridical personality with privileges and immunities.

Member states, observers, partners

Main article: Member states of the Council of Europe

Eligibility

There are two main criteria for membership: geographic (Article 4 of the Council of Europe Statute specifies that membership is open to any "European" State) and political (Article 3 of the Statute states applying for membership must accept democratic values—"Every member of the Council of Europe must accept the principles of the rule of law and the enjoyment by all persons within its jurisdiction of human rights and fundamental freedoms, and collaborate sincerely and effectively in the realisation of the aim of the Council as specified in Chapter I").[48][49]

Since "Europe" is not defined in international law, the definition of "Europe" has been a question that has recurred during the CoE's history. Turkey was admitted in 1950, although it is a transcontinental state that lies mostly in Asia, with a smaller portion in Europe.[49] In 1994, the PACE adopted Recommendation 1247, which said that admission to the CoE should be "in principle open only to states whose national territory lies wholly or partly in Europe"; later, however, the Assembly extended eligibility to apply and be admitted to Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia.[49]

Member states and observers

The Council of Europe was founded on 5 May 1949 by Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom.[50] Greece and Turkey joined 3 months later.[51][52][53][54] In 1950, Iceland[55][56] West Germany and Saarland Protectorate joined the Council of Europe as associate members in 1950. West Germany became a full member in 1951, and the Saar withdrew its application after it joined West Germany following the 1955 Saar Statute referendum.[57][58] Joining later were Austria (1956), Cyprus (1961), Switzerland (1963), Malta (1965), and Portugal (1976).[49] Spain joined in 1977, two years after the death of its dictator Francisco Franco and the Spanish transition to democracy.[59] Next to join were Liechtenstein (1978), San Marino (1988) and Finland (1989).[49] After the fall of Communism with the Revolutions of 1989 and the collapse of the Soviet Union, the post-Soviet states in Europe that began democratization joined: Hungary (1990), Poland (1991), Bulgaria (1992), Estonia (1993), Lithuania (1993), Slovenia (1993), the Czech Republic (1993), Slovakia (1993), Romania (1993), Latvia (1995), Moldova (1995), Albania (1995), Ukraine (1995), the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (1995) (later renamed North Macedonia), Russia (1996, expelled 2022), Croatia (1996), Georgia (1999), Armenia (2001), Azerbaijan (2001), Bosnia and Herzegovina (2002) and Serbia and Montenegro (later Serbia) (2003).[49] Also joining were the small Western European nations of Andorra (1994) and Monaco (2004).[49] The Council now has 46 member states, with Montenegro (2007) being the latest to join.[60]

Although most Council members are predominantly Christian in heritage, there are three Muslim-majority member states: Turkey, Albania, and Azerbaijan.[49]

The CoE has granted some countries a status that allows them to participate in CoE activities without being full members. There are three types of nonmember status: associate member, special guest and observer.[49] Associate member status is no longer used.[49] "Special guest" status was used as a transitional status for post-Soviet countries that wished to join the council after the fall of the Berlin Wall, and is no longer commonly used.[49] "Observer" status is for non-European nations who accept democracy, rule of law, and human rights, and wish to participate in Council initiatives.[49] The United States became an observer state in 1995.[61] Currently, Canada, the Holy See, Japan, Mexico, and the United States are observer states, while Israel is an observer to the PACE.[60]

Withdrawal, suspension, and expulsion

Further information: Withdrawal from the Council of Europe

The Statute of the Council of Europe provides for the voluntary suspension, involuntary suspension, and exclusion of members.[62] Article 8 of the Statute provides that any member who has "seriously violated" Article 3 may be suspended from its rights of representation, and that the Committee of Ministers may request that such a member withdraw from the Council under Article 7. (The Statute does not define the "serious violation" phrase.[62] Under Article 8 of the Statute, if a member state fails to withdraw upon request, the Committee may terminate its membership, in consultation with the PACE.[62]

The Council suspended Greece in 1967, after a military coup d'état, and the Greek junta withdrew from the CoE.[62] Greece was readmitted to the council in 1974.[63]

Suspension and exclusion of Russia

Main article: Russia in the Council of Europe

Russia became a member of the Council of Europe in 1996. In 2014, after Russia invaded and annexed Crimea from Ukraine and supported separatists in eastern Ukraine, precipitating a bloody conflict, the Council stripped Russia of its voting rights in the PACE.[64] In response, Russia began to boycott the Assembly in 2016, and beginning in 2017 refused to pay its annual membership dues of 32.6 million euros (US$37.1 million) to the Council[64][65] placing the institution under financial strain.[66]

Russia claimed that its suspension by the council was unfair, and demanded the restoration of voting rights.[67] Russia had threatened to withdraw from the Council unless its voting rights were restored in time for the election of a new secretary general.[64] European Council secretary-general Thorbjørn Jagland organized a special committee to find a compromise with Russia in early 2018, a move that was criticized as giving in to alleged Russian pressure by Council members and academic observers, especially if voting sanctions were lifted.[66][67][68] In June 2019, the Council voted (on a 118–62 vote, with 10 abstentions) to restore Russia's voting rights in the council.[64][69] Opponents of lifting the suspension included Ukraine and other post-Soviet countries, such as Poland and the Baltic states, who argued that readmission amounted to normalizing Russia's malign activity.[64] Supporters of restoring Russia's council rights included France and Germany,[70] which argued that a Russian withdrawal from the council would be harmful because it would deprive Russian citizens of their ability to initiate cases in the European Court of Human Rights.[64]

On 3 March 2022, after Russia launched a full-scale military invasion of Ukraine, the council suspended Russia for violations of the council's statute and the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). The suspension blocked Russia from participation in the council's ministerial council, the PACE, and the Council of the Baltic Sea States, but still left Russia obligated to follow the ECHR.[70][71][72] On 15 March 2022, hours before the vote to expel the country, Russia initiated a voluntary withdrawal procedure from the council, delivering its formal desire to withdraw on 31 December 2022, and announced its intent to denounce the ECHR. However, on the same day, the council's Committee of Ministers decided Russia's membership in the council would be immediately terminated, and determined that Russia had been excluded from the Council instead under its exclusion mechanism rather than the withdrawal mechanism.[73] After being excluded from the Council of Europe, Russia's former president and prime minister Dmitry Medvedev endorsed restoring the death penalty in Russia.[74][75]

Co-operation

Non-member states

The Council of Europe works mainly through international treaties, usually called conventions in its system. By drafting conventions or international treaties, common legal standards are set for its member states. However, several conventions have also been opened for signature to non-member states. Important examples are the Convention on Cybercrime (signed for example, by Canada, Japan, South Africa and the United States), the Lisbon Recognition Convention on the recognition of study periods and degrees (signed for example, by Australia, Belarus, Canada, the Holy See, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, New Zealand and the United States), the Anti-doping Convention (signed, for example, by Australia, Belarus, Canada and Tunisia) and the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (signed for example, by Burkina Faso, Morocco, Tunisia and Senegal as well as the European Community). Non-member states also participate in several partial agreements, such as the Venice Commission, the Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO), the European Pharmacopoeia Commission and the North-South Centre.

Invitations to sign and ratify relevant conventions of the Council of Europe on a case-by-case basis are sent to three groups of non-member entities:[76]

European Union

Main article: Council of Europe–European Union relations

Council of EuropeSchengen AreaEuropean Free Trade AssociationEuropean Economic AreaEurozoneEuropean UnionEuropean Union Customs UnionAgreement with EU to mint eurosGUAMCentral European Free Trade AgreementNordic CouncilBaltic AssemblyBeneluxVisegrád GroupCommon Travel AreaOrganization of the Black Sea Economic CooperationUnion StateSwitzerlandIcelandNorwayLiechtensteinSwedenDenmarkFinlandPolandCzech RepublicHungarySlovakiaGreeceEstoniaLatviaLithuaniaBelgiumNetherlandsLuxembourgItalyFranceSpainAustriaGermanyPortugalSloveniaMaltaCyprusIrelandUnited KingdomCroatiaRomaniaBulgariaTurkeyMonacoAndorraSan MarinoVatican CityGeorgiaUkraineAzerbaijanMoldovaArmeniaRussiaBelarusSerbiaAlbaniaNorth MacedoniaBosnia and HerzegovinaMontenegroKosovo (UNMIK)Supranational European Bodies-en.svg
About this image
A clickable Euler diagram[file] showing the relationships between various multinational European organisations and agreements.

The Council of Europe is not to be confused with the Council of the European Union (the "Council of Ministers") or the European Council. These belong to the European Union, which is separate from the Council of Europe, although they have shared the same European flag and anthem since the 1980s since they both work for European integration. Nor is the Council of Europe to be confused with the European Union itself.

The Council of Europe is an entirely separate body[77] from the European Union. It is not controlled by it.

Cooperation between the European Union and the Council of Europe has recently been reinforced, notably on culture and education as well as on the international enforcement of justice and Human Rights.[78]

The European Union is expected to accede to the European Convention on Human Rights (the convention). There are also concerns about consistency in case law – the European Court of Justice (the EU's court in Luxembourg) is treating the convention as part of the legal system of all EU member states in order to prevent conflict between its judgements and those of the European Court of Human Rights (the court in Strasbourg interpreting the convention). Protocol No. 14 of the convention is designed to allow the EU to accede to it and the EU Treaty of Lisbon contains a protocol binding the EU to join. The EU would thus be subject to its human rights law and external monitoring as its member states currently are.[79][80]

Schools of Political Studies

The Council of Europe Schools of political studies were established to train future generations of political, economic, social and cultural leaders in countries in transition. With the participation of national and international experts, they run annual series of seminars and conferences on topics such as European integration, democracy, human rights, the rule of law and globalisation. The first School of Political Studies was created in Moscow in 1992. Since then, 20 other schools have been set up along the same lines and now form an Association;[81] a genuine network now covering the whole of Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, as well as some countries in the Southern Mediterranean region. The Council of Europe Schools of political studies is part of the Education Department which is part of the Directorate of Democratic Participation within the Directorate General of Democracy ("DGII") of the Council of Europe.[82]

United Nations

The beginning of co-operation between the CoE and the UN started with the agreement signed by the Secretariats of these institutions on 15 December 1951. On 17 October 1989, the General Assembly of the United Nations approved a resolution on granting observer status to the Council of Europe which was proposed by several member states of the CoE.[83] Currently, the Council of Europe holds observer status with the United Nations and is regularly represented in the UN General Assembly. It has organised the regional UN conferences against racism and on women and co-operates with the United Nations at many levels, in particular in the areas of human rights, minorities, migration and counter-terrorism. In November 2016, the UN General Assembly adopted by consensus Resolution (A/Res/71/17) on Cooperation between the United Nations and the Council of Europe whereby it acknowledged the contribution of Council of Europe to the protection and strengthening of human rights and fundamental freedoms, democracy and the rule of law, welcomed the ongoing co-operation in a variety of fields.

Non-governmental organisations

Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) can participate in the INGOs Conference of the Council of Europe and become observers to inter-governmental committees of experts. The Council of Europe drafted the European Convention on the Recognition of the Legal Personality of International Non-Governmental Organisations in 1986, which sets the legal basis for the existence and work of NGOs in Europe. Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights protects the right to freedom of association, which is also a fundamental norm for NGOs. The rules for Consultative Status for INGOs appended to the resolution (93)38 "On relation between the Council of Europe and non-governmental organisations", adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 18 October 1993 at the 500th meeting of the Ministers' Deputies. On 19 November 2003, the Committee of Ministers changed the consultative status into a participatory status, "considering that it is indispensable that the rules governing the relations between the Council of Europe and NGOs evolve to reflect the active participation of international non-governmental organisations (INGOs) in the Organisation's policy and work programme".[84]

Others

On 30 May 2018, the Council of Europe signed a memorandum of understanding with the European football confederation UEFA.[85]

The Council of Europe also signed an agreement with FIFA in which the two agreed to strengthen future cooperation in areas of common interests. The deal which included cooperation between member states in the sport of football and safety and security at football matches was finalized in October 2018.[86]

Characteristics

Privileges and immunities

The General Agreement on Privileges and Immunities of the Council of Europe grants the organisation certain privileges and immunities.[87]

The working conditions of staff are governed by the council's staff regulations, which are public.[88] Salaries and emoluments paid by the Council of Europe to its officials are tax-exempt on the basis of Article 18 of the General Agreement on Privileges and Immunities of the Council of Europe.[87]

Symbol and anthem

Main articles: Symbols of Europe and Flag of Europe

The Council of Europe created, and has since 1955 used as its official symbol, the European Flag with 12 golden stars arranged in a circle on a blue background.

Its musical anthem since 1972, the "European anthem", is based on the "Ode to Joy" theme from Ludwig van Beethoven's ninth symphony.

On 5 May 1964, the 15th anniversary of its founding, the Council of Europe established 5 May as Europe Day.[89]

The wide private and public use of the European Flag is encouraged to symbolise a European dimension. To avoid confusion with the European Union which subsequently adopted the same flag in the 1980s, as well as other European institutions, the Council of Europe often uses a modified version with a lower-case "e" surrounding the stars which are referred to as the "Council of Europe Logo".[89][90]

Criticism and controversies

The Council of Europe has been accused of not having any meaningful purpose, being superfluous in its aims to other pan-European bodies, including the European Union and OSCE.[91][92] In 2013 The Economist agreed, saying that the "Council of Europe's credibility is on the line".[93] Both Human Rights Watch and the European Stability Initiative have called on the Council of Europe to undertake concrete actions to show that it is willing and able to return to its "original mission to protect and ensure human rights".[94]

"Caviar diplomacy" scandal

See also: Azerbaijani laundromat

After Azerbaijan joined the CoE in 2001, both the Council and its Parliamentary Assembly were criticized for having a weak response to election rigging and human rights violations in Azerbaijan.[95] The Human Rights Watch criticized the Council of Europe in 2014 for allowing Azerbaijan to assume the six-month rotating chairmanship of the council's Committee of Ministers, writing that the Azeri government's repression of human rights defenders, dissidents, and journalists "shows sheer contempt for its commitments to the Council of Europe."[96] An internal inquiry was set up in 2017 amid allegations of bribery by Azerbajian government officials and criticism of "caviar diplomacy at the Council.[97][98] A 219-page report was issued in 2018 after a ten-month investigation.[95] It concluded that several members of the Parliamentary Assembly broke CoE ethical rules and were "strongly suspected" of corruption; it strongly criticized former Parliamentary Assembly president Pedro Agramunt and suggested that he had engaged in "corruptive activities" before his resignation under pressure in 2017.[95] The inquiry also named Italian member Luca Volontè as a suspect in "activities of a corruptive nature."[95] Volontè was investigated by Italian police and accused by Italian prosecutors in 2017 of receiving over 2.39 million euros in bribes in exchange for working for Azerbaijan in the parliamentary assembly, and that in 2013 he played a key role in orchestrating the defeat of a highly critical report on the abuse of political prisoners in Azerbaijan.[97][98][99] In 2021, Volontè was convicted of accepting bribes from Azerbaijani officials to water down critiques of the nation's human rights record, and he was sentenced by a court in Milan to four years in prison.[100]

See also

Notes

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c Transcontinental country straddling both Europe and Asia.
  2. ^ Depending on varying geographic definitions, some member states or portions thereof may be considered transcontinental or Eurasian (Armenia, Azerbaijan,[a] Cyprus, Georgia[a] and Turkey[a]), or belonging to the Americas (Dutch Caribbean, French Guiana, and Greenland), Oceania (French Polynesia), and Africa (Canary Islands, Ceuta, Mayotte, Melilla, and Réunion)

References

  1. ^ "Did you know?". Retrieved 10 August 2018. English and French are the official languages of the Council of Europe. German, Italian and Russian are used as working languages.
  2. ^ "Resolution 2208 (2018): Modification of the Assembly's Rules of Procedure: the impact of the budgetary crisis on the list of working languages of the Assembly". Retrieved 10 August 2018. The draconian reduction in the Assembly's budget for 2018 and 2019, a consequence of Turkey's decision to revert to its initial status of ordinary contributor to the Council of Europe budget, calls for drastic measures. ... In this context, the Assembly refers to the clear position it adopted, notably in Resolution 2058 (2015) on the allocation of seats in the Parliamentary Assembly with respect to Turkey, making the introduction of Turkish as a working language of the Assembly strictly conditional upon the Committee of Ministers' decision to approve Turkey's request to become a major contributor to the Council of Europe's budget and to allocate the corresponding funds to the Assembly.
  3. ^ "BBC News - Profile: The Council of Europe". news.bbc.co.uk.
  4. ^ Council of Europe, Budget, Retrieved: 21 April 2016
  5. ^ Council of Europe. "The European flag". Retrieved 18 April 2016
  6. ^ Council of Europe. "The European anthem". Retrieved 18 April 2016
  7. ^ Council of Europe. "How to Distinguish Us". Retrieved: 18 May 2022
  8. ^ "Intergovernmental Organizations". www.un.org.
  9. ^ "Lumni | Enseignement - Discours d'Aristide Briand devant la SDN du 7 septembre 1929" [Lumni | Teaching - Speech by Aristide Briand to the SDN on September 7, 1929]. Fresques.ina.fr. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  10. ^ "National Address". International Churchill Society. 21 March 1943.
  11. ^ "Post-War Councils on World Problems: A FOUR YEAR PLAN FOR ENGLAND by WINSTON CHURCHILL, Prime Minister of Great Britain, broadcast from London over BBC, March 21, 1943".
  12. ^ "Winston Churchill and the Council of Europe". Council of Europe: Archiving and Documentary Resources. Council of Europe. 6 April 2009. Retrieved 18 November 2013., including audio extracts
  13. ^ "European Navigator (ENA)". Retrieved 4 April 2011. Including full transcript
  14. ^ Spaak (11 December 1951). "Speeches made to the Parliamentary Assembly (1949–2018)". Assembly.coe.int. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  15. ^ Sandro Guerrieri, "From the Hague Congress to the Council of Europe: hopes, achievements and disappointments in the parliamentary way to European integration (1948–51)." Parliaments, Estates and Representation 34#2 (2014): 216-227.
  16. ^ "European Commission: Paul–Henri Spaak: a European visionary and talented persuader" (PDF).
  17. ^ "Accession of Germany to the Council of Europe (Strasbourg, 2 May 1951) - CVCE Website". Cvce.eu. 2 May 1951. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  18. ^ The Council of Europe in brief (5 May 1949). "Our member States". Coe.int. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  19. ^ "Speeches made to the Parliamentary Assembly (by Country)". Assembly.coe.int. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  20. ^ "All speeches by heads of state and government to PACE since 1949 online". Assembly.coe.int. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  21. ^ "Discours prononcés devant l'Assemblée parlementaire (1949–2018) - par pays" [Speeches delivered to the Parliamentary Assembly (1949–2018) – by country]. Assembly.coe.int. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  22. ^ "Statute of the Council of Europe". conventions.coe.int. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  23. ^ "The Council of Europe and the European Union". www.coe.int.
  24. ^ "Universal Declaration of Human Rights". www.un.org.
  25. ^ a b c "Full list". Treaty Office. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  26. ^ "Full list (Details of Treaty No.173)". Treaty Office. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  27. ^ "Details of Treaty No.198: Council of Europe Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime and on the Financing of Terrorism". Treaty Office. Council of Europe.
  28. ^ "Details of Treaty No.174: Civil Law Convention on Corruption". Treaty Office. Council of Europe.
  29. ^ "Microsoft Word - Convention 197 Trafficking E.doc" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2008.
  30. ^ "Details of Treaty No.210: Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence". Treaty Office. Council of Europe.
  31. ^ "Details of Treaty No.135: Anti-Doping Convention". Treaty Office. Council of Europe.
  32. ^ "2019 ICC Brochure". Council of Europe. 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  33. ^ regjeringen.no (25 June 2014). "Thorbjørn Jagland". Government.no. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  34. ^ "Jagland re-elected head of Council of Europe". POLITICO. 25 June 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  35. ^ "Chairmanship". Committee of Ministers. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  36. ^ "How it works". website-pace.net. Archived from the original on 19 September 2018. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  37. ^ "In brief". Congress
    of Local and Regional Authorities
    . Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  38. ^ "History". Congress
    of Local and Regional Authorities
    . Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  39. ^ "Full list (Chart of signatures and ratifications of Treaty 194)". Treaty Office. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  40. ^ "Biography - Commissioner for Human Rights". Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  41. ^ "Home". Coe.int. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  42. ^ "A word from the President on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the Conference of INGOs of the Council of Europe". rm.coe.int. Archived from the original on 13 December 2017.
  43. ^ "About us". Coe.int. 14 February 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  44. ^ "Enlarged Partial Agreement on Sport". Council of Europe.
  45. ^ "Inauguration of the Agora Building" (PDF) (Press release) (in French). Council of Europe. 30 January 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2008.
  46. ^ "2008 List of MIPIM winners".
  47. ^ "European Wergeland Centre". Archived from the original on 18 April 2009.
  48. ^ "Statute of the Council of Europe, London, 5.V.1949". Council of Europe.
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Benoît-Rohmer, Florence; Klebes, Heinrich (June 2005). "Council of Europe law: Towards a pan-European legal area" (PDF). Council of Europe.
  50. ^ "Statute of the Council of Europe is signed in London". Council of Europe. Retrieved 23 June 2019. On 5 May 1949, at St James's Palace, London, the Foreign Ministers of Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom signed the Treaty establishing the Council of Europe.
  51. ^ "Turkey joins". Council of Europe. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  52. ^ "Turkey – Member state". Council of Europe. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  53. ^ "Turkey". Council of Europe. Retrieved 23 June 2019. and Greece
  54. ^ "Greece – Member state". Council of Europe. Retrieved 23 June 2019. Greece and Turkey became the 11th and 12th member State of the Council of Europe on 9 August 1949.
  55. ^ "Iceland joins". Council of Europe. Retrieved 23 June 2019..
  56. ^ "Iceland – Member state". Council of Europe. Retrieved 23 June 2019. Iceland became the 13th member State of the Council of Europe on 7 March 1950.
  57. ^ "13 July 1950: Federal Republic of Germany joins the Council of Europe". Council of Europe.
  58. ^ Lansing Warren (3 May 1951), "Council of Europe Raises Bonn To the Status of a Full Member", The New York Times.
  59. ^ Carlos Lopez (2010), "Franco's Spain and the Council of Europe", Centre virtuel de la connaissance sur l'Europe.
  60. ^ a b 46 "Member States", Council of Europe.
  61. ^ "United States // Observer", Council of Europe.
  62. ^ a b c d Kanstantsin Dzehtsiarou & Donal K. Coffey, Suspension and expulsion of members of the Council of Europe: difficult decisions in troubled times, International & Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 68, Issue 2 (2019).
  63. ^ Vasilopoulou, Sofia. (2018) The party politics of Euroscepticism in times of crisis: The case of Greece. Politics, 38. DOI: 10.1177/0263395718770599.
  64. ^ a b c d e f Steven Erlanger, Council of Europe Restores Russia's Voting Rights, New York Times (June 25, 2019).
  65. ^ Russia cancels payment to Council of Europe after claiming its delegates are being persecuted over Crimea, The Independent. 30 June 2017
  66. ^ a b "Russia withholds payments to the Council of Europe". DW.COM. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  67. ^ a b Buckley, Neil (26 November 2017). "Russia tests Council of Europe in push to regain vote". Financial Times.
  68. ^ "A Classic Dilemma: Russia's Threat to Withdraw from the Council of Europe". Heinrich Böll Stiftung European Union. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  69. ^ Weise, Zia (17 May 2019). "Council of Europe restores Russia's voting rights". POLITICO. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
  70. ^ a b Steven Erlanger, The Council of Europe suspends Russia for its attack on Ukraine., New York Times (March 3, 2022).
  71. ^ Pooja Mehta, Russia withdraws from Council of Europe, JURIST (March 12, 2022).
  72. ^ "Council of Europe suspends Russia's rights of representation". COE. 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  73. ^ "The Russian Federation is excluded from the Council of Europe" (Press release). Council of Europe. 16 March 2022.
  74. ^ "Russia Quits Europe's Rule of Law Body, Sparking Questions Over Death Penalty". The Moscow Times. 10 March 2022. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  75. ^ "Dmitry Medvedev vows to reintroduce death penalty". The Independent Barents Observer. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  76. ^ "CoE Conventions". Conventions.coe.int. 31 December 1998. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
  77. ^ "Council of the European Union". European Union. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
  78. ^ "The Council of Europe and the European Union sign an agreement to foster mutual cooperation". Council of Europe. 23 May 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2008.
  79. ^ Juncker, Jean-Claude (2006). "Council of Europe – European Union: "A sole ambition for the European continent"" (PDF). Council of Europe. Retrieved 5 August 2008.
  80. ^ "Draft treaty modifying the treaty on the European Union and the treaty establishing the European community" (PDF). Open Europe. 24 July 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2008.
  81. ^ "Home". Schoolsofpoliticalstudies.eu. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  82. ^ "Schools of Political Studies". Coe.int. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  83. ^ "The Council of Europe's Relations with the United Nations". www.coe.int. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
  84. ^ "COUNCIL OF EUROPE COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS Resolution Res(2003)8 Participatory status for international non-governmental organisations with the Council of Europe (Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 19 November 2003 at the 861st meeting of the Ministers' Deputies)". wcd.coe.int. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  85. ^ "UEFA and the Council of Europe sign Memorandum of Understanding". UEFA. 30 May 2018. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  86. ^ "Council of Europe and FIFA ink landmark deal on cooperation in shared areas". TASS (in Russian). Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  87. ^ a b General Agreement on Privileges and Immunities of the Council of Europe, Council of Europe
  88. ^ Resolutions on the Council of Europe Staff Regulations, Council of Europe
  89. ^ a b "Flag, anthem and logo: the Council of Europe's symbols". Council of Europe. Archived from the original on 31 July 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2008.
  90. ^ "Logo of the Council of Europe". Council of Europe. Archived from the original on 2 January 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2008.
  91. ^ "What is the Council of Europe?". BBC News. 5 February 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  92. ^ Morgan, Sam (26 April 2017). "The Brief: Council of Europe in hunt for relevance". Euractiv.com. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  93. ^ "Azerbaijan and the Council of Europe". The Economist. 23 March 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
  94. ^ European Stability Initiative. "What the 2014 Havel Prize says about the Council of Europe – and what should happen now". No. 29 September 2014. ESI web. Archived from the original on 1 October 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
  95. ^ a b c d "Council of Europe members suspected of corruption, inquiry reveals". The Guardian. 22 April 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  96. ^ Human Rights Watch (29 September 2014). "Azerbaijan: Government Repression Tarnishes Chairmanship Council of Europe's Leadership Should Take Action". Retrieved 29 September 2014.
  97. ^ a b Jennifer Rankin, Council of Europe urged to investigate Azerbaijan bribery allegations, The Guardian, 1 February 2017.
  98. ^ a b Matthew Valencia (19 June 2020). "Heaping on the Caviar Diplomacy". The Economist. 1843magazine.com. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  99. ^ Gabanelli, Milena. "Il Consiglio d'Europa e il caso Azerbaijan tra regali e milioni" [The Council of Europe and the Azerbaijan case between gifts and millions]. Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  100. ^ Zdravko Ljubas, Italian Court Sentences Former Council of Europe MP for Bribery, Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (January 14, 2021).

Further reading