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Below is a list of sovereign states with the dates of their formation (date of their independence or of their constitution), sorted by continent.

This list includes the 195 states which are currently full member states or observer states of the United Nations. This does not include extinct states, but does include several states with limited recognition.[note 1]

For proposed states or various indigenous nations which consider themselves still under occupation, see list of active autonomist and secessionist movements.

Nation-building is a long evolutionary process, and in most cases the date of a country's "formation" cannot be objectively determined; e.g., the fact that England and France were sovereign kingdoms on equal footing in the medieval period does not prejudice the fact that England is not now a sovereign state (having passed sovereignty to Great Britain in 1707), while France is a Republic founded in 1792 (technically, France currently refers to the French Fifth Republic, formed in 1958).

An unambiguous measure is the date of national constitutions; but as constitutions are an almost entirely modern concept, all formation dates by that criterion are modern or early modern (the oldest extant constitution being that of San Marino, dating to 1600).

Independence dates for widely recognized states earlier than 1919 should be treated with caution, since prior to the founding of the League of Nations, there was no international body to recognize nationhood, and independence had no meaning beyond mutual recognition of de facto sovereigns (the role of the League of Nations was effectively taken over by the United Nations after the Second World War). See also: disputed territories.

Many countries have some remote (or fantastically remote) symbolic foundation date as part of their national mythology, sometimes artificially inflating a country's "age" for reasons of nationalism, sometimes merely gesturing at a long and gradual process of the formalizing national identity. Such dates reflect not the formation of a state (an independent political entity), but of a nation (an ethnic or cultural grouping), terms that are often conflated in the context of nation states.

The following list contains the formation dates of countries with a short description of those events. For a more detailed description of a country's formation and history, please see the main article for that country.

Africa

Country Date of current form of government Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Acquisition of sovereignty Date of territorial modification Most recent significant territorial modification
 Algeria 1962 3 July 1962 French recognition of Algerian referendum on independence held two days earlier 5 July 1953 Algeria gains sovereignty over the entire Algerian territory upon independence from France.
 Angola 1975 11 November 1975 Independence from Portugal
 Benin 1 August 1960 Independence from France 15 January 1894 Borders of French Protectorate of Dahomey set at conclusion of Second Franco-Dahomean War
 Botswana 30 September 1966 Independence from the United Kingdom 31 December 1999 Sedudu ruled to belong to Botswana rather than Namibia by the International Court of Justice.
 Burkina Faso 5 August 1960 Independence from France
 Burundi 28 November 1966 Monarchy replaced by republic 1 July 1962 Independence from Belgium
 Cabo Verde 5 July 1975 Independence from Portugal
 Cameroon 1 January 1960 Independence from France 1 October 1961 Merger of part of British Cameroons with Cameroon
 Central African Republic 21 September 1979 Monarchy replaced by republic 13 August 1960 Independence from France
 Chad 11 August 1960 Independence from France 3 February 1997 Aouzou Strip awarded to Chad
 Comoros 6 July 1975 Independence from France declared
 Democratic Republic of Congo 17 May 1997 30 June 1960 Independence from Belgium
 Republic of Congo 15 August 1960 Independence from France
 Djibouti 27 June 1977 Independence from France
 Egypt 18 June 1953 Egyptian revolution of 1952, Egyptian monarchy overthrown in a military coup, republic declared 28 February 1922 The UK ends its protectorate, granting independence to Egypt 1925 The eastern borders of Libya and British Egypt are changed to their present boundaries.
 Equatorial Guinea 12 October 1968 Independence from Spain
 Eritrea 27 April 1993 Independence from Ethiopia declared 1 April 2002 Badme ruled to be Eritrean by the Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC after the Eritrean–Ethiopian War). Contested by Ethiopia
 Eswatini 8 February 2006 Constitution of Swaziland 6 September 1968 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Ethiopia 21 August 1995 1995 Constitution of Ethiopia 900 Zagwe dynasty 1 April 2002 Badme ruled to be Eritrean by the Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC after the Eritrean–Ethiopian War). Contested by Ethiopia
 Gabon 17 August 1960 Independence from France
 Gambia 18 February 1965 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Ghana 6 March 1957 Independence from the United Kingdom 13 December 1956 Union of British Togoland with Gold Coast
 Guinea 2 October 1958 Independence from France
 Guinea-Bissau 24 September 1973 Independence from Portugal declared
10 September 1974 Independence from Portugal recognized
 Ivory Coast 4 December 1958 Autonomous republic within French Community
7 August 1960 Independence from France
 Kenya 12 December 1963 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Lesotho 4 October 1966 Independence from the United Kingdom 12 March 1868 Area that is now Lesotho placed under British rule
 Liberia 26 July 1847 Independence from American Colonization Society 6 January 1986 Current constitution came into effect
 Libya 4 August 2014 House of Representatives takes power.[note 2] 24 December 1951 Independence from UN Trusteeship (British and French administration after Italian governance ends in 1947) 13 February 1984 Aouzou Strip awarded to Chad.
 Madagascar 14 October 1958 The Malagasy Republic was created as autonomous state within French Community
26 June 1960 France recognizes Madagascar's independence
 Malawi 6 July 1964 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Mali 25 November 1958 French Sudan gains autonomy 8 April 1960 Senegal secedes from Mali Federation
22 September 1960 Independence from France
 Mauritania 28 November 1960 Independence from France 11 August 1979 Mauritania withdraws from Tiris al-Gharbiyya (part of Western Sahara)
 Mauritius 12 March 1968 Independence from the United Kingdom 1965 Separation of Chagos Archipelago
 Morocco 18 November 1955 End of the international protectorate that started in 1912 788 AD Establishment of the first Islamic sultanate in Morocco, and enthronement of Idriss 1st 6 November 1975 Green March
 Mozambique 27-29 October 1994 Mozambique holds its first multiparty election since the Civil War 25 June 1975 Independence from Portugal
 Namibia 21 March 1990 Independence from South African rule 1 March 1997 Walvis Bay integrated into Namibia
 Niger 4 December 1958 Autonomy within French Community
3 August 1960 Independence from France
 Nigeria 1 October 1960 Independence from the United Kingdom 15 January 1970 Biafra re-integrated into Nigeria
1 June 1961 Northern Cameroons integrated in Nigeria
 Rwanda 1 July 1962 Independence from Belgium
 São Tomé and Príncipe 12 July 1975 Independence from Portugal
 Senegal 20 August 1960 Independence from France
 Seychelles 29 June 1976 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Sierra Leone 27 April 1961 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Somalia 20 August 2012 Federal Government of Somalia established.[note 3] 1 July 1960 Union of Trust Territory of Somalia (former Italian Somaliland) and State of Somaliland (formerly British Somaliland) 18 May 1991 (disputed) Somaliland declares independence, but is not recognized by any UN state.
 South Africa 31 May 1961 Republic declared 11 December 1931 Statute of Westminster, which establishes a status of legislative equality between the self-governing dominion of the Union of South Africa and the UK 21 March 1990 De facto: South West Africa declares independence, forming Namibia
4 February 1997 The post-Apartheid Constitution of South Africa comes into effect 31 May 1910 Creation of the autonomous Union of South Africa from the previously separate colonies of the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and Orange River 27 April 1994 De jure: Reincorporation of the nominally independent but unrecognised bantustans into post-apartheid South Africa
 South Sudan 9 July 2011 2011 South Sudanese independence referendum 9 July 2011 Separation of Southern Sudan from Sudan
 Sudan 15 April 2010 First democratic election since the Second Sudanese Civil War 1 January 1956 Independence from Egyptian and British joint rule 9 July 2011 South Sudan secedes from Sudan
 Tanzania 1 July 1991 Amendment to Constitution of Tanzania ends status as one-party state 9 December 1961 Independence of Tanganyika from the United Kingdom 26 April 1964 Merger of Zanzibar with Tanganyika to form Tanzania
 Togo 30 August 1958 Autonomy within French Union
27 April 1960 Independence from France
 Tunisia 2011 democratic reforms following the Arab Spring[2] 20 March 1956 Independence from France
 Uganda 1 March 1962 Self-government granted
9 October 1962 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Zambia 24 October 1964 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Zimbabwe 22 December 1987 Robert Mugabe revises the Constitution of Zimbabwe to create an executive presidency.[note 4] 11 November 1965 Unilateral declaration of independence by Southern Rhodesia 1901 BSAC separates North-Eastern Rhodesia from Southern Rhodesia
18 April 1980 Recognized independence from the United Kingdom as Zimbabwe

Americas

Country Date of current form of government Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Acquisition of sovereignty Date of territorial modification Most recent significant territorial modifi­cation
 Antigua and Barbuda 1 November 1981 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Argentina 1 May 1853 The current Constitution of Argentina enters in force 25 May 1810 May Revolution installs first local government 18 October 1884 Conquest of the Desert
9 July 1816 Argentine Declaration of Independence from Spain.
 Bahamas 7 January 1964 Internal self-governance granted
10 July 1973 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Barbados 30 November 1966 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Belize 1 January 1964 Self-governing colony 1859 Treaty establishes border between British Honduras and Guatemala
21 September 1981 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Bolivia 25 January 2009 Constitution of Bolivia 6 August 1825 Bolivian War of Independence from Spain. 11 November 1903 Treaty of Petrópolis with Brazil whereby Bolivia gained lands in Mato Grosso in exchange for the territory of Acre
21 July 1844 Independence recognized by Spain
 Brazil 5 October 1988 Constitution of Brazil established as the third Federative Republic 7 September 1822 Independence from the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves declared 11 November 1903 Signing of the Treaty of Petrópolis with Bolivia whereby Brazil was given the territory of Acre in exchange for lands in Mato Grosso
29 August 1825 Independence recognized by Portugal
15 November 1889 Proclamation of the Federal Republic
 Canada 1 July 1867 Granted nominal independence (Dominion status), establishing as a federation 11 December 1931 Statute of Westminster 1 April 1999 Nunavut Territory created as per native land claims act from two thirds of the area of Northwest Territories.
17 April 1982 Constitution Act, 1982 established
 Chile 17 August 1989 Amendment to the Constitution of Chile ends the military dictatorship 18 September 1810 First Government Junta 3 July 1929 Chile awarded Arica district in Treaty of Lima
12 February 1818 Chilean Declaration of Independence from Spain
25 April 1844 Independence recognized by Spain
 Colombia 4 July 1991 Colombian Constitution of 1991 established as a presidential republic. 20 July 1810 Colombia declares independence from Spain. 4 July 1991 The Sovereign territory was organized under the National Constituent Assembly.
17 December 1819 Colombia merged with Venezuela, Panama, and Ecuador.
19 November 1831 Gran Colombia dissolved creating a pact with Panama as the Republic of New Granada.
22 May 1858 The Republic of New Granada was replaced to the Granadine Confederation under the 1858 constitution.
8 May 1863 The Granadine Confederation was replaced to the United States of Colombia under the constitutional change of 1864.
30 January 1881 Declaration of Independence recognized by Spain
8 August 1886 Establishment of the current sovereignty of Colombia as a republic.
 Costa Rica 7 November 1949 Constitution of Costa Rica 15 September 1821 Costa Rica declared independence from Spain 25 July 1824 Partido de Nicoya
15 November 1838 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America
10 May 1850 Independence recognized by Spain
 Cuba 1 January 1959 Cuban Revolution 10 October 1898 Several wars were declared against Spain from 1868 to 1898, ending with the military support of USA to the Cuban Revolution.
10 December 1898 Spain loses the war against the United States and the military occupation of Cuba by the U.S. begins.
20 May 1902 United States military occupation ends[3]
 Dominica 3 November 1978 Constitution of Dominica 27 February 1967 Became an associated state of the United Kingdom
3 November 1978 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Dominican Republic 28 November 1966 Civilian constitution of the Dominican Republic following the Dominican Civil War.[note 5] 27 February 1844 The Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti 9 May 1936 Haiti and the Dominican Republic sign a treaty setting a definitive border.
14 October 1874 Independence recognized by Spain
 Ecuador 28 September 2008 Constitution of Ecuador established. 10 August 1809 First declaration of Independence from Spain 26 February 1946 Rio Protocol ends border dispute with Peru
24 May 1822 Second declaration of independence from Spain of Gran Colombia, of which Ecuador is a part of
13 May 1830 Dissolution of Gran Colombia
16 February 1840 Declaration of Independence recognized by Spain
 El Salvador 16 December 1983 Constitution of El Salvador established as the third Unitary presidential republic 15 September 1821 El Salvador becomes independent from Spain, and 4 months later becomes province in First Mexican Empire
1 July 1823 El Salvador becomes a state of Federal Republic of Central America from the First Mexican Empire
2 February 1841 Dissolution of the Federal Republic of Central America, El Salvador becomes independent nation
18 February 1841 El Salvador was internationally recognized.
24 June 1865 Independence recognized by Spain
 Grenada 30 September 1978 Paul Scoon Takes power after the US Invasion Which Ousted the PRG 27 February 1967 Associated state of the United Kingdom
7 February 1974 Full independence from the United Kingdom
 Guatemala 31 May 1985 Constitution of Guatemala established 15 September 1821 Guatemala becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain
17 April 1839 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America declared
29 May 1863 Independence recognized by Spain
 Guyana 26 May 1966 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Haiti March 1987 Constitution of 1987 (superseded) 1 January 1804 The French colony Saint-Domingue gains independence as Haiti 27 February 1844 The Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti
9 May 1936 Haiti and the Dominican Republic sign a treaty setting a definitive border.
 Honduras 11 January 1982 Constitution of Honduras. 15 September 1821 Honduras becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain 1 September 1972 Swan Islands returned to Honduras from United States occupation
26 October 1838 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America
17 November 1894 Independence from Spain recognized
 Jamaica 6 August 1962 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Mexico 7 February 1917 Constitution of Mexico 16 September 1810 Independence from Spain declared 30 December 1853 Gadsden Purchase
27 September 1821 Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire
28 December 1836 Declaration of Independence recognized by Spain
 Nicaragua 9 January 1987 Constitution of Nicaragua established 15 September 1821 Nicaragua becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain
5 November 1838 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America
24 July 1850 Independence recognized by Spain
 Panama 11 October 1972 Constitution of Panama established 3 November 1903 Independence from Colombia 31 December 1999 Sovereignty of Panama Canal Zone transferred to Panama from the United States
10 May 1904 Independence from Spain recognized
 Paraguay 20 June 1992 Democratic Constitution of Paraguay 14 May 1811 Independence from Spain declared 1938 Paraguay awarded a large portion of the Gran Chaco as a result of the Chaco War
10 September 1880 Independence from Spain recognized
 Peru 31 December 1993 Constitution of Peru established 28 July 1821 Independence from Spain declared 26 February 1942 Rio Protocol ends border dispute with Ecuador
14 August 1879 Independence from Spain recognized
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 27 February 1967 Associated state of the United Kingdom 19 December 1980 Anguilla separated from Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla
19 September 1983 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Saint Lucia 27 February 1967 Associated statehood
22 February 1979 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 27 October 1969 Associated statehood
27 October 1979 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Suriname 15 December 1954 Self-government granted
25 November 1975 Independence from Netherlands
 Trinidad and Tobago 31 August 1962 Independence from the United Kingdom
 United States 4 March 1789 United States Constitution enters into force, replacing the previous Articles of Confederation and creating a new system of government 4 July 1776 Independence from Great Britain declared 21 August 1959 United States Territory:
Territory of Hawaii joins the United States as the State of Hawaii
3 September 1783 Independence from Great Britain recognized 7 September 1981 Insular area:
The United States cedes Serrana Bank and Roncador Bank to the Republic of Colombia as a result of a treaty signed in 1972
 Uruguay 8 December 1996 1996 Uruguayan constitutional referendum 25 August 1825 Independence from Empire of Brazil declared, joined in union with United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (current Argentina).
27 August 1828 Treaty of Montevideo signed, recognizing Uruguay's independence by Brazil
19 July 1870 Independence recognized by Spain
 Venezuela 20 December 1999 New Constitution of Venezuela establishes the Bolivarian Fifth Republic 19 April 1810[4] Independence from Spain declared 3 October 1899 Tribunal of Arbitration awards most of Guayana Esequiba to British Guyana.
13 January 1830 Dissolution of Gran Colombia
30 March 1845 Independence recognized by Spain

Asia

Country Date of current form of government Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Acquisition of sovereignty Date of territorial modification Most recent significant territorial modification
 Afghanistan 15 August 2021 Fall of Kabul reestablished the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. 1747 Durrani Empire
 Armenia 21 September 1991 2015 Armenian constitutional referendum creates a parliamentary republic 880 Evolving as a feudal kingdom in the ninth century, Armenia experienced a brief cultural, political and economic renewal under the Bagratuni dynasty. 5 December 1936 Establishment of the Armenian SSR
21 September 1991 Independence recognized by the Soviet Union
 Bahrain 15 August 1971 End of treaties with the United Kingdom 1 July 1521 Portuguese conquest of current territory
 Bangladesh 4 November 1972 De jure: Constitution of Bangladesh 26 March 1971 Independence from Pakistan declared 31 July 2015 India and Bangladesh exchange enclaves
February 27, 1991 De facto: First general election since restoration of parliamentary democracy.
 Bhutan 24 March 2008 First elections to the National Assembly 1885 Ugyen Wangchuck ends period of civil war and unites Bhutan 11 November 1865 Treaty of Sinchula
 Brunei 29 September 1959 De jure: Constitution of Brunei 1 January 1984 Brunei regains its independence after an agreement with the British on 4 January 1979 18 August 1841 Kingdom of Sarawak founded
12 December 1962 De facto: Martial law declared during the Brunei Revolt, suspending democratic elections indefinitely.
 Cambodia 21 September 1993 Constitution of Cambodia 9 November 1953 France grants Cambodia independence
26 September 1989 Becomes free from Vietnamese occupation; it gets back its name instead of the People's Republic of Kampuchea
Republic of China (Taiwan)[Asia 1] 1 January 1912 A republic was formally established following the Xinhai Revolution, 1600 BC The Shang dynasty is the earliest dynasty of traditional Chinese history firmly supported by archaeological evidence 20 January 1955 Loss of Yijiangshan Islands, which forms the current free area of the Republic of China
25 December 1947 The Republic of China adopted its constitution during the National Assembly on 25 December 1947, with further revisions and amendments since 1991
People's Republic of China 1 October 1949 Proclamation of the People's Republic of China in Beijing 6 October 2011 Tajikistan ceded 1158 square kilometers of land to China
4 December 1982 The People's Republic of China adopted its constitution during the 5th National People's Congress on 4 December 1982, with further revisions about every five years
 India 26 January 1950 De jure: Constitution of India 15 August 1947 Independence from the British Empire 31 July 2015 India and Bangladesh exchange exclaves
322 BC Founding of the Maurya Empire, which provided the first unified political entity in India in 250 BC
 Iran 11 February 1979 Iranian Revolution ends monarchism and establishes an Islamic Republic 678 BC Founded by the Medes 10 February 1828 Signing of the Treaty of Turkmenchay, whereby the territories that now constitute Armenia, Azerbaijan (the remaining part which hadn't been lost by the Treaty of Gulistan (1813)), and Igdir are ceded to Russia
 Iraq 15 October 2005 Constitution of Iraq following the Iraq War[note 6] 762 The Abbasid Caliphate built the city of Baghdad along the Tigris in the 8th century as its capital, and the city became the leading metropolis of the Arab and Muslim world for five centuries 28 February 1991 Kuwait liberated.[note 6]
3 October 1932 Kingdom of Iraq
 Israel 14 May 1948 Democratic state of Israel. Reading of the Declaration of Independence of Israel 14 May 1948 Democratic state of Israel. Reading of the Declaration of Independence of Israel 14 December 1981 The Golan Heights Law annexes the Golan Heights, conquered from Syria in the Six-day war to Israel proper; they were administered as a militarily-occupied territory until that point.
12 September 2005 The Completion of Israel's unilateral disengagement from the Gaza Strip
 Japan 22 December 1885 On December 22, 1885, "Daijo-kan No. 69" were established, and the Cabinet system was established in place of the Daijo-kan system. 11 February 660 BC Traditional founding date of the Imperial Dynasty by Emperor Jimmu. 15 May 1972 Return of the Ryukyu Islands to Japan and abolition of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands
 Jordan 1 January 1952 Constitution of Jordan 25 May 1946 End of the British Mandate for Palestine 26 October 1997 Signing of the Israel–Jordan Treaty of Peace, whereby most of the disputed 400 square-kilometer area in the Arabah was handed back to Jordan
12 June 2011 The Cabinet of Jordan is made an elected body[5]
 North Korea 9 September 1948 Kim Il-sung declared Premier of North Korea, establishing the still-ruling Kim dynasty. Independence declared from the Soviet Union. 9 September 1948 Declaration of the creation of North Korea 12 October 1962 Signing of border treaty with the People's Republic of China
25 December 1972 The Constitution of North Korea replaced Communism with Juche as North Korea's governing philosophy.[note 7]
 South Korea 29 October 1987 Current Sixth Republic of South Korea founded, ending military rule 15 August 1948 First Republic of Korea established, Independence declared from the United States. 27 July 1953 Cease-fire in the Korean War creates the northern border along the Military Demarcation Line
 Kuwait 11 November 1962 Constitution of Kuwait 1752 Establishment of the Sheikhdom of Kuwait 18 December 1969 Formal division of Saudi-Kuwaiti neutral zone
 Kyrgyzstan 10 June 2010 Constitution of Kyrgyzstan introduces parliamentary system. 31 August 1991 Independence from the Soviet Union[6] 5 December 1936 Establishment of the Kirghiz SSR
 Laos 2 December 1975 Lao PDR formed 22 October 1953 Independence from France
 Lebanon 23 May 1926 Lebanese Republic formed 26 November 1941 Independence from France declared 1 September 1920 France establishes State of Greater Lebanon with current boundaries
22 November 1943 Independence from France recognized
 Malaysia 16 September 1963 Formation of Malaysia[7][8] 31 August 1957 Malayan Independence[9] from the United Kingdom was declared in Dataran Merdeka (Independence Square) 9 August 1965 Singapore expelled from the Federation of Malaysia[10][11][12]
16 September 1963 Malaysia was formed by the federation of North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore with the existing States of the Federation of Malaya.[7][13]
 Maldives 11 November 1968 Declaration of Republic 26 July 1965 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Mongolia 12 February 1992 Constitution of Mongolia declares the country a parliamentary democracy. 1206 Mongol Empire formed
29 December 1911 Proclamation of Mongolian independence from Manchu's Qing Dynasty
 Myanmar 1 February 2021 The SAC with help from the Tatmadaw overthrows the elected government 4 January 1948 Myanmar (Burma) declares independence from the British Empire 1956 Signing of border treaty with the People's Republic of China
   Nepal 28 May 2008 Formation of Republic 25 September 1768 Nepali unification 2 December 1815 Sugauli Treaty ends the Gurkha War
 Oman 10 June 1749 Beginning of the Al Said dynasty, current absolute monarchical line of Oman. 26 January 1650 Expulsion of the Portuguese 8 December 1958 Gwadar sold to Pakistan
1996 Basic Law of Oman
 Pakistan 14 August 1973 Constitution of Pakistan 14 August 1947 Independence from British India in the Partition
 Palestine[Asia 2] 4 May 1994 Agreement on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area 15 November 1988 Palestinian Declaration of Independence 15 June 2007 Hamas takeover of the Gaza Strip
 Philippines[Asia 3] 30 November 1935 The Commonwealth of the Philippines was established through provisions of the Tydings–McDuffie Act. 12 June 1898 The evolving revolutionary movement in the Philippines declares itself independent from the Spanish Empire.[14][15][16] 2012[17][18] In 2012, the United Nations approved a 2009 claim by the Philippines to the Benham Rise.[18]
4 July 1946 The United States recognizes independence under the provisions of the Treaty of Manila (1946). The 1935 Constitution remained in effect until 1973, when the Marcos regime promulgated a newer one, in turn replaced by the present 1987 Constitution.
 Qatar 8 September 1971 Influence from Britain concluded 18 December 1878 Independence from the Ottoman Empire 4 November 2022 Acquisition of the rest of Khor al Udayd
 Saudi Arabia 23 September 1932 Regions of al-Hasa, Qatif, Nejd and Hejaz unified to become Saudi Arabia 1727 Establishment of the First Saudi State[19] 4 November 2021 Fixed border territory with Qatar
 Singapore 9 August 1965[10] Singapore ceased to be a state of Malaysia 3 June 1959 Self-government under the United Kingdom 9 August 1965 Establishment of Singapore as an independent sovereign state[12]
9 August 1965 separate from and independent of Malaysia[10][11]
 Sri Lanka 22 May 1972 Constitution of Sri Lanka 4 February 1948 Independence from United Kingdom 14 February 1815 De jure: The Kandyan Kingdom is annexed by British Ceylon
18 May 2009 De facto: The Sri Lankan government regains control of the whole island following the end of the Sri Lankan Civil War.
 Syria 27 February 2012 Constitution of Syria[note 8] 28 September 1961 End of the United Arab Republic 8 November 1941 De jure: Lebanon declares independence from the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon[note 8]
10 June 1967 De facto: Israel conquers the Golan Heights from Syria during the Six-day War
 Tajikistan 9 September 1991 Independence from the Soviet Union[6] 5 December 1929 Establishment of the Tajik SSR
 Thailand 6 April 2017 Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand 2017 6 November 1767 Salvage Independence by King Taksin the Great consist of expulsion of Burmese out of former capital (Through Taksin's reunification of Siam on October-6 November 1767) and Establish a New kingdom together with reunification of Thailand 10 March 1909 Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909
 Timor-Leste 20 May 2002 Constitution of East Timor 20 May 2002 Independence was recognized by the international community following the UN-sponsored act of self-determination of 1999 1914 The borders of Portuguese Timor are agreed.[20]
 Turkmenistan 28 September 2008 Constitution of Turkmenistan 27 October 1991 Independence from the Soviet Union[6] 7 August 1921 Establishment of the Turkmen SSR
 United Arab Emirates 2 December 1971 End of treaty relationship with the United Kingdom 11 February 1972 Ras al-Khaimah joins the UAE
 Uzbekistan 31 August 1991 Independence from the Soviet Union declared[6] 24 October 1924 Establishment of the Uzbek SSR
 Vietnam 31 December 1959 North Vietnam declared a socialist republic 2 September 1945 Withdrawal of the Japanese after World War II 2 July 1976 Reunification of North Vietnam and South Vietnam as Socialist Republic of Vietnam
1 January 2014 Current Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
 Yemen 22 May 1990 Unification of North Yemen and South Yemen 1 November 1918 North Yemen independence from the Ottoman Empire 21 September 2014 Houthis seized control of the bulk of the former North Yemen territory and its capital Sana'a
30 November 1967 South Yemen independence from the United Kingdom 26 April 2020 Southern Transitional Council declares self-governance of Socotra and some areas controlled by the former PDR Yemen.
Table notes
  1. ^ Taiwan: For some clarification and more detail including the sovereignty status of the Republic of China, see the following articles: Cross-Strait relations, One-China policy and Political status of Taiwan.
  2. ^ Palestinian National Authority: For some clarification and more detail, see History of the State of Palestine.
  3. ^ Philippines: For some clarification and more detail, see Timeline of Philippine Sovereignty and Sovereignty of the Philippines.

Europe

Country Date of current form of government Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Acquisition of sovereignty Date of territorial modification Most recent significant territorial modification
 Albania 29 April 1991 Socialist People's Republic of Albania was replaced by the Republic of Albania. 1190 c. Principality of Arbër was established by archon Progon. 1945 Occupied Kosovo, west Macedonia and border region of Montenegro returned to Yugoslavia
28 November 1912 Declaration of independence from Ottoman Empire
28 November 1944 Albanian state re-established after Italian/German occupation
 Andorra 28 April 1993 Current Constitution of Andorra entered force 1278 Independence from Aragon 28 August 2001 The Andorra–France border is adjusted to allow Andorra to construct the Envalira Tunnel access bridge
 Austria 12 November 1918 Declaration of the Republic of German-Austria 17 September 1156 Privilegium Minus: Sovereignty from Duchy of Bavaria as a Duchy of the Holy Roman Empire 14 December 1921 City of Sopron, and 8 other towns moved to Hungary after plebiscite
11 August 1804 Proclamation of the Austrian Empire
27 April 1945 Restoration of the Republic of Austria
 Belarus 28 November 1996 Constitutional amendment abolishes the Supreme Soviet and establishes the National Assembly 882 Formation of the Kievan Rus'
27 July 1990 Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic 1945 Western border with Poland: modification of the Curzon Line determined at the 1945 Yalta Conference
25 August 1991 Independence recognized by Soviet Union[6]
 Belgium 21 July 1831 King Leopold I of Belgium swears allegiance to the constitution making the country a constitutional monarchy 4 October 1830 Independence was proclaimed by the provisonial government 28 June 1919 Belgian proper:
Treaty of Versailles and annexation of the East Cantons
1 July 1962 Belgian colonial empire:
Ruanda-Urundi declares independence and split within two countries: Rwanda and Burundi.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 3 March 1992 3 March 1992 Independence declared from the SFR Yugoslavia[note 9] 25 November 1943 Establishment of SR Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
 Bulgaria 10 November 1989 People's Republic of Bulgaria was replaced by the Republic of Bulgaria 632, then 681 on territories of the Eastern Roman Empire Bulgaria is formed - (Old Great) Bulgaria and the direct continuation (considered direct successor state) - (Danubian) Bulgaria 28 October 1944 Under the 1944 Armistice with the Allies, Bulgaria renounces the 1941 annexation of Vardar Macedonia from Yugoslavia and Eastern Macedonia and Western Thrace from Greece. Formally confirmed on 10 February 1947 by Paris Peace Treaties.
1185 Second Bulgarian Empire formed
13 July 1878 Autonomy within Ottoman Empire recognized internationally by the Treaty of Berlin
22 September 1908 Independence from Ottoman Empire
 Croatia 8 October 1991 Independence from SFR Yugoslavia[note 9] 879 Duke Branimir was recognized as an independent ruler of the Duchy of Croatia by Pope John VIII.[21][22][23][24][25] 10 February 1947 Annexation of most of Istria to SR Croatia as a result of signing the 1947 Paris Peace Treaties
925 Formation of Kingdom of Croatia by King Tomislav
 Czech Republic 1 January 1993 Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, creating Czech Republic and Slovakia October 1918 Creation of Czechoslovakia
 Denmark 5 June 1953 Constitutional Act of Denmark 965 Harald Bluetooth unifies Denmark 15 June 1920 Denmark proper:
Sønderjylland was recovered from Germany.[note 10]
 Estonia 24 February 1918 Estonian Declaration of Independence, whereby a republic was declared[Europe 1] 20 August 1991 Independence (from the Soviet Union) reasserted, end of occupation[note 11] 1 January 1945 De facto: Eastern coast of Narva river and most of Petseri County were transferred to Russian SFSR
 Finland 29 March 1809 Diet of Porvoo, birth of Finland as an autonomous state entity within Russian Empire 6 December 1917 Independence from Russian Empire declared 26 January 1956 Porkkala returned from Soviet control
3 January 1918 Independence from Russia recognized by the highest Soviet executive body, VTsIK
 France 22 September 1792 French Republic founded. 481 then
843
First creation with (Clovis), king of the Franks. Then creation of the Kingdom of France (West Francia), Treaty of Verdun 10 February 1947 Metropolitan France:
Annexation of Tende, La Brigue and other villages formerly in Italy.[note 12][note 13]
4 October 1958 Establishment of the current semi-presidential system known as the Fifth Republic 30 July 1980 Overseas France:
The New Hebrides Condominium declares independence and becomes Vanuatu.
 Germany 23 May 1949 The Basic Law of Germany comes into effect. 843 then

962

Creation of East Francia

East Francia becomes the Holy Roman Empire (with the Kingdom of Germany as a main part of the empire)

3 October 1990 Reunification of West Germany and East Germany
1815 German Confederation founded
18 January 1871 German Empire founded
1954 German Democratic Republic (commonly referred to at the time as East Germany) declared fully sovereign
5 May 1955 Federal Republic of Germany (commonly referred to at the time as West Germany) declared fully sovereign
15 May 1991 Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany ends the Four Power occupation.
 Greece 11 June 1975 Third Hellenic Republic 25 March 1821 (Traditional)

23 February 1821 (Actual)

Greek Revolution starts, various regional administrations established during 1821 10 February 1947 Peace treaty with Italy awards the Dodecanese to Greece
1 January 1822 Provisional Administration of Greece proclaimed
3 February 1830 Independence recognised by the London Protocol as Kingdom of Greece.
 Hungary 23 October 1989 People's Republic of Hungary was replaced by the Republic of Hungary. 895 Principality of Hungary formed 10 February 1947 With the Paris Peace Treaty, Hungary loses all territories that were regained with the First and Second Vienna Awards and during World War II, thus it returns to the 1937 borders (except for three villages in the northwest given to Czechoslovakia).
1 January 2012 The Basic Law of Hungary comes into effect. 1000 Formation of the Kingdom of Hungary by Stephen I of Hungary.
 Iceland 930 The Icelandic Commonwealth established and first meeting held of the Althingi (Parliament). 1 December 1918 Iceland becomes sovereign and independent from Denmark as the Kingdom of Iceland but retains a personal union with the King of Denmark. 1 September 1972 No territorial changes on land have taken place, however the expansion of the Exclusive Economic Zone was such an important change in territory for Iceland that it merits a special inclusion here.
1 July 1845 The Althingi resumes meeting after hiatus since 1799. 17 June 1944 Kingdom of Iceland becomes a Republic.
 Ireland 21 January 1919 Elected Irish Parliament Dáil Éireann unilaterally declares Ireland's independence from the United Kingdom 1542 Foundation of the Kingdom of Ireland
6 December 1922 Irish Free State secedes from United Kingdom by agreement in accordance with the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty but remains a dominion of the British Empire 8 December 1922 De facto: Northern Ireland secedes from the Irish Free State and rejoins the United Kingdom in accordance with the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922
11 December 1931 Statute of Westminster confers legislative independence from the United Kingdom
29 December 1937 Constitution of Ireland establishes the roles of Taoiseach and President, and replaces the Irish Free State (or Saorstat Eireann in Irish language) with a new state named Ireland (or Éire in Irish language). 18 April 1949 Republic of Ireland Act 1948 terminates the functions of the British King in Ireland's diplomatic relations; domestic United Kingdom law purports that Ireland was one of the King's dominions until this date; Irish law does not accept this interpretation. 2 December 1999 De jure: Amendment to the Irish constitution removes irredentist claims to Northern Ireland.[note 14]
 Italy 2 June 1946 Italian Republic founded. 2 January 888 c. Sovereignty of the Kingdom of Italy, an independent successor state of the dissolved Carolingian Empire 1 January 1948 The Peace treaty with Italy officially determines the boundaries of the Republic of Italy. The Italian Constitution of 1948 implements it at articles 10 and 117.
17 March 1861 Italian unification
25 April 1945 Disestablishment of the German-backed Italian Social Republic, whereby the unity and independence of the Italian state was restored
 Latvia 7 November 1922 Constitution of Latvia enforced[Europe 1] 4 May 1990 Independence (from Soviet Union) reasserted[note 11] 1944 Abrene district ceded to Russian SFSR (modern Russia)
 Liechtenstein 16 March 2003 The 2003 Liechtenstein constitutional referendum increases the Prince's powers and makes the country an absolute monarchy[27] 19 October 1813 Dissolution of the Confederation of the Rhine 23 January 1719 Purchase of Vaduz
 Lithuania 11 March 1990 Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania independence (from the Soviet Union) reasserted, end of occupation[note 11][Europe 1] 16 February 1918 Independence declared from Germany and Russia 27 October 1939 and
3 August 1940
Western part (approximately half) of Vilnius Region ceded to Lithuania
 Luxembourg 23 November 1890 Separates from union with the Kingdom of the Netherlands, becomes Grand Duchy in its own right 1945 End of German occupation during World War II 19 April 1839 Partition of Luxembourg under the Treaty of London
 Malta 13 December 1974 The State of Malta became a republic 21 September 1964 Independence from United Kingdom 20 August 1801 Gozo rejoined Malta
 Moldova 27 August 1997 Constitution of Moldova (1997) 27 August 1991 Independence from Soviet Union[6] 2 August 1940 De jure: Moldavian SSR formed
2 September 1990 De facto: Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic declares independence. The government is not recognized by any UN member, but has de facto control over the Transnistria region.
 Monaco 17 December 1962 Amendment to Constitution of Monaco curtails the power of the prince and establishes the modern National Council 1297 François Grimaldi captures the fortress atop the Rock of Monaco. 1848 Secession of Menton and Roquebrune-Cap-Martin.
 Montenegro 22 October 2007 Constitution of Montenegro 3 June 2006 Declaration of independence from Serbia and Montenegro.
 Netherlands 24 August 1815 Adoption of the constitution of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. 26 July 1581 Plakkaat van Verlatinghe signed, independence from Spain 16 March 1839 European Netherlands:
The United Kingdom of the Netherlands divided under the Treaty of London (1839).
15 December 1954 Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands signed 5 May 1945 Surrender of Nazi forces occupying the Netherlands 25 November 1975 Kingdom of the Netherlands:
Suriname declares independence.
 North Macedonia
(until 2019 Republic of Macedonia)
17 November 1991 Constitution of North Macedonia 8 September 1991 After a referendum, the Socialist Republic of Macedonia declared independence from Yugoslavia[note 9] 2 August 1944 Establishment of SR Macedonia
 Norway 1814 Constitution of Norway 872 King Harald I of Norway unifies the Petty kingdoms of Norway. 27 February 1930 Jan Mayen was made part of the Kingdom of Norway.
1814 Dissolution of the union between Norway and Denmark.
7 June 1905 Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden.
8 May 1945 German occupying forces surrender.
 Poland 4 June 1989 The first partially free Parliament's vote after 45-year-long Soviet domination 966 Adoption of Christianity by the first historically documented Polish ruler Mieszko I. 15 February 1951 Polish-Soviet border adjustment treaty
11 November 1918 Poland regains its independence.
 Portugal 2 April 1976 Constitution of Portugal 5 October 1143 Formation of Kingdom of Portugal by Treaty of Zamora signing. 6 June 1801 Continental Portugal:
Spain occupies the present day border town of Olivença since the War of the Oranges.
20 December 1999 Portuguese Overseas:
De facto: Portuguese Macau transferred to the People's Republic of China
20 May 2002 Portuguese Overseas:
De jure: Portuguese Timor, occupied by Indonesia since 1975, officially dissolved to form the independent state of East Timor.[note 15]
 Romania 22 December 1989 Romanian Revolution of 1989 24 January 1859 Autonomous Principality of Romania founded; becomes kingdom in 1866 and achieved independence 1878 Ottoman Empire 10 February 1947 Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina
13 July 1878 International recognition by the Treaty of Berlin.
 San Marino 1600 Constitution of San Marino 3 September 301 Independence from Roman Empire 1463 Added Fiorentino, Montegiardino, Serravalle, and Faetano
 Serbia 27 April 1992 Independence from SFR Yugoslavia, forming the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.[note 9] 780 8th century-Creation of the Principality of Serbia in the Southeastern Europe. 17 February 2008 (disputed)[28] The region of Kosovo declared independence unilaterally on 17 February 2008, and is recognized by 97 UN states. Serbia recognizes the government of Kosovo but claims its territory as an Autonomous Province.
8 June 2006 Republic of Serbia declared legal successor to Serbia and Montenegro, ending the process of the dissolution of Yugoslavia. 13 July 1878 International recognition by the Treaty of Berlin.
 Slovakia 1 January 1993 Dissolution of Czechoslovakia 1 January 1993 Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, creating Slovakia and Czech Republic
 Slovenia 13 December 1991 Constitution of Slovenia 25 June 1991 Declaration of independence from Yugoslavia[note 9] 19 February 1945 Formation of SR Slovenia
 Spain 6 December 1978 Spanish Constitution 1479 Dinastical unification of the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon by the Catholic Monarchs. The governments, institutions, and legal traditions of each kingdom remained independent of each other; alien laws (Leyes de extranjeria) determined that the national of one kingdom was a foreigner in the other Crowns/States.[29] 26 February 1976 Spanish Sahara is lost following the Madrid Accords.
1707~1716 De jure by the Nueva Planta decrees
1831 Dissolution of crowns and kingdoms and creation de jure, of the unified Kingdom of Spain.
 Sweden 1 January 1974 Instrument of Government 970 (Or prior) Eric the Victorious, the first king of Sweden about whom anything definite is known, becomes king. 29 March 1809 Loss of Finland to Imperial Russia.
6 June 1523 Gustav Vasa elected King of Sweden and marking a definite secession from the Kalmar Union.
  Switzerland 12 November 1848 Foundation of the federal state after Sonderbund war 1291 Traditional founding 1815 The cantons of Valais, Neuchâtel and Geneva join the Swiss Confederation.
7 August 1815 Restoration of the Ancien Régime (federalism), reverting the changes imposed by Napoleon Bonaparte.
 Ukraine 24 August 1991 Independence from Soviet Union 882 Formation of the Kievan Rus' 18 March 2014 Annexation of Crimea by Russia
24 August 1991 Independence of former Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic from Soviet Union declared.[6]
 United Kingdom 8 December 1922 The Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland by agreement in accordance with the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922, however Northern Ireland opted to exclude itself from the Irish Free State two days later creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 927 Kingdom of England 1603 The Kingdoms of Scotland, England and Ireland were united in a personal union when James VI, King of Scots inherited the crowns of England and Ireland; each country nevertheless remained a separate political entity and retained its separate political, legal and religious institutions.[30][31]
843 Kingdom of Scotland

(Devolved Parliament since 1999)

1057[32] then
1165[33]
Kingdom of Wales then
Principality of Wales

(Annexed by England in 1542)
(Devolved Assembly since 1999)

1171 then
1542
Lordship of Ireland then
Kingdom of Ireland
1 May 1707 Kingdom of Great Britain

(United the parliaments of Scotland and England)

1 January 1801 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland[34][35][36]

(United the parliaments of Great Britain and Ireland)

6 December 1922
then 8 December 1922
Irish Free State secedes from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland by agreement in accordance with the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922.
1 July 1997 British Overseas Territories:
Hong Kong was transferred to the People's Republic of China in 1997.[note 12]
  Vatican City 1274 Birth of current form of government the Papal conclave in 1274 7 June 1929 Ratification of the Lateran Treaty, making the Vatican City a sovereign state 11 February 1929 Signing of the Lateran Treaty
Table notes
  1. ^ a b c The date of formation of the current states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania is subject to an international dispute. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania all maintain that they were illegally occupied by the Soviet Union, and that the current states are direct continuations of the pre-WWII states, which continued to exist through governments-in-exile. Russia maintains that the current three states are legally distinct entities newly created after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. All three states were admitted the UN as independent nations, not successor states of the USSR. For more information, see State continuity of the Baltic states.

Australia/Oceania

Country Date of current form of government Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Acquisition of sovereignty Date of territorial modification Most recent significant territorial modification
 Australia 1 January 1901 Commonwealth of Australia established as federation. 1 January 1901 Independence from United Kingdom. 16 September 1975 Papua New Guinea becomes formally independent of Australia
11 December 1931 Statute of Westminster
3 March 1986 Australia Act 1986
 Fiji 10 October 1970 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Kiribati 12 July 1979 Independence from United Kingdom 1 October 1975 Separation of the Gilbert Islands (later Kiribati) and the Ellice Islands (later Tuvalu)
 Marshall Islands 1 May 1979 Constitution and local government established 21 October 1986 Compact of Free Association with the United States
 Federated States of Micronesia 10 May 1979 Constitution ratified 3 November 1986 Compact of Free Association with the United States 10 May 1979 Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei, and Kosrae unite to form the Federated States of Micronesia
 Nauru 31 January 1968 Independence from UN Trusteeship (Australian, British and New Zealand administration ends)
 New Zealand 6 February 1840 Treaty of Waitangi where the British Crown established a right to govern from indigenous Māori tribes[37] 17 January 1853 Self-Government 1 June 1962 Samoa becomes fully independent from New Zealand. It is also the first small-island country in the Pacific to become independent.
18 April 1856 Responsible Government
26 September 1907 Granted nominal independence (Dominion status).
25 October 1926 Balfour Declaration of 1926 — Great Britain and the Dominions are "autonomous Communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs"
27 July 1938 Governor-General ceases to represent the British Government and becomes the personal representative of the King.
25 November 1947 Statute of Westminster adopted — Britain loses the power to legislate for New Zealand except by request
10 December 1947 Full power to amend own constitution
1 December 1967 Governor-General becomes a New Zealand appointment
 Palau 1 January 1981 Republic of Palau created upon adoption of constitution 1 October 1994 Emerged from United Nations trusteeship (administered by the United States).
 Papua New Guinea 1 December 1973 Self-governing territory
16 September 1975 Independence from Australia
 Samoa 1 June 1962 Independence from New Zealand
 Solomon Islands 2 January 1976 Self-government granted by United Kingdom
7 July 1978 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Tonga 4 July 1970 Independence from United Kingdom 4 December 1845 Unification of what is now the islands of Tonga by George Tupou I of Tonga
 Tuvalu 1 October 1975 Separation of Gilbert Islands (later Kiribati) and Ellice Islands (later Tuvalu) 1 October 1978 Independence from United Kingdom 7 February 1979 Treaty with United States recognizing Tuvaluan control over Funafuti, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, and Niulakita atolls
 Vanuatu 30 July 1980 Independence from joint British-French condominium[38]

Transcontinental states

Country Date of current form of government Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Acquisition of sovereignty Date of territorial modification Most recent significant territorial modification
 Azerbaijan 18 October 1991 Declaration of independence from the Soviet Union 28 May 1918 Establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.[6] 28 April 1920 Establishment of the Azerbaijan SSR
 Colombia 4 August 1886 Creation of the Republic of Colombia 20 July 1810 Independence declared from Spain 3 November 1903 Separation of Panama from Colombia
7 August 1819 Independence recognized by Spain
1830 Dissolution of Gran Colombia
 Cyprus 16 August 1960 Constitution of Cyprus establishes consocial government. Consociationalism de facto suspended in 1963.[39][40][41] 16 August 1960 Independence from United Kingdom 23 July 1974 Establishment of the United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus
15 November 1983 (disputed) Northern Cyprus declares independence. The government has de facto control of the northern part of the island, but is only recognized by Turkey
 Egypt 18 June 1953 Egyptian revolution of 1952, Egyptian monarchy overthrown in a military coup, republic declared 28 February 1922 The UK ends its protectorate, granting independence to Egypt 1925 The eastern borders of Libya and British Egypt are changed to their present boundaries.
 France 22 September 1792 French Republic founded. 481 then
843
First creation with (Clovis), king of the Franks. Then creation of the Kingdom of France (West Francia), Treaty of Verdun 10 February 1947 Metropolitan France:
Annexation of Tende, La Brigue and other villages formerly in Italy.[note 16][note 17]
4 October 1958 Establishment of the current semi-presidential system known as the Fifth Republic 30 July 1980 Overseas France:
The New Hebrides Condominium declares independence and becomes Vanuatu.
 Georgia 9 April 1991 Independence from the Soviet Union declared 1008 Establishment of the Kingdom of Georgia 23 July 1992 Abkhazia unilaterally declared independence
26 May 1918 Establishment of Democratic Republic of Georgia[6] 28 November 1991 South Ossetia unilaterally declared independence
 Indonesia 18 August 1945 Ratification of the Constitution of Indonesia by the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence 17 August 1945 Indonesian Declaration of Independence from Netherlands 20 May 2002 Independence of East Timor, formerly administered as a province of Indonesia
27 December 1949 Independence from the Netherlands recognized
 Kazakhstan 30 August 1995 Constitution of Kazakhstan 16 December 1991 Independence declared from the Soviet Union[6] 5 December 1936 Establishment of the Kazakh SSR
30 March 1993 (disputed) Baikonur Cosmodrome and surrounding areas leased to Russia.[note 18]
 Panama 3 November 1903 Separation of Panama from Colombia, independence from Spain 1 October 1979 Panama Canal Zone
 Russia 25 December 1993 1993 Russian constitutional referendum replaces the Supreme Soviet with the Federal Assembly and increases presidential power. 882 Formation of the Kievan Rus' 18 March 2014 (disputed) Annexation of Crimea by Russia
25 December 1991 After the USSR ceased to exist, the Russian Federation became an independent state and was recognized by the international community as the successor state of the USSR.
 Spain 6 December 1978 Spanish Constitution 1479 Dinastical unification of the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon by the Catholic Monarchs. The governments, institutions, and legal traditions of each kingdom remained independent of each other; alien laws (Leyes de extranjeria) determined that the national of one kingdom was a foreigner in the other Crowns/States.[29] 26 February 1976 Spanish Sahara is lost following the Madrid Accords.
1707~1716 De jure by the Nueva Planta decrees
1831 Dissolution of crowns and kingdoms and creation de jure, of the unified Kingdom of Spain.
 Turkey 24 June 2018 2017 Turkish constitutional referendum comes into effect; Turkey transitions from a parliamentary republic to a presidential republic. 1299 Formation of the Ottoman Empire 29 June 1939 Turkey annexes the once Syrian province of Hatay.
29 October 1923 The provincial government, formed in 1920, declares the foundation of the Republic of Turkey, as the legal successor state to the Ottoman Empire.
 United Kingdom 8 December 1922 The Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland by agreement in accordance with the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922, however Northern Ireland opted to exclude itself from the Irish Free State two days later creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 927 Kingdom of England 1603 The Kingdoms of Scotland, England and Ireland were united in a personal union when James VI, King of Scots inherited the crowns of England and Ireland; each country nevertheless remained a separate political entity and retained its separate political, legal and religious institutions.[30][31]
843 Kingdom of Scotland

(Devolved Parliament since 1999)

1057[32] then
1165[33]
Kingdom of Wales then
Principality of Wales

(Annexed by England in 1542)
(Devolved Assembly since 1999)

1171 then
1542
Lordship of Ireland then
Kingdom of Ireland
1 May 1707 Kingdom of Great Britain

(United the parliaments of Scotland and England)

1 January 1801 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland[34][35][36]

(United the parliaments of Great Britain and Ireland)

6 December 1922
then 8 December 1922
Irish Free State secedes from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland by agreement in accordance with the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922.
1 July 1997 British Overseas Territories:
Hong Kong was transferred to the People's Republic of China in 1997.[note 12]

Sortable list

In this list, "date of last subordination" refers to the last date of control by an external government. The list shows large groupings associated with the dates of independence from decolonization (e.g. 41 current states gained control of sovereignty from the United Kingdom and France between 1956 and 1966) or dissolution of a political union (e.g. 18 current states gained control of sovereignty from the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia between 1990 and 1992). In other cases, a sovereign state submitted to foreign military occupation or political subjugation for a period of time and later regained its independence (e.g. 6 current states gained control of sovereignty from Nazi Germany between 1944 and 1945).

Dates refer to de facto rule or occupation of the major territory, whether or not legitimized by international recognition.

In a union such as Czechoslovakia, the Soviet Union, or the Kalmar Union, one of the constituents can be considered the dominant power – generally where the seat of government was located. The United Kingdom is a particularly complicated case. If England is viewed as the dominant member, then history can be traced from Roman conquest, Saxon invasions, 10th century unification, and the 1066 Norman Conquest before the union of England and Scotland in 1707. However, if viewed from a Scottish perspective, an unbroken history of sovereignty can be traced from unification in 843 through the 1707 union with England (with a brief annexation by England from 1657 to 1660). Some Scots view the 1707 union as a ceding of sovereignty to England.[43]

Country Continent First acquisition
of sovereignty
Date of last
subordination
Previous governing power Historical Notes
Afghanistan Afghanistan Asia 1709 1796 Afsharid Empire 2021–present: Afghanistan Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan

2004–2021: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

2002–2004: Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan

1996-2001: Afghanistan Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
1992–2002:  Afghanistan (controlled only a small part of the country from 1996 to 2001, but still recognized by the UN and most of the world's countries as the legitimate government of Afghanistan)

1987-1992: Afghanistan Republic of Afghanistan
1978–1987:  Afghanistan
1973–1978:  Afghanistan
1926–1973:  Afghanistan
1823–1926:  Afghanistan Emirate of Afghanistan (protectorate of the United Kingdom 1879-1919)
1796–1823: Durrani Empire (also called Sadozai Kingdom)
1738–1796: Part of the Afsharid Empire
1709–1738: Hotak Emirate
1506–1709: Part of the Khanate of Bukhara
1405–1506: Center of the Timurid Empire
1369–1405: Part of the Timurid Empire
1231–1369: Part of the Mongol Empire
1163–1231: Part of the Khwarazmian Kingdom
1003–1163: Ghaznavid Sultanate
873–1003: Saffarid Emirate
821–873: Part of Tahirid Emirate
750–821: Part of Abbasid Caliphate
661–750: Part of Umayyad Caliphate
500–661: Part of Sasanian Empire Sasanian Empire
320–500 AD: Kidarite Kingdom
30–320 AD: Kushan Empire
150 BC–30 AD: Part of Indo-Parthian Kingdom and the Indo-Scythians
256–150 BC: Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
549–256 BC: Part of Macedonian Empire
549–330 BC: Part of Achaemenid Empire Achaemenid Empire
678–549 BC: Part of Median Kingdom/Empire
Since 48,000 BC humans have been known to be living in the region, starting as Part of Indus Valley civilisation and Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex

 Albania Europe 28 Nov 1912 Nov 1944[44] Germany 1992–present: Republic of Albania

1946–92: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

1944-46: Democratic Government of Albania

1943-44: Part of Nazi Germany Germany as the Albania Albanian Kingdom

1939-43: Part of Kingdom of Italy Italy as the Albania Kingdom of Albania
1928–39: Albanian Kingdom
1925–1928: Albanian Republic
1914–1925: Principality of Albania (via Albanian Declaration of Independence)
1912–1914: Albania Independent Albania
1479–1912: Part of  Ottoman Empire as Sanjak of Scutari
1444–1479: League of Lezhë (military alliance of Albanian feudal lords)
1190–1444: Various Albanian principalities (including the Principality of Albania)
1255–1368: Kingdom of Albania, Dependency of the Angevin Kingdom of Sicily/Naples
1190–1255: Principality of Arbanon, oldest of the Albanian principalities, also autonomous principality of the  Byzantine Empire and later of the Despotate of Epirus
324–1190: Part of the  Byzantine Empire as the province of Macedonia
148 BC-324 AD: Part of the Roman Empire as the province of Macedonia
Since 40,000 BC humans have been settled in the Kryegjata Valley, near the antique site of Apollonia,[45] including Illyria.

 Algeria Africa 202 BC 3 July 1962[46]  France 1962–present: Algeria People's Democratic Republic of Algeria (via Évian Accords)
1830–1962: Part of French Colonial Empire (as the integral territory)

1710–1830 Full Independence of

Flag of Ottoman Algiers.svg
Regency of Algiers from the  Ottoman Empire
1556–1710: part of the Ottoman Empire (as the Regency of Algiers)
1235–1554: Kingdom of Tlemcen
1121–1269: Part of the Almohad Caliphate
1014–1152: Hammadid Sultanate
973–1014: Center of the Zirid Emirate
909–973: Fatimid Caliphate Fatimid Caliphate
800–909: Part of the Aghlabid Emirate
778–909: Rustamid Imamate
750–778: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate
661–750: Part of the Umayyad Caliphate
590–698: Part of the Byzantine Empire Byzantine Empire (as the Exarchate of Africa)
484–703: Kingdom of the Aurès
439–534: Part of the Vandal Kingdom
435–439: Center of the Vandal Kingdom
395–435: Part of the Western Roman Empire as province
40 BC–395 AD: Part of the Roman Empire as province
202 BC – 40 BC: Kingdom of Numidia
814–202 BC: Part of the Carthaginian Empire
2500–539 BC: Part of Phoenicia
10,000–2500 BC: Inhabited by Caspians
20,000–10,000 BC: Inhabited by Iberomaurusians
80,000–20,000 BC: Inhabited by Aterians
Since 1.8 Million BC, humans have been settled in Algeria as demonstrated by the discovery of Oldowan stone tools found at Ain Hanech in 1992.[47]

 Andorra Europe 7 Sep 1278[48][49] Nov 1944[50] France 1278–present: Principality of Andorra (via Paréage of Andorra; occupied by France 1812–13, 1870, 1914, 1936, 1939, 1944)

987-1278: Part of France
843-987: Part of West Francia
481-843: Part of Francia
395-481: Part of the Western Roman Empire
27 BCE-481: Part of the Roman Empire
197 BCE - 27 BCE: Part of the Roman Republic

 Angola Africa 11 Nov 1975[51] 11 Nov 1975  Portugal 1992–present: Republic of Angola
1975–1992: People's Republic of Angola (via the Alvor Agreement)
1972–1975: State of Angola (part of the Portuguese Empire)
1951–1972: Overseas Province of Angola (part of the Portuguese Empire)
1575–1951: State of West Africa (part of the Portuguese Empire)
The territory of Angola has been inhabited since the Paleolithic Era, hosting a wide variety of ethnic groups, tribes and kingdoms (like the kingdoms of Kongo, Ndongo and Matamba).
 Antigua and Barbuda The Americas 1 Nov 1981[52] 1 Nov 1981  United Kingdom 1981–present:  Antigua and Barbuda

1632–1981: Part of the  British Empire as its West Indies (interrupted by  France in 1666)
Since 3100 BC, humans have been settled starting with the indigenous peoples of the Americas.

 Argentina The Americas 25 May 1810 9 July 1816[53] Spain 1861–present: Argentina Argentine Republic (a Federal state; originally the federation had 14 federated states [ Provinces of Argentina ], after the Conquest of the Desert, federal territories was established in Patagonia, the last territory, Tierra del Fuego, became the Province of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica and South Atlantic Islands and joined the federation in 1990. Currently Argentina has 23 provinces)

1831–1861:  Argentine Confederation
1816–1830: United Provinces of South America (On 9 July 1816, the Congress of Tucumán issued the formal Declaration of Independence, the country became a republic)
1810–1816: United Provinces of South America (via the 1810 May Revolution; nominally a monarchic state in personal union with Spain, recognizing Ferdinand VII as king)
1776–1810: Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (Part of the Spanish Empire)
1542–1776: Part of the Viceroyalty of Peru (Part of the Spanish Empire)
1528–1542: Governorate of New Andalusia, part of the Spanish Empire
11,000 BC-1528 AD: Inhabited by Native Argentines, including the Inca Empire, Chonan peoples and Guaycuru peoples.

 Armenia Transcontinental – Asia/Europe 880 c. 23 Sep 1991[54] Soviet Union 1991–present: Armenia Republic of Armenia

1920–1991:  Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, federated state of the  Soviet Union
1918–1920: Armenia First Republic of Armenia
April–May 1918: Part of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic
November 1917 – April 1918: Part of the Russian Empire Russian Republic as Transcaucasian Commissariat
1829–1917: Part of the  Russian Empire as Caucasus Viceroyalty
1502–1829: Part of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
1468–1502: Part of the Timurid Empire
1374–1468: Part of the Kara Koyunlu
1335–1374: Part of the Jalairid Sultanate
1236–1335: Part of the Mongol Empire as its territory
1201–1360: Zakarid Principality of Armenia
1071–1194: Part of the Seljuk Empire
987–1170: Kingdom of Syunik
883–1045:Bragatid Kingdom of Armenia
654–884: Arminiya, Province (largely autonomous vassal principalities) of the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates
428–654: Divided between the  Byzantine Empire on the west, and the east by the  Sasanian Empire .
321 BCE–AD 428: Kingdom of Armenia
549 BCE–331 BC: Part of Achaemenid Empire
860 BCE–590 BC: Kingdom of Ararat
1114 BCE–860 BC: Nairi Confederation
1300 BCE–1190 BC: Kingdom of Arme-Shupria
1500 BCE–1290 BC: Hayasa-Azzi Confederation
2492 BCE: Traditional foundation
Since 6000 BC humans have been settled starting with the Shulaveri-Shomu and Kura–Araxes eras.

 Australia Australia 1 Jan 1901 (Not completely sovereign) 9 Oct 1942 (Full sovereignty. Adoption of the Statute of Westminster 1931) United Kingdom 1942–present: Australia Commonwealth of Australia, a Federal state, (consisted of six states, three internal territories, and seven external territories, via Constitution of Australia[55]) and a monarchy in personal union with the United Kingdom

1901-1942: Australia Commonwealth of Australia, a federation with a Dominion status within the British Empire)
1788–1901: Part of the  British Empire
Possibly 70,000 BC – 1788 AD: Inhabited by Indigenous Australians

 Austria Europe 1156 15 May 1955[56] World War II Allies (Allied-occupied Austria) 1955–present: Republic of Austria, a Federal state (via Austrian State Treaty)
1945–55: Allied-occupied Austria
1938–45: Annexed by Nazi Germany
1934–38: Federal State of Austria (client state of Italy)
1919–34: First Republic of Austria (via Treaty of Saint Germain)
1918–19: Republic of German-Austria (via Proclamation of Charles I)
1867–1918: Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, a dual monarchy with Hungary (via Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867)
1866: Austrian Empire
1815–1866: Austrian Empire (In union with other 38 states in the German Confederation)
1806–1815: Austrian Empire
1804–1806: Austrian Empire (State of the Holy Roman Empire)
1457–1804: Archduchy of Austria (State of the Holy Roman Empire)
1156–1457: Duchy of Austria (state of the Holy Roman Empire)
 Azerbaijan Transcontinental – Asia/Europe 28 May 1918 30 Aug 1991 Soviet Union 1991–present: Republic of Azerbaijan (independence from Soviet Union declared 1991

1920–1991: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, federated state of the  Soviet Union 1918–1920: Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
1824–1918: Part of Russian Empire
1796–1824: Part of Qajar Empire
1747–1796: Part of Afsharid Empire
(1760–1794): Part of Zand Empire
1736–1747: Part of Afsharid Empire
(1722–1729): Part of Hotaki Emirate
1501–1736: Part of Safavid Empire
1468–1508: Part of Agh Qoyunlu
1405–1507: Part of Timurid Empire
1406–1468: Part of Qara Qoyunlu
1370–1405: Part of Timurid Empire
1337–1376: Part of Sarbadars
1336–1432: Part of Jalayirid Sultanate
1335–1393: Part of Muzaffarid Dynasty
1335–1357: Part of Chobanid Dynasty
1256–1335: Part of Ilkhanate
1077–1231: Part of Khwarazmian Kingdom
1037–1194: Part of Great Seljuq Empire
963–1186: Part of Ghaznavid Sultanate
875–999: Part of Samanid Emirate
936–1055: Part of Buyid Empire
934–936: Part of Buyid Emirate
867–1002: Part of Saffarid Emirate
928–1043: Part of Ziyarid Kingdom
750–1258: Part of Abbasid Caliphate
661–750: Part of Umayyad Caliphate
(642–759/760): Part of Dabuyid dynasty
224–651: Part of Sassanid Empire
247 BC – 224 AD: Part of Parthian Empire
312–63 BC: Part of Seleucid Empire
550–330 BC: Part of Achaemenid Empire
(652–625 BC): Part of Scythian Kingdom
678–550 BC: Part of Median Empire
850–616 BC: Inhabited by Mannaeans
2700–539 BC: Inhabited by Elamites
3200–2700 BC: Inhabited by Proto-Elamites

 Bahamas The Americas 10 July 1973[57] 10 July 1973  United Kingdom 1973–present: Commonwealth of the Bahamas (Self-government gained from the United Kingdom in 1964; independence gained on 10 July 1973)
1718–1973: Part of the British Empire as its West Indies
1492–1718: Part of the Spanish Empire
500 to 800–1492: Inhabited by the Lucayans (a Taino people)
 Bahrain Asia 16 Dec 1971 16 Dec 1971  United Kingdom 1971–present: Kingdom of Bahrain

1861–1971: Protectorate of the British Empire by way of the Perpetual Truce of Peace and Friendship
1783–1861: In union with other states in the Bani Utbah Confederation
1717–1783: Ruled by Oman after a successful invasion
1602–1717: Part of Persia under the Safavid dynasty
1521–1602: Part of the Portuguese Empire
Mid-1400s–1521: Ruled by the Jabrid dynasty
1253-mid–1400s: Ruled by the Usfurid dynasty
1076–1235: Ruled by the Uyunid Emirate
976–1076: Ruled as part of the Abbasid Caliphate
899–976: Ruled by the Qarmatian Republic
3rd century AD – 899: Ruled by the Sassanids of Persia
130 BC – 3rd century BC: Ruled by the Parthians
6th century BC – 3rd century BC: Part of the Persian Empire under the Achaemenids
4th millennium BC – 6th century BC: Dilmun civilization

 Bangladesh Asia 590 16 Dec 1971  Pakistan 1972–present: Bangladesh People's Republic of Bangladesh

1971–1972: Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
1955–1971: East Pakistan (Part of Pakistan)
1947–1955: East Bengal (Part of Pakistan)
1858–1947: Part of the  British Empire as Bengal Presidency, part of British India
1757–1858: Part of the  British Empire as Bengal Presidency, part of the Company Raj
1717–1880: Ruled by the Nawabs, nominally subordinate to the Mughal Empire until 1757, and to the British Empire after 1757 (Lost ruling power after the Battle of Plassey in 1757)
1576–1757: Part of the Mughal Empire as Bengal Subah
1352–1576: Bengal Sultanate
1235–1352: Part of the Delhi Sultanate
1204–1297: Deva dynasty
c.1070–1204: Sena Kingdom
c. 750–c. 1070: Pala Empire
c. 650–c. 750: Bengal was divided between various kingdoms, like Vanga and Samatata (Both ruled by the Khadga dynasty)
590–626: Gauda Kingdom
350–655: Part of Kamarupa under the Varman dynasty
358–590: Part of the Gupta Empire
26 BC – 358 AD: Bengal was divided between various kingdoms.
73 BC – 26 BC: Part of the Kanva Kingdom
185 BC–73 BC: Part of the Shunga Empire
232 BC – 800 AD: Part of Samatata
319–185 BC: Part of the Maurya Empire
340–319 BC: Part of the Kingdom of Magadha
600–340 BC: Ancient Bengal was divided between various kingdoms.
700–200 BC: Inhabited by the Pundravardhana culture
Since 100,000 BC humans have been settled on Bangladesh, although the prehistoric evidences are weak.[58]

 Barbados The Americas 30 Nov 1966 30 Nov 1966  United Kingdom 1966–present: Barbados

1625–1966: Part of the British Empire as its West Indies
Claimed by Spain and Portugal in the 16th century.
c. 1200–c.1500 AD: Inhabited by the Kalinago
c. 800–c. 1200 AD: Inhabited by the Saladoids
Archeological evidence suggests humans may have first settled or visited the island circa 1600 BC.

 Belarus Europe 1991 25 Aug 1991 Soviet Union 1990–present: Republic of Belarus

1943–1990: Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, a federated state of the Soviet Union (USSR)
1941–1943: Occupation by Nazi Germany
1922–1941: Byelorussian SSR, a federated state of the Soviet Union (USSR)
1920–1922: Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
1919–1919: Lithuanian–Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
1918–1919: Belarusian People's Republic
1917–1918: Part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
1795–1917: Part of the Russian Empire
1569–1795: Part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1397–1569: Part of Grand Duchy of Lithuania
1307–1397: Principality of Polotsk, part of Grand Duchy of Lithuania
987–1307: Principality of Polotsk (independent principality)
Before 987: In the 9th century the territory of modern Belarus became part of Kievan Rus', a loose federation of East Slavic and Finnic peoples, ruled by the Rurikid dynasty
The region that is now Belarus was first settled by Baltic tribes in the 3rd century. Around the 5th century, the area was taken over by Slavic tribes.

 Belgium Europe 4 Oct 1830 1945 Germany 1830–present: Kingdom of Belgium (a Federal state, consisted of three regions and three communities)
1813–1830: Part of the Netherlands
1795–1813: Ruled by France
1713–1795: Austrian Netherlands (collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held by the Habsburg monarchy)
1581–1714: Spanish Netherlands (collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown)
 Belize The Americas 21 Sep 1981[59] 21 Sep 1981  United Kingdom 1981–present: Belize

1716–1973: Part of the British Empire

 Benin Africa 1600 (approx.) 1 Aug 1960  France 1990–present: Republic of Benin
1975–1990: People's Republic of Benin

1958–1975: Republic of Dahomey (French self-governing colony)
1904–1958: French Dahomey (as part of French West Africa)
1894–1904: Kingdom of Dahomey (French Protectorate)
c.1600–1894: Kingdom of Dahomey (African kingdom)

 Bhutan Asia 1634 1634 (none) 1910–1947: protectorate of the  British Empire

Autonomous since at least the 10th century.[60] Unified 1634, after the Battle of Five Lamas. Early history is sketchy, but may have been part of Kamarupa kingdom, and may have been occupied by Tibetan-Mongol forces ca. 10th century.[61]

 Bolivia The Americas 6 Aug 1825 6 Aug 1825 Spain 2009–present: Plurinational State of Bolivia

1839–2009: Republic of Bolivia
1836–1839: In union with North Peru and South Peru in the Peru–Bolivian Confederation
1825–1839: Republic of Bolivia (The name of the country is a tribute to Simon Bolivar (considered as the country's first president), who always referred to the country as Upper Peru. There were doubts if the region should be an independent nation or join Argentina or Peru. After Antonio José de Sucre was elected as the second president, he convened the Constituent Assembly in Chuquisaca to determine the future of the region. Almost all delegates wanted that Bolivia became an independent country and rejected any annexation to Argentina (former Río de la Plata) or Peru).
1821–1825: Center of the Viceroyalty of Peru (viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire)
1810–1821: Part of the Viceroyalty of Peru (viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire)
1776–1810: Part of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire)
1542–1776: Part of the Viceroyalty of Peru (viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire)
1528–1542: Governorate of New Toledo(governorate of the Crown of Castille)
1471–1542: Part of the Inca Empire
1000–1500: Mollo culture
550–c.1000: Tiwanaku state
The region now known as Bolivia had been occupied for over 2,500 years when the Native Bolivians, including Aymara, arrived.

 Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 1377 3 Mar 1992 Yugoslavia 1997–present: Bosnia and Herzegovina (a Federal state)

1992–1997: Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
1945–1992: Federated state of Yugoslavia
1941–1945 Part of Independent State of Croatia (Nazi Germany invasion)
1918–1941: Part of Kingdom of Yugoslavia
1878–1918: Part of Austria-Hungary Empire
1463–1878: Part of Ottoman Empire
1377–1463: Kingdom of Bosnia
1154–1377: Banate of Bosnia (subject to Kingdom of Hungary)

 Botswana Africa 30 Sep 1966[62] 30 Sep 1966  United Kingdom 1966–present : Republic of Botswana

1885–1966: Part of the British Empire as Bechuanaland Protectorate
600 AD: Bantu-speaking peoples first moved into the country from the north
The territory of Botswana has been inhabited since the Paleolithic Era. The original inhabitants of southern Africa were the San and Khoi peoples.

 Brazil The Americas 7 Sep 1822[63] 29 Aug 1825 (Treaty of Rio de Janeiro) United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves 1985–Present: Brazil Federative Republic of Brazil (Sixth Brazilian Republic) (a federal state, the federation have 26 federated states and 1 federal district)

1964–1985: Brazil Brazilian Military Dictatorship (Fifth Brazilian Republic) (a federal state, the federation had 22 federated states, 1 federal district and 4 federal territories)
1946–1964: Brazil United States of Brazil (Fourth Brazilian Republic) (a federal state, the federation had 22 federated states, 1 federal district and, 4 federal territories)
1930–1946: Brazil Brazilian Vargas Era (Second and Third Brazilian Republics) (a federal state, the federation had 20 federated states, 1 federal district and 7 federal territories)
1889–1930: Brazil Republic of the United States of Brazil (First Brazilian Republic) (a federal state, the federation had 20 federated states, 1 federal district and, from 1903, 1 federal territory)
1822–1889:  Empire of Brazil (a unitary state)
1815–1822: Brazil, elevated to kingdom so that it was legally possible to achieve a political union with the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves to create the Portuguese Empire United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves (Portuguese Empire)
1772–1775: State of Maranhão and Piauí, part of the Portuguese Empire
1772–1775: State of Grão-Pará and Rio Negro, part of the Portuguese Empire
1751–1772: State of Grão-Pará and Maranhão, part of the Portuguese Empire
1621–1751: State of Maranhão, part of the Portuguese Empire
1621–1815: State of Brazil, part of the Portuguese Empire
1613–1621: Governorate General of Brazil, part of the Portuguese Empire
1607–1613: Divided in Governorate General of Bahia and Governorate General of Rio de Janeiro, part of the Portuguese Empire
1578–1607: Governorate General of Brazil, part of the Portuguese Empire
1572–1578: Divided in Governorate General of Bahia and Governorate General of Rio de Janeiro, part of the Portuguese Empire
1549–1572: Governorate General of Brazil, part of the Portuguese Empire
1534–1549: Captaincy Colonies of Brazil, private and autonomous colonies of the Portuguese Empire
9000 BC – 1500 AD: Inhabited by Native Brazilians, including Tupi people, Gê peoples, Kalina people and Arawaks.

 Brunei Asia 1368 1 Jan 1984  United Kingdom 1984–present: Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace

1945–1984: Part of the British Empire
1942–1945: Occupied by Japan
1888–1942: Part of the British Empire
1368–1888: Sultanate of Brunei
1294–1368: Part of the Majapahit Kingdom
1276–1294: Part of the Kingdom of Singhasari
c. 1000 AD – 1276 AD: Part of the Kingdom of Srivijaya

 Bulgaria Europe 681[64] 5 Oct 1908
27 Nov 1990
Ottoman Empire
 Soviet Union
1990–present: Bulgaria Republic of Bulgaria

1946–1990: Bulgaria People's Republic of Bulgaria
1908–1946: Kingdom of Bulgaria Tsardom of Bulgaria (reunified with Eastern Rumelia where was a part of the  Ottoman Empire)
1878–1908: Bulgaria Principality of Bulgaria
1396–1878: Part of the  Ottoman Empire
1185–1396: Second Bulgarian Empire
1018–1185: Part of the  Byzantine Empire
681–1018: First Bulgarian Empire
632–668: Old Great Bulgaria
324–681: Part of the  Byzantine Empire as the province of Thracia
46–324 AD: Part of the Roman Empire as the province of Thracia
480 BC–46 AD: Odrysian kingdom
Since c.1.4 million BC humans have been settled starting with Lower Paleolithic.[65]

 Burkina Faso Africa 5 Aug 1960[66] 5 Aug 1960  France 1984–present: Burkina Faso

1960–1984:Republic of Upper Volta (independent)
1958–1960: Republic of Upper Volta, self-governing colony within the French Empire
1896–1958: Part of the French West Africa, federation of colonies of the French Empire
11th century – 1896: Burkina Faso is divided in several Mossi Kingdoms

 Burundi Africa 1680 (approx.) 1 July 1962  Belgium 1966–present: Republic of Burundi

1962–1966: Kingdom of Burundi (independent)
1890–1962: Kingdom of Burundi, part of Ruanda-Urundi (Part of the Belgian Empire)
1890–1919: Kingdom of Burundi, part of German East Africa (Part of the German Empire)
c.1680–1890: Kingdom of Burundi

 Cambodia Asia 50 / 68 9 Nov 1953[67]  France 1993–present: Kingdom of Cambodia

1992–1993: United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia
1989–1992: State of Cambodia
1979–1989: People's Republic of Kampuchea
1975–1979: Democratic Kampuchea
1970–1975: Khmer Republic
1954–1970: Kingdom of Cambodia
1945–1953:French protectorate of Cambodia
1945: Japanese occupation of Cambodia
1863–1945: French protectorate of Cambodia, a French protectorate within French Indochina — a collection of Southeast Asian protectorates within the French Empire.
1431–1863: Kingdom of Cambodia
802–1431: Khmer Empire founded 802 according to Sdok Kok Thom Inscription
706/717–802: Separation in Land Chenla and Water Chenla
550 – c.706/717: Kingdom of Chenla
c.50/68 AD–550 AD: Kingdom of Funan

 Cameroon Africa 1 Jan 1960 1 Oct 1961  United Kingdom Republic of Cameroon

French Cameroons gained independence in 1960; added British Southern Cameroons in 1961.
1922–1961: British Cameroon, part of the British Empire
1918–1960: French Cameroon, part of the French Empire
1884–1916: German Cameroon, part of the German Empire
The territory of Cameroon has been inhabited since the Neolithic Era, hosting a wide variety of ethnic groups, tribes, fondoms and kingdoms (such as the kingdoms of Kotoko, Mandara and Bamum).

 Canada The Americas 1 July 1867 (Not completelly sovereign. The British Empire still had control of the foreign affairs of Canada) 11 Dec 1931 (Canada becomes completely sovereign, having consulates and embassies in other countries) United Kingdom

1760–1783: British America (After the Seven Years' War, the British conquers all French territories in the future modern territory of Canada)

 Cape Verde Africa 5 July 1975 5 July 1975[70]  Portugal Republic of Cabo Verde

1460–1975: Part of the Portuguese Empire

 Central African Republic Africa 13 Aug 1960 13 Aug 1960  France Central African Republic

1903–1960: Ubangi-Shari, part of the French Equatorial Africa, federation of colonial possessions of the French Empire
The territory of Central African Republic has been inhabited since the Neolithic Era, hosting a wide variety of ethnic groups

 Chad Africa 11 Aug 1960 11 Aug 1960  France 1960–present: Republic of Chad

1900–1960: French Chad, part of the French Equatorial Africa, federation of colonial possessions of the French Empire
1501–1912: Wadai Sultanate
1480/1522–1897: Sultanate of Bagirmi
c. 700–1900: Kanem–Bornu Empire
The territory of Chad has been inhabited since the Paleolithic Era.

 Chile The Americas 18 Sep 1810 12 Feb 1818 Spain 1990–Present: Chile Republic of Chile (Democracy Restored)

1973–1990: Chile Chilean Military Dictatorship
1925–1973: Chile Chilean Presidential Republic
1891–1925: Chile Parliamentary Chile
1861–1891: Chile Liberal Chile
1830–1861: Chile Conservative Chile
1823–1830: Chile Republic of Chile (Organization of the Republic)
1818–1823: Chile Republic of Chile (Patria Nueva, New Fatherland)
1814–1818: Captaincy General of Chile (Reconquest by the Spanish Empire
1810–1814: Chile Kingdom of Chile (Patria Vieja, Old Fatherland) (nominally a monarchic state in personal union with Spain, recognizing Ferdinand VII as king)
1798–1818: Captaincy General of Chile or Governorate of Chile (known unofficially as the Kingdom of Chile), with self-administration without vice-royal dependence, part of the Spanish Empire
1533–1798: Captaincy General of Chile or Governorate of Chile (known unofficially as the Kingdom of Chile), under supervision of the Viceroyalty of Peru, part of the Spanish Empire
1438–1533: Part of the Inca Empire
Between 18,500 and 14,000 BC – 1541 AD: Inhabited by Chilean Natives, including Aymara, Mapuche, and Rapa Nui

 China Asia 1600 BC 2 September 1945 Japan

1949–present:  People's Republic of China
1937–1945: Japanese Invasion
1916–present: Republic of China (Taiwan)
1915–1916: Empire of China
1912–1915: Republic of China
1895–1945: Japanese Taiwan
1895:

Flag of Formosa 1895.svg
Republic of Formosa
1644–1912:  Qing dynasty
1624–1662: Dutch Formosa / Spanish Formosa
1368–1644: Ming dynasty
1271–1368: Yuan dynasty
960–1279: Song dynasty
907–1125: Divided in Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms / Liao dynasty
618–907: Tang dynasty
581–618: Sui dynasty
420–589: Divided in Northern and Southern dynasties
266–420: Jin dynasty
220–280: Divided in Three Kingdoms
206 BC – 220 AD: Han dynasty
221–206 BC: Qin dynasty (first imperial dynasty)
c. 1046–256 BC: Zhou dynasty
c. 1600–c. 1046 BC: Shang dynasty
c. 2070–c. 1600 BC: Xia dynasty (first royal dynasty)
c. 8500–c. 2070 BC: Neolithic
Since as earliest as 2 Million BC, humans have been settled starting with the Renzidong

Note: Although the Mongol's Yuan dynasty and the Manchu's Qing dynasty were considered foreign by many Han Chinese in their times, current Chinese official position considers these two dynasties as Chinese, as they were established by Chinese ethnic minorities and had their capitals in present-day Beijing. The PRC government considers itself the successor of the Republic of China (1912–49) which legally inherited the whole of China from the Qing Empire.

 Colombia The Americas 20 July 1820 7 Aug 1819 Spain 1886–present: Colombia Republic of Colombia (unitary state)

1863–1886: United States of Colombia (federal state)
1858–1863: Granadine Confederation (confederal state)
1831–1858: Republic of New Granada (unitary state)
1819–1831: Republic of Colombia (Gran Colombia) (federal state)
1816-1819: Viceroyalty of New Granada, part of the  Spanish Empire(Reconquest by the Spanish Empire)
1811–1816: Patria Boba period (Foolish Fatherland period) United Provinces of New Granada, a federal and republican state
1810–1814: Patria Boba period (Foolish Fatherland period): Free and Independent State of Cundinamarca (a monarchical state in personal union with Spain, recognizing Ferdinand VII as king, in 1813 declared itself a republic and joined the United Provinces of New Granada in 1814)
1739–1810: Viceroyalty of New Granada, part of the  Spanish Empire
1723–1739: New Kingdom of Granada, within the Viceroyalty of Peru, part of the  Spanish Empire
1717–1723: Viceroyalty of New Granada, part of the  Spanish Empire
1538–1717: New Kingdom of Granada, within the Viceroyalty of Peru, part of the  Spanish Empire
Since 10,000 BC humans have been settled from Native Colombians with tribes, chiefdoms, and confederations (like the Muisca Confederation).

 Comoros Africa 6 July 1975 6 July 1975  France 2001–present:Union of the Comores (a Federal state)

1975–2001: Federal and Islamic Republic of Comoros
1886–1975: part of the French Empire
c.1000 BC: when the archipelago was first inhabited. The Comoros have been inhabited by various groups throughout this time.

 Congo, Democratic Republic of the Africa 1960 30 June 1960  Belgium

1997–present:  Democratic Republic of the Congo
1971–1997: Zaire Republic of Zaire
1964–1971: Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa)
1960–1964: Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville)
1908–1960: Part of the Belgian Empire as  Belgian Congo
1885–1908: Part of the Belgian Empire as the  Congo Free State (as sovereign entity, a private domain of King Leopold II of Belgium)
1390–1914: Part of the Kingdom of Kongo
Since 80,000 BC humans has been settled from with tribes, chiefdoms and confederations.

 Congo, Republic of the Africa 15 Aug 1960 15 Aug 1960  France

1992–present:  Republic of the Congo
1969–1992:  People's Republic of the Congo
1960–1969: Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville)
1910–1960: Part of the French Empire as French Equatorial Africa
1882–1910: Part of the French Empire as Middle Congo
1390–1914: Part of the Kingdom of Kongo
Since 80,000 BC humans has been settled from with tribes, chiefdoms and confederations.

 Costa Rica The Americas 15 Sep 1821 1838 Federal Republic of Central America 1948–present: Costa Rica Republic of Costa Rica (Second)

1848–1948: Costa Rica First Costa Rican Republic
1838–1847: Costa Rica Free State of Costa Rica
1823–1838: Federated state of the Federal Republic of Central America
24 September 1821 – 1823: Part of the First Mexican Empire as Province of Costa Rica
15–24 September 1821: Republic of Costa Rica
1609–1821: Part of the Captaincy General of Guatemala (alternativelly Kingdom of Guatemala) within the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Part of the Spanish Empire)
1535–1609: Part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Part of the Spanish Empire)
1525–1535: Part of the Columbian Viceroyalty (Part of the Spanish Empire)
Before 1525: The Huetar people establishes some kingdoms in the modern territory of Costa Rica: Eastern Huetar Kingdom, domains of the King Garabito, Kingdom of Pacaca and Western Huetar Kingdom. There was also the Kingdom of Nicoya and the Kingdom of Talamanca
Since about 10,000 to 7,000 BC humans have been settled by Native Costa Ricans, including Chibchans and Nahuatl.

 Croatia Europe 626[21][22][23][24][25] 8 Oct 1991 Yugoslavia 1991–present: Croatia Republic of Croatia

1945–1991: Federated state of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as  SR Croatia
1941–1945: Occupied by Nazi Germany as the  Independent State of Croatia, a Fascist puppet.
1918–1941: Part of the  Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes)
1868–1918: Part of the  Austria-Hungary as the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
1527–1868: Kingdom of Croatia (in the union with Kingdom of Hungary within Habsburg Monarchy, Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary)
1102–1526: Kingdom of Croatia (in the union with Kingdom of Hungary)
925–1102: Kingdom of Croatia
681–925 AD: Divided between the Pannonian and Dalmatian
324–681: Part of the  Byzantine Empire as the province of Dalmatia
32 BC – 324 AD: Part of the Roman Empire as the province of Dalmatia and Illyricum
Since 128,000 BC humans have been settled from Pre-Croats with tribes, chiefdoms and confederations.

 Cuba The Americas 20 May 1902 2 February 1909  United States 1959–present: Republic of Cuba, sovereign communist state

1934–1959: Republic of Cuba, sovereign capitalist state
1909–1934: Republic of Cuba, Protectorate of the United States
1906–1909: Second American Occupation of Cuba
1902–1906: Republic of Cuba, Protectorate of the United States
1898–1902: Occupied but not annexed by United States
1821–1898: Captaincy General of Cuba (part of the Spanish Empire)
1607–1821: Captaincy General of Cuba, under supervision of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, part of the Spanish Empire (part of the Spanish Empire)
1535–1607: Part of the Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain (part of the Spanish Empire)
1510–1535: Part of the Columbian Viceroyalty (part of the Spanish Empire)
The territory that is now Cuba was inhabited by the Taíno people from the 4th millennium BC until Spanish colonization in the 15th century.

 Cyprus Europe 1960 16 Aug 1960  United Kingdom 1960–present: Cyprus Republic of Cyprus

1878–1960: Part of the British Empire as crown colony
1571–1878: Part of the Ottoman Empire
1489–1571: Part of the  Republic of Venice
1192–1489: Kingdom of Cyprus
965–1192: Part of the  Byzantine Empire as Province
750–965: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate
668–750: Part of the Umayyad Caliphate
31 BC-668 AD: Part of the Roman Empire
305–31 BC: Part of the Ptolemaic Kingdom
321–305 BC: Part of the Macedonian Empire
545–321 BC: Part of the Achaemenid Empire
626–545 BC: Part of the Neo-Babylonian Empire
911–669 BC: Part of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Since around the 10th millennium BC humans have been settled on the island dates.[71]
Note: Cyprus has been divided between two ethnicities as one sovereign state: Cyprus Greek Cyprus and Turkish Cyprus from 1983.

 Czechia Europe 870 1 Jan 1993 Czechoslovakia 1993–present: Czech Republic

1945–1993: Part of the Czechoslovakia (interrupted by Warsaw Pact armies in 1968)
1945: Occupied by WWII Allies in 1945
1939–1945: Occupied by Germany
1918–1919: Part of the Czechoslovakia
1867–1918: Part of Austria-Hungary
1806–1867: Part of the Austrian Empire
1198–1806: Kingdom of Bohemia, State of the Holy Roman Empire
1002–1198: Duchy of Bohemia, State of the Holy Roman Empire
935–1002: Unified with Moravia and Silesia under Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia, who acceded to the throne in 935.
870–935: Duchy of Bohemia first independent from Great Moravia

 Denmark Europe 714[72] 5 May 1945 Germany 2022: The sovereignty of Hans Island is partitioned between Denmark and Canada

2014: Denmark submits a claim for the North Pole to the UN
2009: Greenlandic Self-Governance after a referendum
1973–2022: Dispute with Canada over sovereignty of Hans Ø
1973: Denmark becomes member of the EEC
1948: Faroe Islands granted home rule
1940–1945: German occupation
1920: Northern Schleswig (Sønderjylland) re-united with Denmark
1918: Independence of Iceland
1917: Denmark's last tropical colony, sold to United States
1864: Schleswig, Holstein & Lauenburg is lost to Prussia
1863– : House of Glücksburg
1849: New constitution with elected parliament
1814: Norway becomes independent with new constitution. Greenland, Iceland & Faroe Islands remain under Danish rule
1721: Denmark-Norway re-establish claim to Greenland
1679: Denmark forced to leave Gotland for good
1665: Kongeloven, Denmark's first constitution
1658: The sovereignty over Skåneland is transferred to Sweden
1620: First overseas colony
1536: Reformation in Denmark
1534–1536: War of succession
1448: Christian I first king of House of Oldenburg
1397–1523: Kalmar Union
1380–1814: Personal union between Denmark and Norway
1375–1412: Queen Margaret
1332–1340: Interregnum, Denmark controlled by German counts
1241: Code of Jutland "Jyske Lov"
1219–1223/27: Dominant Baltic power under the reign of Valdemar II
1154–1182: Valdemar the Great
1131–1157: Civil war
1086: Murder of Canute the Saint the first Danish royal saint
1047– : Unbroken line of Danish monarchs ruling the kingdom, al descending from titular Queen Estrid Svendsdatter
1042–1047: Norwegian rule

Coat of arms of Norway.svg

1010s–1040s: Anglo-Danish kingdom under the kings Sweyn, Cnut & Harthacnut
970s–1035: In periods the Danish kings Harald, Sweyn & Cnut (& perhaps Harald II ?) exercises supremacy over Norway
Country re-united under Gorm the Old & Harald Bluetooth
The decades from the 890s to the 930s are only sparse documented in written sources. The country possibly divided into smaller parts ruled by various families
Second half of 9th century, an increasing number of Viking raids on Western Europe, many originating from Denmark
826: Harald first Danish king to be baptised
814–854: Horik I king (in periods ruling jointly with others)
812: Civil war
c. 800–810: King Gudfred
c. 714: Ongendus king
Danish kingship documented from the 8th century, though the institution possibly established prior to that

 Djibouti Africa 27 June 1977 27 June 1977  France 1977–present: Republic of Djibouti

1894–1977: Part of the French Colonial Empire as French Somaliland
1862–1883: Ruled by Afar and Somali sultans
1577–1862: Part of the Ottoman Empire
1415–1577:Part of the Sultanate of Adal
1285–1415: Part of the Sultanate of Ifat

 Dominica The Americas 3 Nov 1978 3 Nov 1978  United Kingdom 1978–present: Commonwealth of Dominica

1763–1978: Part of the British Empire as its West Indies
c.1690–1763: Part of the French Empire
The island was originally inhabited by the Kalinago.

 Dominican Republic The Americas 1821 ( Republic of Spanish Haiti) 27 Feb 1844 Haiti 1844–present: Dominican Republic

1822–1844: Part of the Republic of Haiti
1821–1822: Republic of Spanish Haiti
1809–1821: Part of the Spanish Empire
1806–1809: Part of the Republic of Haiti
1805: Part of the Empire of Haiti
1795–1805: Part of the French Colonial Empire
1535–1795: Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Part of the Spanish Empire)
1492–1535: Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, part of the Columbian Viceroyalty (Part of the Spanish Empire)
At the time of Columbus' arrival in 1492, the island's territory consisted of five Taíno chiefdoms: Marién, Maguá, Maguana, Jaragua, and Higüey.

 Ecuador The Americas 24 May 1822 13 May 1830 Gran Colombia 1830–present: Ecuador Republic of Ecuador

1824-1830: Divided in Azuay, Guayaquil and Ecuador, federated states of the Gran Colombia
1821–1824: Federated state of the Gran Colombia
1717–1821: Part of the jurisdiction of the Royal Audience of Quito (sometimes referred unofficially as the Presidency of Quito or Kingdom of Quito) within the Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada, part of the  Spanish Empire
1563–1717: Part of the jurisdiction of the Royal Audience of Quito (sometimes referred unofficially as the Presidency of Quito or Kingdom of Quito) within the Viceroyalty of Peru, part of the  Spanish Empire
1542–1562: Part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, within the  Spanish Empire
1532–1542: Part of the Governorate of New Castile, part of the  Spanish Empire
1486–1532: Part of the Inca Empire
Since 8000 BC humans has been settled, starting with Native Ecuadorians such as Cotocollao, Tayos, Machalilla, and Manteños

 Egypt Transcontinental – Africa/Asia 3150 BC 28 Feb 1922 United Kingdom 1971–present: Egypt Arab Republic of Egypt

1958–1971:  United Arab Republic (In union with  Syria)
1953–1958: Egypt Arab Republic of Egypt
1922–1953: Kingdom of Egypt
1914–1922: Part of the  British Empire as the Sultanate of Egypt (British protectorate)
1867–1914: Khedivate of Egypt, a de jure Ottoman autonomous state (Occupied by the  British Empire from 1882 to 1922).
1798–1801: Occupied by the First French Empire
1517–1867: Part of the  Ottoman Empire as Eyalet of Egypt
1250–1517: Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt (Baḥrī and Burjī dynasties)
1218–1250: Center of the Ayyubid Sultanate
1174–1218: Part of the Ayyubid Sultanate
1171–1174: Center of the Ayyubid Sultanate
973–1171: Center of the Fatimid Caliphate
969–973: Part of the Fatimid Caliphate
935–969: Ikhshidid State, autonomous state within the Abbasid Caliphate
868–935: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate
868–905: Tulunid Emirate
750–868: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate
661–750: Part of the Umayyad Caliphate
641–661: Part of the Rashidun Caliphate
619–629: Part of the Sasanian Empire as Province
324–641: Part of the  Byzantine Empire as province
30 BC-324 AD: Part of the Roman Empire as province
332–30 BC: Ptolemaic Kingdom (in association with Macedonia)
332–323 BC: Part of the Macedonian Empire
343–332 BC: Part of the Achaemenid Empire as the 31st Dynasty
404–343 BC: 28th–30th Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
525–404 BC: Part of the Achaemenid Empire as the 27th Dynasty
664–525 BC: 26th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt
1069–664 BC: 21st–25th Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
1550–1069 BC: 18th–20th Dynasties of Ancient Egypt as a new kingdom
1650–1550 BC: 13th–17th Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
2055–1650 BC: 11th and 12th Dynasties of Ancient Egypt as the middle kingdom
2181–2055 BC: 8th–10th Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
2575–2150 BC: 3rd–7th Dynasties of Ancient Egypt as kingdom
3150–2575 BC: 1st–2nd Dynasties of Ancient Egypt (Unified by Pharaoh Menes or probably Narmer, founder of the First Dynasty between Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt).

Since 598,000 BC humans have been settled starting within a 30-metre (100 ft) terrace, with primitive Acheulean and Abbevillian (Chellean).[73]

 El Salvador The Americas 15 Sep 1815 21 Jan 1922 Federal Republic of Central America

1982–present: El Salvador Republic of El Salvador
1979–1982: El Salvador Revolutionary Junta of El Salvador
1922–1979: El Salvador Republic of El Salvador
1921–1922: Federated state of the Federal Republic of Central America
1915–1921: El Salvador Republic of El Salvador (As an official name from June 7)
1898–1915: Republic of Salvador
1896–1898: Federated state of the Greater Republic of Central America
November 1852 – 1896: Republic of Salvador
October–November 1852: Federated state of the Federation of Central America
1841–1852: Republic of Salvador
1823–1841: Federated state of the Federal Republic of Central America
1821–1823: Part of the First Mexican Empire as Province of Salvador
1609–1821: Part of the Captaincy General of Guatemala (alternativelly Kingdom of Guatemala) within the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Part of the Spanish Empire)
1535–1609: Part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Part of the Spanish Empire)
1525–1535: Part of the Columbian Viceroyalty (Part of the Spanish Empire)
c.1200–1525: Divided between Cuzcatlan (Western part) and Lenca (Eastern part)
Since 8000 BC humans have been settled by Native Salvadorans, including Mayans, Nahuatl, and Pipils.

 Equatorial Guinea Africa 12 Oct 1968 12 Oct 1968 Spain 1968–present: Republic of Equatorial Guinea

1778–1968: Part of the Spanish Empire
1474–1778: Part of the Portuguese Empire

 Eritrea Africa 1137 24 May 1993 Ethiopia 1993–present: State of Eritrea

1952–1993: Part of Ethiopia
1941–1952: Occupied by the British Empire
1889–1941: Part of the Italian Empire
1879–1889: Part of the Ethiopian Empire
1555–1879: Part of the Ottoman Empire
1137–1889: Medri Bahri kingdom
c. 100 AD – c. 940 AD: Part of the Kingdom of Aksum
c. 980 BC–c. 400 BC: Part of Dʿmt

 Estonia Europe 24 Feb 1918[74] 20 Aug 1991 Soviet Union 1991–present: Republic of Estonia

1940–1991: Occupation by the Soviet Union (1940–1941), Germany (1941–1944) and again by the Soviet Union (1944–1991)
1918–1940: Republic of Estonia
1917–1918: Autonomous Governorate of Estonia, autonomous entity of the Russian Republic
1721–1917: Governorate of Estonia, part of the Russian Empire
1561–1721: Duchy of Estonia, dominion of the Swedish Empire
1465–1561: Part of the Livonian Confederation
1346–1435: Part of the State of the Teutonic Order
1219–1346: Duchy of Estonia, a direct dominion (Latin: dominium directum) of the King of Denmark
The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 9,000 B.C

 Eswatini Africa 6 Sep 1968 6 Sep 1968  United Kingdom 2018–present: Kingdom of Eswatini

1968–2018: Kingdom of Swaziland
1902–1968: Part of the British Empire
1745–1902:Kingdom of Swaziland

 Ethiopia Africa 80 BC 5 May 1941 Italy 1995–present: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (a Federal state, constituted by 10 regional states and 2 chartered cities)

1991–1995: Transitional Government of Ethiopia
1987–1991: People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
1974–1987: Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia
1941–1974: Ethiopian Empire
[75] 1936–1941: Occupied by Italy
[75] 1734–1936: Sultanate of Aussa
1647–1887: Emirate of Harar
1577–1672: Imamate of Aussa
1415–1577: Adal Sultanate
1285–1415: Part of the Sultanate of Ifat
1270–1936: Ethiopian Empire
c. 900/1137–1270: Zagwe Kingdom
c. 325–1627: Kingdom of Semien
c. 80 BC – c. 940 AD: Kingdom of Aksum
c. 980 BC–c. 400 BC: Kingdom of D'mt

 Fiji Australia 1871 10 Oct 1970  United Kingdom 1987–present: Republic of Fiji

1970–1987: Dominion of Fiji
1874–1970: Part of the British Empire
1871–1874: Kingdom of Fiji

 Finland Europe 6 Dec 1917 4 Jan 1918 Russia 1919–present: Republic of Finland

1918–1919: Kingdom of Finland
1809–1917: Grand Duchy of Finland, Governorate-General of the Russian Empire
c.1200s–1809: Part of the Kingdom of Sweden, as an integral region.

 France Europe 481 1944 Germany 1958—Present: France French Republic (Fifth; consisted of integral regions (five being overseas regions) and several overseas collectivities)

1946–1958: France French Fourth Republic
1944–1946: France Provisional Government of the French Republic
1940–1944:  Free France, a government-in-exile of France, and member of the allies during WWII.
1940–1944: France Occupied by Germany in WWII making Vichy France, a Nazi Puppet.
1870–1940: France French Third Republic
1852–1870: France Second French Empire
1848–1852: France French Second Republic
1830–1848: France July Monarchy
1814/5–1830: France Bourbon Restoration
1804–1814/5: France First French Empire
1792–1804: France First French Republic
987–1792: Focusing with West Francia, the Kingdom of France was established.
843–987: with the Treaty of Verdun established West Francia
768–843: Part of the Kingdom of the Franks
481–768: Center of the Kingdom of the Franks
395–480 AD: Gaul, part of the Western Roman Empire
121 BC – 395 AD: Gaul, part of the Roman Empire
French Tribes from 5th century to 121 BC: Gauls and Celtics
First human settlement from 1.8 Million BC

Note: The French Colonial Empire was founded by the order of Francis I of France. In 1534, Francis sent Jacques Cartier to explore the St. Lawrence River in Quebec.

 Gabon Africa 17 Aug 1960 17 Aug 1960  France 1960–present: Gabonese Republic

1910–1960: Part of the French Equatorial Africa, federation of colonial possessions of the French Empire
1839–1910: Part of the French Empire as a protectorate

 Gambia Africa 18 Feb 1965 18 Feb 1965  United Kingdom 1970–present: Republic of The Gambia

1965–1970: Gambia (monarchy)
1821–1965: Part of the British Empire
1287–1480: Part of the Mali Empire

 Georgia Transcontinental – Asia/Europe 1008 9 Apr 1991 Soviet Union 1991–Present: Republic of Georgia
1921–1991: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, a federated state of the Soviet Union
1918–1921 : Democratic Republic of Georgia
1801–1918: Part of the Russian Empire
1490–1801 Fragmentized into three independent kingdoms – Kartli, Kakheti, and Imereti and five semi-independent principalities – Odishi, (Mingrelia), Guria, Abkhazia, Svaneti, and Samtskhe
1008–1490: Kingdom of Georgia
 Germany Europe Aug 843 15 Mar 1991 West Germany
East Germany
West Berlin
1990–Present: Germany Federal Republic of Germany (Become fully sovereign reunification on 15 March 1991 after the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany came into effect).

1949–1990: Divided between West Germany Federal Republic of Germany and  German Democratic Republic (Berlin West Berlin was an exclave of West Germany).
1945–1949: Germany occupied between the Allied-occupied Germany Allies (USA, UK and France) and the Soviet Union (The occupation lasted from 1945 until the ratification of Bonn–Paris conventions in 1955).
1933–1945:  Nazi Germany
1918–1933: Weimar Republic Weimar Germany (a federal republic)
1878–1918:  German Empire (Prussia Unified in a federal monarchy with all state kingdoms of Germany, excluding Austria).
1867–1878: Germany North German Confederation, union of 22 German-speaking states .
1815–1866:  German Confederation, union of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, including  Prussia and  Austrian Empire (Interrupted by the German Empire (1848–49)).
1806–1815: Confederation of the Rhine, part of the France First French Empire
962[note 19]-1806:  Holy Roman Empire (federation composed of many kingdoms, principalities, duchies, counties, prince-bishoprics, Free Imperial Cities, and other domains).
843–962: Kingdom of Germany or East Francia
768–843: Center of the Kingdom of the Franks
481–768: Part of the Kingdom of the Franks
395–480 AD: Germania Superior and Germania Inferior, parts of the Western Roman Empire
83–395 AD: Germania Superior and Germania Inferior, parts of the Roman Empire
Germanic Tribes from 5th century to 480 AD: Germania
First human settlement from the year 598,000 BC.

 Greece Europe 338 BC 1945  Bulgaria
 Nazi Germany
 Italy
1974–Present: Greece Third Hellenic Republic

1967–1974: Greece: Greek Dictatorship
1944–1973:  Kingdom of Greece
1941–1944: Greece Hellenic State, a government-in-exile during the axis occupation, and member of the allies during WWII.
1935–1941:  Kingdom of Greece
1924–1935: Greece Second Hellenic Republic
1832–1924:  Kingdom of Greece
1822–1832: After the War of Independence Greece declared independent as the Greece First Hellenic Republic
1453–1822: Part of the  Ottoman Empire
1453–1460: Despotate of Morea, ruled by the Palaiologos dynasty
1346–1566: Island of Chios and port of Phocaea, Part of the Republic of Genoa (Maona of Chios and Phocaea)
1348–1360: Part of the Serbian Empire
1310–1522: Rhodes, under the Knights Hospitaller
1261–1453: Part of the  Byzantine Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty
1261–1458: Duchy of Athens
1261–1432: Principality of Achaea
1231–1244: Part of the Second Bulgarian Empire
1205–1669: Crete, part of the Republic of Venice as part of its Stato da Màr.
1205–1337/40: Despotate of Epirus
1204–1261: Part of the Latin Empire
920s–1010s: Part of the First Bulgarian Empire
324–1204: Part of the  Byzantine Empire
148 BC-324 AD: Part of the Roman Empire
323–148 BC: Ancient Greece (Hellenistic period), Greece was divided in the Kingdom of Macedonia, Kingdom of Epirus, and the Aetolian League, Achaean League, and the city-states of Sparta and Athens.
338–323 BC: League of Corinth, a confederation of Greek states created by Philip II of Macedon (father of Alexander the Great). Sparta and Crete did not join this league
776–338 BC: Ancient Greece (Archaic and Classical Period): Greece was divided into many states, including Athens, Sparta, Thebes and Macedonia
c.1100–776 BC: Greek Dark Ages
c. 1600–c. 1100 BC: Mycenaean civilization
Since 7000 BC humans have been settled passing the first Greek ages such as the Neolithic era, the Minoan era and the Helladic era.

 Ghana Africa 6 May 1957 6 May 1957  United Kingdom 1957–Present: Republic of Ghana

1867–1957: British Gold Coast
1658–1850: Danish Gold Coast
1598–1872: Dutch Gold Coast
1650–1663: Swedish Gold Coast
1682–1721: 'Branderberger/Prussian Gold Coast
c.1670–1957: Kingdom of Ashanti
1482–1642: Portuguese Gold Coast
1409–1700: Kingdom of Dagbon, founded by the Dagomba people
c.13th century: Modern day Ghana was divided in many states like Bonoman, Ashanti, Denkyira, Mankessim Kingdom, and Akwamu
c.11th century: Akans were firmly established in the Akan state called
Although the area of present-day Ghana in West Africa has experienced many population movements, the Akans were firmly settled by the 5th century CE

 Grenada The Americas 7 Feb 1974 7 Feb 1974  United Kingdom 1974–present: Grenada

1783–1974: Part of the British Empire, as its West Indies
1779–1783: Part of the French Empire
1763–1779: Part of the British Empire
1650–1763: Part of the French Empire

 Guatemala The Americas 15 Sep 1815 21 Jan 1822 Federal Republic of Central America 1922–present: Guatemala Republic of Guatemala

1921–1922: Federated state of the Federal Republic of Central America
1840–1921: Republic of Guatemala
1823–1838: Federated state of the Federal Republic of Central America
24 September 1821 – 1823: Part of the First Mexican Empire as Province of Guatemala
15–24 September 1821: Republic of Guatemala
1609-1821: Captaincy General of Guatemala (alternativelly known as Kingdom of Guatemala), within the Viceroyalty of New Spain, part of the Spanish Empire. Since its foundation the Captaincy had self-administration without vice-royal dependence.
1535-1609: Part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain
1523–1535: Part of the Columbian Viceroyalty
Since 8000 BC humans have been settled by Native Guatemalans, including Mayans (that established city-states in the region) and Nahuatl (founders of the Aztec Empire).

 Guinea Africa