Rotuma
Rotuma रॉट्युमा
Location of Rotuma in Polynesia
Location of Rotuma in Polynesia
The island of Rotuma, located to the far north, in relation to mainland Fiji
The island of Rotuma, located to the far north, in relation to mainland Fiji
Administrative centerAhau
12°29.9′S 177°2.82′E / 12.4983°S 177.04700°E / -12.4983; 177.04700
Official languages
Ethnic groups
Rotuman
 Fagutan
Demonym(s)Rotuman
 Fagutan
GovernmentDependency of Fiji
• Gagaj Pure
(District Officer)
Niumaia Masere
• Gagaj Jeaman
(Council Chairman)
Tarterani Rigamoto
Establishment
• Faguta's special status agreed to by Rotuma's chiefs in the Treaty of Hamelin
11 September 1871
• Rotuma ceded to the United Kingdom
13 May 1881
• Independence from the United Kingdom granted as part of Fiji
10 October 1970
Area
• Total
47 km2 (18 sq mi)
Population
• 2017 census
1,594
CurrencyFiji dollar (FJD)
Time zoneUTC+12
Calling code+679

Rotuma /rˈtmə/ is a self-governing heptarchy, generally designated a dependency of Fiji. 'Rotuma' commonly refers to Rotuma Island, the only permanently inhabited and by far the largest of all the islands in the Rotuma Group. Officially, the Rotuma Act declares that Rotuma consists of Rotuma Island as well as its neighbouring islands, rocks, and reefs across the entire Rotuma Group. The dependency is situated around 500 km west of the French islands of Wallis and Futuna and a similar distance north of the Fijian mainland. Its capital is Ahau, a hamlet consisting of a number of colonial-era buildings. Rotuma exists as a dependency of Fiji but itself contains its own socioreligious pene-enclave known traditionally as Faguta where the chiefs (of Juju and Pepjei) and their villages adhere to the practices of worship, festival dates, and French-based writing system of the Marists.[a] Faguta's special character was effectively agreed to by all Rotuma's chiefs in 1871 in the Treaty of Hamelin.

The island group is home to a large and unique Polynesian indigenous ethnic group which constitutes a recognisable minority within the population of Fiji, known as 'Rotumans'. Its population at the 2017 census was 1,594,[1] although many more Rotumans live on mainland Fijian islands, totaling 10,000.

History

Linguistic evidence

The first settlers on the island of Rotuma were from Tahiti from the Fa'anui village in Bora Bora. After invasions by groups of Samoans and Tongans, the Rotuman language emerged as a language unique to the Rotuman people. Linguists include the Rotuman language in a subgroup with the languages of western Fiji, but Rotuman also has a large number of Polynesian loanwords, indicating contact with Samoa and Tonga.

Origins per linguistic evidence and oral history

According to oral history, the first settlers of the islands came from Samoa, led by a man named Raho which was made up after they overthrew the Tahitians. In 1896, the scholar Friedrich Ratzel recorded a Samoan legend about Samoans’ relationship to Rotuma:[2]

"Thus the Samoans relate that one of their chiefs fished in the vicinity of Rotuma and then planted coco-palms on the main island. In a later migration the chief Tokaniua came that way with a canoe full of men and quarrelled with the Samoan chief Raho about who had the right of possession."

Rotuma's oral history further states that shortly afterwards additional settlers also arrived from Tonga, Tahiti, Niue, Wallis & Futuna, Tuvalu and other adjacent islands.[citation needed] According to linguistic evidence / journals / history books and eye witness accounts, the original inhabitants of Rotuma came from Bora Bora (Tahiti), with later migration from Samoa etc.[citation needed]

Rotuman Revolution

While Tongan forces invaded and occupied the island at one point in the 17th century, managing to consolidate their hold over the island and its people, eventually the Rotumans rebelled. According to the Acting-Resident Commissioner of Rotuma W.E. Russell, Rotumans ultimately overthrew their Tongan occupiers in a bloody uprising that took place over a single night.[3]

European contact

Tupaia’s Map is among the most important artifacts to have come from late 18th-century European–Indigenous encounters in the South Pacific region and features, in Epeli Hau‘ofa’s terms, a ‘sea of islands’ extending for more than 7,000 km from Rotuma in the west to Rapa Nui in the east and more than 5,000 km from Hawai‘i in the north to New Zealand in the south. The earliest known confirmed European sighting of Rotuma was in 1791, when Captain Edward Edwards and the crew of HMS Pandora landed in search of sailors who had disappeared following the Mutiny on the Bounty. Some scholars have suggested that the first European to sight the island was, instead, Pedro Fernandes de Queirós; his description of an island he sighted is consistent with the characteristics and location of Rotuma. However, this possibility has not been conclusively substantiated.

France, Catholicism, and Coquille

Frenchman René Lesson whose sharing of his beliefs in 1824 was recorded as the first such occasion on the island. This act effectively rendered French Catholicism the first religion to reach Rotumans' ears.[4]

In 1824, French surgeon and naturalist René Lesson arrived in Rotuma onboard the vessel Coquille. Lesson observed that the Rotumans had no awareness of an afterlife; his revelation of such an idea therefore made French Catholicism, the official religion of the state of his employ, the Kingdom of France, the first faith shared with the Rotumans.[5] His catechising would subsequently be formalised and reinforced by French Marists two decades later, most especially in the formerly conjoined chiefdoms of Faguta, Pepjei and Juju, as well as extending into neighbouring districts, especially Ituʻtiʻu.

Whaling

A favorite of whaling ships in need of reprovisioning, in the mid-nineteenth century Rotuma also became a haven for runaway sailors, some of whom were escaped convicts. Some of these deserters married local women and contributed their genes to an already heterogeneous pool; others met violent ends, reportedly at one another's hands. The first recorded whaleship to visit was the Loper in 1825, and the last known visit was by the Charles W. Morgan in 1894.[6] Rotuma was visited as part of the United States Exploring Expedition in 1840.

Tongan invasion and the Wesleyan agenda

In the 1850s and 1860s, the Tongan prince Ma'afu claimed possession of Rotuma and sent his subordinates to administer the main island and its neighboring islets. Ma'afu had earlier made a serious effort to spread his Wesleyan beliefs to eastern Fiji and the Tongan invasion of Rotuma allowed him to consolidate its hold over a new group, the Rotumans in the north of the island.[7]

Cession to Britain

Wesleyan missionaries from Tonga arrived on Rotuma in June 1841, followed by Catholic Marists in 1847. The Roman Catholic missionaries withdrew in 1853 but returned in 1868. Conflicts between the two groups, fuelled by previous political rivalries among the chiefs of Rotuma's seven districts, resulted in hostilities that led the local chiefs in 1879 to ask Britain to annex the island group. On 13 May 1881, Rotuma was officially ceded to the United Kingdom, when the British flag was hoisted by Hugh Romilly. The event is annually celebrated as Rotuma Day.

In 1881, a group of Rotuman chiefs travelled to Levuka, Ovalau, Fiji, to meet Queen Victoria's official representative to complete the process of cession. A memorial to the seven chiefs and their mission is located in the District of Ituʻtiʻu. In response to the cession, Queen Victoria bestowed the name of Albert on the paramount chief at the time - Gagaj Vaniak - in honour of her beloved husband, Prince Albert, who had died twenty years before. In June 2017, Pene Saggers (née Enasio) met with Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II and together they spoke about the links between their ancestral lines and the cession of Rotuma.

After Rotuma was ceded to the United Kingdom, it was governed as part of the Colony of Fiji. Rotuma remained with Fiji after Fiji's independence in 1970 and the military coups of 1987.

Geography and geology

The Rotuma group of volcanic islands are located 646 kilometres (401 mi) (Suva to Ahau) north of Fiji. Rotuma Island itself is 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) long and 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) wide, with a land area of approximately 47 square kilometres (12,000 acres),[8] making it the 12th-largest of the Fiji islands.

The island is bisected by an isthmus into a larger eastern part and a western peninsula. The isthmus is low and narrow, only 230 metres (750 ft) wide, and is the site of Motusa village (Ituʻtiʻu district). North of the isthmus is Maka Bay, and in the south is Hapmafau Bay. There is a large population of coral reefs in these bays, and there are boat passages through them.

Rotuma is a shield volcano made of alkali-olivine basalt and hawaiite, with many small cones. It reaches 256 metres (840 ft) above sea level at Mount Suelhof, near the center of the island. Satarua Peak, 166 metres (540 ft) high, lies near the eastern end of the island.[9] While they are very secluded from much of Fiji proper, the large reef and untouched beaches are renowned as some of the most beautiful in the Republic of Fiji.

There are several islands that lie between 50 metres (160 ft) and 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) distant from the main island, but are still within the fringing reef. They are:

There is also a separate chain of islands that lie between 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) and 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) to the northwest and west of Rotuma Island. In order, from northeast to southwest, these are:

The geological features of this island contribute to its national significance, as outlined in Fiji's Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan.[11]

Pigs are so widespread in Rotuma their stone enclosures are a prominent feature of the island. Scientists conducting a botanical survey of the island in 2000 even remarked on this:[12]

"Pig rearing, often within elaborate stonewalled pens, is also an integral component of the agricultural system and has been recognized by Rotumans as having a considerable impact."

The Acting-Resident Commissioner of Rotuma, W.E. Russell, dubbed this network of stone pig sty fences the 'Great Wall of Rotuma'.[13]

Climate

Climate data for Rotuma Island (1991–2020 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 34
(93)
33
(91)
34
(93)
32
(90)
32
(90)
32
(90)
32
(90)
32
(90)
32
(90)
32
(90)
33
(91)
32
(90)
34
(93)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 31.2
(88.2)
31.1
(88.0)
31.1
(88.0)
31.1
(88.0)
30.7
(87.3)
30.0
(86.0)
29.7
(85.5)
29.7
(85.5)
29.9
(85.8)
30.3
(86.5)
30.8
(87.4)
31.1
(88.0)
30.6
(87.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 28.1
(82.6)
28.1
(82.6)
28.1
(82.6)
28.1
(82.6)
27.9
(82.2)
27.5
(81.5)
27.2
(81.0)
27.2
(81.0)
27.3
(81.1)
27.5
(81.5)
27.9
(82.2)
28.1
(82.6)
27.8
(82.0)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 25.0
(77.0)
25.0
(77.0)
25.0
(77.0)
25.1
(77.2)
25.1
(77.2)
24.9
(76.8)
24.6
(76.3)
24.6
(76.3)
24.6
(76.3)
24.7
(76.5)
24.9
(76.8)
25
(77)
24.9
(76.8)
Record low °C (°F) 20
(68)
21
(70)
21
(70)
22
(72)
20
(68)
20
(68)
18
(64)
20
(68)
19
(66)
17
(63)
20
(68)
20
(68)
17
(63)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 359.9
(14.17)
312.8
(12.31)
359.5
(14.15)
264.5
(10.41)
275.8
(10.86)
274.2
(10.80)
249.0
(9.80)
248.2
(9.77)
289.1
(11.38)
355.4
(13.99)
323.5
(12.74)
322.7
(12.70)
3,634.6
(143.09)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 19.9 19.0 19.5 18.4 15.9 17.1 17.1 17.2 17.9 18.4 17.9 19.1 217.4
Average relative humidity (%) 83 83 83 84 83 82 82 81 81 82 83 82 82
Mean monthly sunshine hours 166.2 162.6 177.8 194.2 194.5 178.9 194.1 201.4 179.5 193.2 188.7 182.4 2,213.5
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization[14]
Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst[15]

Flora and fauna

Mofmanu beach in Motusa, Rotuma

A 4,200-hectare (10,000-acre) area covering the main island and its small satellite islets is the Rotuma Important Bird Area. The Important Bird Area covers the entire range of the vulnerable Rotuma myzomela, and the Rotuman subspecies of Polynesian starling and Fiji shrikebill. Rotuma also supports isolated outlying populations of Crimson-crowned fruit dove and Polynesian triller. The offshore islets of Haʻatana, Hofliua and Hatawa have nationally significant seabird colonies.[16]

Demographics

Although the island has been politically part of Fiji since 1881, Rotumans are Polynesians and their culture more closely resembles that of the Polynesian islands to the east, most noticeably Tahiti, Tonga, Samoa, Futuna, and Uvea. Because of their Polynesian appearance and distinctive language, Rotumans now constitute a recognizable minority group within the Republic of Fiji. The great majority of Rotumans (9,984 according to the 2007 Fiji census) now live elsewhere in Fiji, with 1,953 Rotumans remaining on Rotuma.

Population in Rotuma[17]
Year Population
1986 2588
1996 2619
2007 1893
2017 1594

Rotumans are staunchly conservative culturally and maintain their customs in the face of changes brought about by increased contact with the outside world; social trends which have emerged elsewhere have remained entirely unwelcome in Rotuma. As recently as 1985, some 85 percent of Rotumans voted against opening the island up to tourism, concerned about the impact of an influx of secular tourist outsiders. P&O Cruises landed on the island only twice in the 1980s. Rotumans' inherent conservatism has led to a strict form of sociodemographic preservation. Indians and Chinese have no presence in Rotuma, unlike other Fijian islands, where these groups have managed to acquire property and establish themselves; this is because in Rotuma landholdings are held exclusively for the use and benefit of the island's own Rotuman people.

Notable Rotumans and people of Rotuman descent

Politics and society

Political offices

Rotuma is divided into seven districts, each with its own chief (Gagaj ʻes Ituʻu). The district chiefs and elected district representatives make up the Rotuma Island Council. The districts are divided into subgroupings of households (hoʻaga) that function as work groups under the leadership of a subchief (gagaj ʻes hoʻaga). All district headmen and the majority of hoʻaga headmen are titled. In addition, some men hold titles without headship (as tög), although they are expected to exercise leadership roles in support of the district headman. Titles, which are held for life, belong to specified house sites (fuạg ri). All the descendants of previous occupants of a fuạg ri have a right to participate in the selection of successors to titles.

Participants of the formal tautoga dance sometimes wear the lengthy tailfeathers of the white-tailed tropicbird, called the "täväke" in Rotuman

On formal occasions, titled men and dignitaries such as priests, ministers, government representatives, and distinguished visitors occupy a place of honor. They are ceremonially served food from special baskets and kava. In the daily routine of village life, however, they are not especially privileged. As yet no significant class distinctions based on wealth or control of resources have emerged, but investments in elaborate housing and motor vehicles by a few families have led to visible differences in standard of living.

At the time of arrival by Europeans, there were three pan-Rotuman political positions created by the Samoan invaders: the fakpure, the sạu, and the mua. The fakpure acted as convener and presiding officer over the council of district headmen and was responsible for appointing the sạu and ensuring that he was cared for properly. The fakpure was headman of the district that headed the alliance that had won the last war. The sạu's role was to take part in the ritual cycle, oriented toward ensuring prosperity, as an object of veneration. Early European visitors referred to the sạu as "king", but he actually had no secular power. The position of sạu was supposed to rotate between districts, and a breach of this custom was considered to be incitement to war. The role of mua is more obscure, but like the sạu, he was an active participant in the ritual cycle. According to some accounts the mua acted as a kind of high priest.

Following Christianisation in the 1860s, the offices of sạu and mua were terminated. Colonial administration involved the appointment by the governor of Fiji of a Resident Commissioner (after 1935, a District Officer) to Rotuma. He was advised by a council composed of the district chiefs. In 1940 the council was expanded to include an elected representative from each district and the Assistant Medical Practitioner. Following Fiji's independence in 1970, the council assumed responsibility for the internal governance of Rotuma, with the District Officer assigned to an advisory role. Up until the first coup, Rotuma was represented in the Fiji legislature by a single senator.

Elections

Administratively, Rotuma is fully incorporated into Fiji, but with local government so tailored as to give the island a measure of autonomy greater than that enjoyed by other political subdivisions of Fiji. At the national level, in the past Fijian citizens of Rotuman descent elected one representative to the Fijian House of Representatives, and the Council of Rotuma nominated one representative to the Fijian Senate. Rotuma was also represented in the influential Great Council of Chiefs by three representatives chosen by the Council of Rotuma. For electoral purposes, Rotumans were formerly classified as Fijians, but when the Constitution was revised in 1997–1998, they were granted separate representation at their own request. (The majority of seats in Fiji's House of Representatives are allocated on a communal basis to Fiji's various ethnic groups.) In addition, Rotuma forms part (along with Taveuni and the Lau Islands) of the Lau Taveuni Rotuma Open Constituency, one of 25 constituencies whose representatives are chosen by universal suffrage.

Social control

The hoʻaga, a kinship community, was the basic residential unit in pre-contact Rotuma.[21] The basis for social control is a strong socialisation emphasis on social responsibility and a sensitivity to shaming. Gossip serves as a mechanism for sanctioning deviation, but the most powerful deterrent to antisocial behavior is an abiding belief in imminent justice, that supernatural forces (the ʻatua or spirits of ancestors) will punish wrongdoing. Rotumans are a rather gentle people; violence is extremely rare and serious crimes nearly nonexistent.

Conflict

Prior to cession, warfare, though conducted on a modest scale, was endemic in Rotuma. During the colonial era political rivalries were muted, since power was concentrated in the offices of Resident Commissioner and District Officer. Following Fiji's independence, however, interdistrict rivalries were again given expression, now in the form of political contention. Following the second coup, when Fiji left the Commonwealth of Nations, a segment of the Rotuman population, known as the "Mölmahao Clan" of Noaʻtau rejected the council's decision to remain with the newly declared republic. Arguing that Rotuma had been ceded to the United Kingdom and not to Fiji, in 1987 these rebels attempted to form an independent aristocratic maritime republic which they called the Republic of Rotuma but they were promptly charged with sedition and the entity disintegrated almost immediately. It did not have any substantive support and while majority opinion appears to favor remaining with Fiji some rumblings of discontent remain.

Territorial divisions

Main article: Local government of Fiji

Schematic map of Rotuma indicating districts and main villages

Rotuma's seven districts can be grouped into three agglomerations: the medial and northern districts, the capital district, and the traditional territory of Faguta.

Medial and northern districts

Noaʻtau

Noaʻtau (extreme southeast) contains the villages Fekeioko, Maragteʻu, Fafʻiasina, Matuʻea, ʻUtʻutu, and Kalvaka.

Oinafa

Oinafa (east) contains the villages Oinafa, Lopta, and Paptea.

Malhaha

Malhaha (north) contains the villages Pepheua, ʻElseʻe, and ʻElsio.

Ituʻmuta

Ituʻmuta (western peninsula) contains the villages Maftoa and Lopo.

Capital district

Ituʻtiʻu

Ituʻtiʻu (west, but east of western peninsula) contains the villages Savlei, Lạu, Feavại, Tuạʻkoi, Motusa, Hapmak, Losa, and Fapufa.

ʻAhạu, also located in the District of Ituʻtiʻu, is the capital and where the "tariạgsạu" (traditionally the name of the sạu's palace) meeting house for the Council of Rotuma is based which functions as Rotuma's seat of government.

Faguta

The southern part of Rotuma is known traditionally as Faguta, a territory encompassing Juju and Pepjei, whose chiefs lead socioreligious communities which follow the ecclesiastical, cultural, and linguistic teachings of the Marists of France.[22]

Faguta
Ituʻu Location Villages
Juju south
  • Juju
  • Tuại
  • Haga
Pepjei southeast
  • ʻUjia
  • Uạnheta
  • Avave

Ituʻu is a Rotuman geographic term typically considered equivalent to a chiefdom or district.

Timeline of Faguta

The main island in the Rotuma Group was formerly partitioned into five parts. One of these parts, Faguta, was located to the south of Rotuma Island, across the strait from Solnohu island. Faguta's chief, alongside the chief of Noatau, were generally considered the most influential of all those across the island and effectively governed the island's south and north, respectively. The significance of these two chiefs was reflected in the fact that the position of the head of the island's governing council alternated between the chief of Faguta and the chief of Noatau, depending on which of the two had been victorious in the last conflict between them. However, following victory and invasion by opposing forces (internecine conflict was endemic for centuries on Rotuma), Faguta was forcibly divided into two by the other districts' chiefs in an effort to weaken its influence, thereby forming Juju and Pepjei (although the territory is still commonly referred to by the two districts' inhabitants and descendants as 'Faguta').[23]

Mythology centred around Faguta

Local mythology tells of two turtles which live off the coast of Faguta, one red and one white. Green sea turtles, which are known to frequent the islands of Fiji, can actually exhibit reddish and whitish hues on their carapaces and plastrons, respectively.

Solnohu, a islet off the southern coast of Faguta roughly equidistant between its constituent districts, is the location of a significant local myth, "The turtle of Sol Onau". The myth tells of two local girls who fall from atop the island into the sea below. There, the two were transformed into sea turtles, one red and one white. Local beliefs hold that these two turtles, called 'Eao', continue to live around the coral of the rock and will resurface if a particular chant is performed.

Eao manuse, ka Lepiteala
Ai, ma vehia ka foro ole tufe,
Havei, ma foiak ta ka fau paufu,
He ta jauaki, ma moiea. Pete.

Traditional chant for sea turtles from "The Natives of Rotuma", (1898).[24]

J. Stanley Gardiner, who visited the island and wrote extensively on the locals' customs and myths wrote that he took Gagaj Mou, the chief of Pepjei, and five girls to recite the traditional chant. Gardiner recorded that from his vantage point out front he actually noticed the appearance of a green turtle. Green sea turtles are often located in the waters of Fiji and Rotuma.

He also recorded that Mou, the chief, as well as the others stated that they had regularly seen the turtle and that beach between Faguta and Solnohu was a frequently used feeding spot for the reptile.[25]

Fagutan culture

Fagutan people, like all Rotumans, celebrate the traditional festival of Fara. This involves the residents of Faguta's villages (Juju, Tuại, Haga, Ujia, Uạnheta, and Avave) visiting other village communities, singing and dancing, where they are often invited inside by the local hosts. In exchange, the guests are served watermelon as a sort of reward for providing entertainment and are often doused in perfume, talcum powder, or turmeric. Across the island, these sorts of celebrations continue until mid-January. Fagutan Fara however begins much later in December (on December 24) than celebrations held elsewhere on the island.[26]

Notable Fagutans

The term 'Fagutan' commonly refers to those who live in the two Fagutan districts (Juju and Pepjei) or those with cultural or family ties to the area. Notable examples include:

Charles Chowe Howard, a Fagutan resident and forefather of much of Haga's population.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ An analogous situation is that of Danelaw, a part of the island of Britain with a social system which set it apart from other contemporaneous kingdoms on the island.

References

  1. ^ "2017 Population and Housing Census - Release 1" (PDF). Fiji Bureau of Statistics. 2018-01-05. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-08-26. Retrieved 2019-08-26.
  2. ^ The History of Mankind by Professor Friedrich Ratzel, Book II, Section A, The Races of Oceania page 173, MacMillan and Co., Ltd., published 1896
  3. ^ Russell, W.E. (1942). "Rotuma: Its History, Traditions and Customs". The Journal of the Polynesian Society. 51 (4): 234.
  4. ^ Irava, Ieli. Hanuạ Pumue. Institute of Pacific Studies of the University of the South Pacific. p. 11. ISBN 9820200350.
  5. ^ Irava, Ieli. Hanuạ Pumue. Institute of Pacific Studies of the University of the South Pacific. p. 11. ISBN 9820200350.
  6. ^ Langdon, Robert (1984), Where the whalers went: an index to the Pacific ports and islands visited by American whalers (and some other ships) in the 19th century, Canberra, Pacific Manuscripts Bureau, p.209. ISBN 086784471X
  7. ^ "The Rotuman People", p. 4, in Teʻo Tuvale, An Account of Samoan History up to 1918
  8. ^ Rotuma Island | island, Fiji
  9. ^ "Sector 3: Chart Information" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 November 2004.
  10. ^ "SURVEY OF MARINE TURTLES IN ROTUMA" (PDF). LäjeRotuma Initiative. March 2007. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  11. ^ Ganilau, Bernadette Rounds (2007). Fiji Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (PDF). Convention on Biological Diversity. pp. 107–112. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  12. ^ McClatchey, Will; Thaman, Randy; Vodonaivalu, Saula. "A Preliminary Checklist of the Flora of Rotuma with Rotuman Names". Pacific Science. 54 (4): 346.
  13. ^ Russell, W.E. (1942). "Rotuma: Its History, Traditions and Customs". The Journal of the Polynesian Society. 51 (4): 229.
  14. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1991–2020". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 19 October 2023.
  15. ^ "Klimatafel von Ahau / Insel Rotuma / Fidschi" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2019. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  16. ^ "BirdLife Data Zone: Rotuma". datazone.birdlife.org. Retrieved 3 June 2017.
  17. ^ "Rotuman Language Educational Booklet" (PDF). Ministry for Pacific Peoples. Retrieved 4 September 2023.
  18. ^ Robson, Toby (30 January 2011). "Rocky Khan a sevens player with a difference". Fairfax Media. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  19. ^ "Rotuman Sports".
  20. ^ "Ngaire Fuata | TAGATA PASIFIKA | TV ONE | TVNZ.co.nz".
  21. ^ Howard, Alan (1964). "Land Tenure and Social Change in Rotuma". Journal of the Polynesian Society. 73: 26–52.
  22. ^ Howard, Alan; Kjellgren, Eric (1994-12-01). "Martyrs, progress and political ambition: Re‐examining Rotuma's 'Religious Wars'". The Journal of Pacific History. 29 (2): 131–152. doi:10.1080/00223349408572768. ISSN 0022-3344.
  23. ^ Gardiner, J. Stanley (1898). "The Natives of Rotuma". Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 27: 428.
  24. ^ Gardiner, J. Stanley (1898). "The Natives of Rotuma". Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 27: 503–518.
  25. ^ Gardiner, J. Stanley (1898). "The Natives of Rotuma". Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 27: 503–518.
  26. ^ "Taveuni". Rough Guides. Rough Guides. Retrieved 5 September 2023.
  27. ^ Russell, W.E. (1942). "Rotuma: Its History, Traditions and Customs". The Journal of the Polynesian Society. 51 (4): 235.
  28. ^ Rovoi, Christine. "Why Rotuman is a unique Pacific language". Pacific Media Network. Pacific Media Network. Retrieved 5 September 2023.

12°30′S 177°4.8′E / 12.500°S 177.0800°E / -12.500; 177.0800