This article needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (February 2024)

Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
The "Sea of Hands" outside the AIATSIS building on Acton Peninsula, created in 2014 with the help of local communities, to commemorate the 6th anniversary of the 2008 National Apology to Australia's First Peoples
Map
Established1964
LocationActon, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
CEOCraig Ritchie[1]
ChairpersonJodie Sizer
Websiteaiatsis.gov.au

The Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS), established as the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies (AIAS) in 1964, is an independent Australian Government statutory authority. It is a collecting, publishing, and research institute and is considered to be Australia's premier resource for information about the cultures and societies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

The institute is a leader in ethical research and the handling of culturally sensitive material. The collection at AIATSIS has been built through over 50 years of research and engagement with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and is now a source of language and culture revitalisation, native title research, and Indigenous family and community history. AIATSIS is located on Acton Peninsula in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory.

History

The proposal and interim council (1959–1964)

In the late 1950s, there was an increasing focus on the global need for anthropological research into 'disappearing cultures'.[2][3] This trend was also emerging in Australia in the work of researchers of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples,[4][5] leading to a proposal by W.C. Wentworth MP for the conception of an Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies (AIAS) in 1959.[6]

The proposal was made as a submission to Cabinet,[7] and argued for a more comprehensive approach by the Australian Government to the recording of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and cultures.[8]

In 1960, a Cabinet sub-committee assessed the proposal[9] and formed a working party at the Australian National University (ANU) to consider the viability of the proposal. One of their first actions was to appoint W.E.H. Stanner to organise a conference on the state of Aboriginal Studies in Australia,[7] to be held in 1961 at the ANU.

Academics and anthropologists in the field of Aboriginal Studies attended the conference,[7] and contributed research papers published in a conference report in 1963.[10] No Aboriginal people were present at the conference.[6]

The Prime Minister, Robert Menzies appointed an Interim Council in 1961. The role of the Interim Council was to plan for a national Aboriginal research organisation and establish how this organisation would interact with existing research and scientific bodies.[6] The Interim Council was also tasked with immediately developing a programme that would identify and address urgent research needs.[11]

The Interim Council consisted of 16 members and was chaired by Deputy Vice-Chancellor of the ANU, Professor AD Trendall,[6] officially recognised as the first chair of the institute now known as AIATSIS.[12]

In August 1962, a draft constitution for the institute was submitted to the Menzies government, and rejected. The Interim Council completed a revised constitution in July 1963. Amendments to the document included the change from the title 'director' to 'principal' of the institute.

This version of the constitution would go on to form the basis for the creation of the new Australian Institute for Aboriginal Studies the following year.[6]

AIAS early years (1964–1970)

The Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies was established as a statutory authority[7][13] under an Act of Parliament in June 1964.[14][15] The mission of the Institute at that time has been described as "to record language, song, art, material culture, ceremonial life and social structure before those traditions perished in the face of European ways".[16]

This notion is also reflected in the Institute's official functions, as recorded in the Reading of the Bill in Parliament. These were:

(a) to sponsor and to foster research of a scientific nature on the Australian Aborigines.
(b) to treat as a matter of urgency those studies for which the source materials are disappearing.
(c) to establish and conduct a documentation centre on the Aborigines, and a library of books, manuscripts and other relevant material, both for the use of scholars and for public education.
(d) to encourage co-operation with and between scholars in universities, museums, and other institutions engaged in studies of the Aborigines, and with appropriate private bodies.
(e) to publish and to support the publication of the results of research.
(f) to co-operate with appropriate bodies concerning the financing of research, the preservation of sites, and the collection of records.
(g) to promote as and when necessary the training of research workers.
(h) to establish and maintain relations with relevant international bodies.[11]

AIAS had a twenty-two member Council, composed mainly of academics, and had a foundation membership of one hundred.[14] The founding Principal of the newly formed institute was Frederick McCarthy, a professional anthropologist and graduate of Sydney University who had spent nearly 30 years working in the field.[17]

The creation of the AIAS provided an opportunity for greater cross-discipline interaction in fields relating to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander studies in Australia.[14]

The Institute's founding principal, Fred McCarthy, was an advocate of film as an important part of research methodology as early as his tenure as curator of anthropology at the Australian Museum in Sydney in the 1940s.[7] This was evident in the contributions he made during his involvement in establishing the AIAS and also as its principal, in continuing to support the development of the AIAS Film Unit[18] and championing ethnographic film in global forums.[7]

In the early years of the AIAS, the Film Unit largely outsourced early filmmaking work to other companies,[18] or worked in collaboration with the Commonwealth Film Unit (as early as 1962).[7][19] But over the next 30 years, the Film Unit would go on to produce "one of the largest assembly of ethnographic films created in the world".[20]

In keeping with the AIAS official function "to publish and to support the publication of the results of research",[11] a publishing arm of the institute was established in 1964. Publishing under the name Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, the publishing arm released a range of papers and research findings, including in the fields of linguistics, demography, physical anthropology, history and musicology.[21]

The early work of the AIAS is credited with increasing interaction between academics in different fields, as well as establishing the foundations for the extensive collections AIATSIS holds today. But before 1970, there had never been an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander member on the AIAS Council.[14]

Self-determination and the Institute (1970–1989)

"Money and other resources are in short supply for Aboriginal control of their livelihood, but not, it seems, for discussing it." – Eaglehawk and Crow letter, 29 March 1974[22]

The 1970s marked a period of change for the AIAS. This began with the appointment of the first Aboriginal member of the AIAS Council in 1970.[23] Phillip Roberts, an Alawa man,[24][25] served on the council from September 1970 until June 1972.[26]

This was followed in 1971 with a second Aboriginal Council member, Senator Neville Bonner, who served on Council until 1974 and for a second term in the late 1970s. And again in 1972, with the appointment of Dick Roughsey to replace Phillip Roberts at the end of his term.[27]

The appointment of Phillip Roberts to the Council reflected a growing pressure for an increase in Aboriginal representation within the institute.[26] But the move did not allay the belief held by some Aboriginal activists that the AIAS was engaging in 'tokenism' in the extent to which Aboriginal people were involved in the administration of Aboriginal Studies.[28]

The changes to the Institute that would take place in the following decade were also influenced by the shifting social and political landscape in Australia.[29] The Aboriginal rights movement was growing[9] and Aboriginal people were demanding a voice on Council, consultation with communities and an increased focus on projects relevant to the needs of Indigenous people.[16]

In 1972, the Whitlam government was elected. Their policy of Self-determination for Aboriginal people echoed calls for greater Aboriginal involvement in the administration and functions of the AIAS.[30][31] The new government was also responsible for a significant boost to AIAS funding.[32]

The appointment of Peter Ucko in 1972 as Principal of the AIAS has since been described as the beginning of an increase in involvement of Aboriginal people in the workings of the institute.[33]

In his time as Principal, Ucko was responsible for implementing a policy later labelled "Aboriginalisation", which was aimed at opening up the institute to Aboriginal involvement and representation.[34] This policy was influenced by a document circulated in 1974, called the Eaglehawk and Crow letter, which criticised the current model of academic research.[35] The letter asserted that anthropologists "should not pretend that their studies are objective when the overwhelming factor in the lives of Aborigines is our oppression by the society of which the anthropologist is, to a greater or lesser extent, a part of." Its authors called for increased participation of Aboriginal people in the running of the Institute and for greater control over commissioning and funding of research into their cultures.[22]

The policy and structural changes to the Institute continued throughout the 1970s.

The Aboriginal Advisory Committee was established in 1975, and consisted of the six Aboriginal members of the AIAS Council.[36] Early recommendations including increased representation of Aboriginal people on committees and the AIAS Council as well as employment at the institute.[34] The committee was renamed in 1978, to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Advisory Committee.[37]

In 1975–1976, a category of research grants for Aboriginal researchers was introduced.[9] The emergence of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people filling the role of 'cultural practitioner', travelling to the AIAS to provide advice on projects and research being undertaken, was also documented from around 1976 onwards.[38]

The time Peter Ucko spent as Principal of the AIAS saw a phase of "rapid expansion"[33] for the institute.

The AIAS Film Unit that had operated in Sydney until 1973 was re-established in Canberra in 1975. Prominent American-born ethnographic filmmaker David MacDougall was appointed the Director of this new AIAS Film Unit. With his wife and filmmaking partner Judith MacDougall and Kim McKenzie, the Film Unit operated until 1988 when its functions were absorbed back into the institute.[32]

During the MacDougall/McKenzie era, a new style of ethnographic film was explored.[39] One that moved away from film as a scientific record in favour of telling the story of individuals lives.[32] The filmmakers also practised a more collaborative approach to their films, and chose to use translations and subtitles to give direct access to the subjects voice and thoughts rather than the dominant 'voice of god' narration style.[39][40]

One of the most notable films produced towards the end of this period was Waiting for Harry, a prize-winning film[41] directed by Kim McKenzie with anthropologist Les Hiatt and now considered to exemplify the "style of collaborative filmmaking" the Film Unit favoured in their work.[39]

The power of film to "influence opinion"[32] was becoming increasingly recognised and with this, the lack of representation of Aboriginal people telling their own stories. In 1978, a meeting chaired by prominent activist and academic Marcia Langton expressed these concerns, arguing for greater access to film and video in Aboriginal communities, and training in film production by the AIAS.[32]

By the following year, the AIAS Film Unit had begun to implement a training program[32] and had started employing trainee Aboriginal filmmakers on productions by the early 1980s.[42]

The AIAS began presenting a biennial Wentworth Lecture in 1978, named as a tribute to W.C. Wentworth for his role in establishing the institute.[9] The lecture is presented by prominent person with knowledge or experience relating to issues affecting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia today.[8]

The expansion of the Institute continued into the 1980s. The Aboriginal Studies Press began publishing the Australian Aboriginal Studies Journal in 1983,[43] a peer-reviewed journal aimed at "promoting high-quality research in Australian Indigenous studies".[44]

In 1982, the AIAS established a task force that identified the prevailing need for further 'Aboriginalisation' of the Institute's workforce. At the time, there were four Aboriginal staff members, making up around 7% of the total staff.[45] This was followed in 1985 with the creation of the role of Aboriginal Studies Coordination Officer within the AIAS, whose responsibilities involved improving access for Aboriginal people to the research and resources of the institute.[9]

The After 200 Years project was launched in 1985, aiming to fill some of the gaps in the AIAS photographic collection; particularly images of daily life in the southern, urban parts of Australia. Aboriginal involvement in selecting subject matter, photographing and documenting the collection was a major part of the project. The three-year project culminated in the publication of a book containing hundreds of photographs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, and selected by them to represent their community.[46]

The Rock Art Protection Program (RAPP) commenced in 1986 following a request for such an initiative by the then Minister of Aboriginal Affairs Clyde Holding. The aim of the RAPP was to protect Australian Indigenous rock art. Grants were approved by the institute to fund various projects related to rock art protection.[47]

The collections were also expanding, and by 1987 the AIATSIS library encompassed the print collections, a special Bibliographic Section and the Resource Centre (which contained the Institute's audiovisual materials).[9]

Between 1987 and 1989, the survival of the AIAS as an independent statutory body was tied to a proposal for a new statutory commission that would take over all aspects of the Aboriginal Affairs portfolio.[48] This commission would become the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC), conceived in an Act of Parliament in 1989.[31][49] The AIAS would not be folded into this commission; instead it would be recreated under a new Act with a new name.[14]

AIATSIS (1989)

The Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) Act was passed by parliament in 1989, replacing the AIAS Act.[50] The newly established AIATSIS had a reduced Council consisting of nine members,[14] with the AIATSIS Act specifying that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people hold a minimum of five of these Council positions.[51]

The new Act also established a Research Advisory Committee,[14] to assess research applications and advise the council.[52]

The Aboriginal Studies Press published their best-selling Aboriginal Australia map in 1996,[53] based on research conducted for the Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia, edited by David Horton.[54]

2001 – present

In 2001, the Institute launched a two-year Library Digitisation Pilot Program (LDPP). Among the items digitised, catalogued and made available online were 267 volumes of the Dawn and New Dawn magazines held in the AIATSIS collection.[55][56] AIATSIS also distributed over 2000 free copies of these magazines on CD-Rom, to Indigenous organisations, schools and libraries in New South Wales.[57] Throughout this period, AIATSIS continued to undertake projects focused on the digitisation of collection materials, including their holdings of the complete back catalogue of Koori Mail. This involved scanning over 35,000 pages from 500 editions of the newspaper,[58] with searchable copies launched on the AIATSIS website in partnership with Koori Mail in 2011.[59]

As part of their research functions, AIATSIS also initiated a number of public programs and research related events during this time that are still run today.[60] The institute has convened the National Indigenous Studies Conference every two years since 2001 and the National Native Title Conference every year since 2002.[61]

The After 200 Years photographic project was revisited in 2014 with an exhibition of images at Parliament House, Canberra, to coincide with AIATSIS' 50-year anniversary.[62]

On 2 February 2024, coinciding with its 60th anniversary,[63] AIATSIS opened a new facility in Mparntwe-Alice Springs, building on its long partnership with First Nations Media Australia, which is based in the city. AIATSIS staff, six of whom are Indigenous locals (of seven in total; intended to grow to up to 24) located at the new centre will work closely with local people to take care of the cultural heritage from the region. There is a dedicated ancestry section[64] in the new centre, which before its completion was referred to as AIATSIS Alice Springs Engagement and Digitisation Centre[65] and is now officially known as AIATSIS Central Australia.[66] The centre will be run in collaboration with the Northern Territory Government, and allow access to AIATSIS materials for people living in Central Australia. An exhibition titled To Know, To Respect, To Care is on at the centre until 14 June 2024. The official opening was attended by Linda Burney, the Minister for Indigenous Australians, and NT Minister for Arts, Culture and Heritage Chansey Paech.[63]

Governance

Acts of parliament

AIATSIS is an Australian Government statutory authority established under the Public Governance, Performance and Accountability Act 2013. As of 2024 it is under the portfolio of the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, and Hon Linda Burney, Minister for Indigenous Australians, is the responsible minister.[67]

The organisation operates under several acts of parliament, the most important of which are the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies Act 1989, which established the purpose and functions of AIATSIS, and a 2016 amendment, the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies Amendment Act 2016.[67][68]

The main functions of AIATSIS under the Act are:[69]

(a) to undertake and promote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander studies;
(b) to publish the results of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander studies and to assist in the publication of the results of such studies;
(c) to conduct research in fields relevant to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander studies and to encourage other persons or bodies to conduct such research;
(d) to assist in training persons, particularly Aboriginal persons and Torres Strait Islanders, as research workers in fields relevant to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander studies;
(e) to establish and maintain a cultural resource collection consisting of materials relating to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander studies;
(f) to encourage understanding, in the general community, of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander societies.

Council

The AIATSIS Council is a governing body designed to oversee and steer the functions and direction of the institute. The role and responsibilities of the council are mandated in the AIATSIS Act 1989.[70]

The Council consists of nine members; four are elected by the institute's membership and five appointed by the Minister.[12] According to the AIATSIS Act 1989, one person appointed by the Minister must be a Torres Strait Islander and the four other people appointed by the Minister must be Aboriginal persons or Torres Strait Islanders. The four Council members elected by the Institute's membership must be members themselves.[71]

Chairs past and present include:[12]

Committees

Various advisory committees exist to assist the Council as well as the Chief Executive Officer (CEO). As of February 2024, these are:[76] Council committees:[76]

CEO committees:[76]

The Indigenous Caucus is a working group providing a forum for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander staff to meet and discuss workplace issues.[77] Membership is voluntary, and the group is consulted on a range of issues, including progress towards cultural competency within the organisation; recruitment; tender and consultancy appointments; planning workshops; leading relevant policy and procedure development; promotion of AIATSIS in relevant forums; providing cultural knowledge on various issues; and running public forums.[78] The Indigenous Caucus was revitalised in 2003–2004 and contributed to the development of policies and procedures in that year, notably AIATSIS' Indigenous Training and Career Development Plan.[79] In 2013, the Indigenous Caucus developed a formal Service Charter and elected an Executive consisting of three members.[77]

The Native Title Research Advisory Committee (NTRAC) provides advice to the CEO on the research program of the Native Title Research Unit.[76]

The Research Advisory Committee (RAC) is responsible for assessing and advising on AIATSIS research projects and programs, including research grants. RAC functions are established in the AIATSIS Act.[76][80]

The Research Ethics Committee (REC) is responsible for advising AIATSIS on the ethics of the research proposals by staff or grantees of AIATSIS, as well as research carried out through the Institute's external collaborations.[81] The roles in the Research Ethics Committee are based on the National Statement published by the National Health and Medical Research Council.[76][82]

The Publishing Advisory Committee (PAC) includes members with a range of expertise and credentials (including Indigenous community and language knowledge, research, writing, publishing) and jointly with Aboriginal Studies Press staff, consider and make recommendations to the CEO about manuscripts submitted for publication.[76]

Research

Overview

The AIATSIS Act sets the organisation the task of conducting, facilitating and promoting research in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies and training Indigenous researchers.[69] For over 50 years, AIATSIS has conducted research across a range of areas of study relevant to Indigenous peoples, culture, heritage, knowledge and experiences.[83][84] This has led to a diverse research history; from languages and archaeological research, land rights, and political engagement, to contemporary topics in health and commerce.[85][86]

The AIATSIS collections not only contain priceless records of Australia's Indigenous cultural heritage,[87][88] but provide a significant national and international research infrastructure for research by, for and about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.[89][90]

AIATSIS is one of Australia's Publicly Funded Research Agencies (PFRA), alongside organisations such as CSIRO and the Australian Institute of Marine Science. AIATSIS is Australia's only non-science PFRA.[91]

Currently AIATSIS undertakes research in six priority areas.

Ethical research

Chrissy Grant, chair of the AIATSIS Research Ethics Committee, running a GERAIS workshop in 2015

The institute is a leader in ethical research and the handling of culturally sensitive material.[93][94] and holds in its collections many unique and irreplaceable items of cultural, historical and spiritual significance.[95] AIATSIS published the Guidelines for Ethical Research in Australian Indigenous Studies (referred to as GERAIS) in 1999.[96] This was a document considered to be the leading ethics guidelines for conducting research in and with Indigenous communities in Australia.[97] GERAIS was regularly revised and significantly updated in 2012.[96]

GERAIS was replaced in 2020 by AIATSIS Code of Ethics for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Research (the AIATSIS Code), which supersedes GERAIS.[98] Accompanying it is "A Guide to applying The AIATSIS Code of Ethics for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Research".[96] The AIATSIS Code is based on four principles:[99]

  1. Indigenous self-determination
  2. Indigenous leadership
  3. Impact and value
  4. Sustainability and accountability

In 2013, AIATSIS was involved in the review of two National Health and Medical Research Council research ethics guidelines relating to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health research.[100]

Native title research

AIATSIS began undertaking native title research activities through the Native Title Research Unit in 1993, following the 1992 Mabo v Queensland High Court decision. Native Title research at AIATSIS is primarily funded through the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet[101] but research has also been conducted in partnership with other departments and organisations, including the Australian National University, the Australian Conservation Foundation, and the Federal Court of Australia.[102]

The Native Title Research Advisory Committee, the Research Advisory Committee, and the AIATSIS Council oversee the work conducted in Native Title and traditional ownership research at AIATSIS.[101]

AIATSIS conducts a range of research projects relating to Native Title and traditional ownership, including Native Title and cultural heritage, Native Title and fresh and sea water, and Prescribed Body Corporates.[103]

The role of Native Title research at AIATSIS is to monitor outcomes of Native Title and through research and study, provide advice on Native Title policy development.[101] The Institute publishes a range of materials relating to Native Title including books, discussion papers, research reports and a Native Title Newsletter.[104][105]

AIATSIS also provides a Native Title Research and Access Officer, who is responsible for assisting Native Title claimants to access materials from the AIATSIS collections in support of their claim.[106]

Up until 2019, AIATSIS also contributed to Native Title policy and research by co-organising the Annual National Native Title Conference.[107] However, in 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia, the conference was cancelled, and in 2021 it merged with the National Indigenous Research Conference, creating a five-day event known as the AIATSIS Summit.[108]

Family history research

AIATSIS publishes a number of resources for anyone wishing to undertake research into their own family history.[109]

The Family History kit is aimed at providing the basics for tracing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander heritage. It contains guides to AIATSIS' own resources, including the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Biographical Index (ABI)[110] and digitised collection materials, as well as guides to external resources that may help with family history research.[111]

General guidance is also provided regarding research resources specific to Indigenous family history research,[112] historical name conventions and usage[113] and confirmation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander heritage.[114]

AIATSIS also provides research support to Link-Up case workers and researchers around Australia, who are assisting members of the Stolen Generations to reconnect with their family and heritage.[115]

Publishing

Aboriginal Studies Press

A customer enters the Aboriginal Studies Press bookshop at AIATSIS.

In keeping with its mandated functions,[69] AIATSIS publishes the results of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies through their publishing arm, Aboriginal Studies Press (ASP). The Institute began publishing in 1962 with A demographic survey of the Aboriginal population of the Northern Territory, with special reference to Bathurst Island Mission. This and other early publications were released under the imprint Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, the former title of AIATSIS.[116] The ASP publishing imprint was trademarked in 2002,[117] but was operating as the publishing arm of AIATSIS as early as the publication of Helen Ross' Just For Living in 1987.[118]

The AIATSIS Research Publications became an imprint in 2011 and its stated purpose is to publish scholarly research that is derived from the AIATSIS Research Program.[119] All Aboriginal Studies Press-branded titles are peer-reviewed and the majority are published concurrently in print and several ebook formats.[120] The first phone app was published in 2013, and was shortlisted for the 2013 Mobile Awards.[121][122]

Titles published by ASP have included research reports, monographs, biographies, autobiographies, family and community histories,[123] and children's books.[124] Since 2005 the list has aligned more closely with the Institute's research focus.[125] Most publications derive from academic research, some funded by AIATSIS.[126] ASP publishes books by both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous authors who are writing in the field of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. In some cases Aboriginal authors, like Doreen Kartinyeri[127] and Joan Martin,[128] have chosen to write in collaboration with non-Aboriginal oral historians.

The Publishing Advisory Committee makes recommendations to the AIATSIS Principal and Aboriginal Studies Press about which manuscripts to publish from those submitted. It has relationships with distributors and resellers for both national and international print and ebook distribution.[77]

Notable publications

Australian Aboriginal Studies (AAS) is a multidiscplinary peer-reviewed journal published biannually by the Aboriginal Studies Press, published since 1983. Each issue contains scholarly articles, research reports and book reviews. Full text is available by subscription or via state libraries in Informit's APAFT (Australian Public Affairs Full Text) database and Indigenous Collection, and it is indexed or abstracted by the following services: AIATSIS Indigenous Studies Bibliography; EBSCO Academic Search Complete and Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre; and ProQuest.[129][130][131]

Cleared Out (2005) won two Western Australian Premier's Book Awards and inspired the multi-award-winning documentary film, Contact.[132] The creation of both the book and film reflect strong family and community engagement.[133]

The Little Red Yellow Black Bookoriginally published in 1994 and now in its fourth edition (September 2018) is available online.[134] was shortlisted with its companion website in the Australian Publishers Association Educational Awards,[135][136][137][138] and is a widely recognised as an educational and cross-cultural training resource.[139]

Another widely used resource published by Aboriginal Studies Press is the Aboriginal Australia map, created by David Horton.[54][140][141] The Aboriginal Australia map represents the general locations of larger groupings of Aboriginal people, using research that was conducted during the development of The Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia,[54] which was another significant ASP publication.[142] Previous milestone publications included the book After 200 Years, a collaboration showcasing photographs and stories of Aboriginal people as selected by members of those communities.[46] Both books are now out of print and only available in libraries.[54][143]

Stanner Award

ASP also publishes the Stanner Award winner for a scholarly manuscript (not fiction or poetry) by an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander, which recognises the importance of being published to emerging academics. The prize includes mentoring and editorial support by ASP, as well as publication of the manuscript, A$5,000, and a glass sculpture by Jenni Kemarre Martiniello. The biennial award is named in honour of the anthropologist W. E. H. (Bill) Stanner, who played an important role in establishing the AIAS, and the ongoing development of the institute.[144]

In 1996, Auntie Rita, a biography of Rita Huggins co-written by her and her daughter Jackie Huggins, won the award.[145][146][147]

Anna Haebich won the 1999 award for her work Broken circles: Fragmenting indigenous families 1800–2000.[148]

In 2009, architect Paul Memmott won the prize for his work Gunyah, Goondie and Wurley: Aboriginal Architecture of Australia[149]

The 2011 award was won by human rights advocate and lawyer Hannah McGlade in 2011.[144]

AUSTLANG

The AIATSIS website hosts the AUSTLANG database, an informative source of information on all known Aboriginal Australian languages. With its beginnings on a card file compiled in the 1990s, the Indigenous Languages Database (ILDB) was developed based on the Language Thesaurus maintained by the AIATSIS library since the 1960s. The online version of AUSTLANG was developed in 2005, revised and released to the public in 2008, and after more redevelopment work, a refined version was released in 2018.[150]

Events

NAIDOC on the Peninsula, 2014
Taiaiake Alfred addresses the audience during a symposium on cultural strength, Stanner Room, AIATSIS, 11 February 2015.

AIATSIS hosts a range of special events and research workshops, symposiums and conferences.[60][151] These have included:

Past events

Ongoing events

Location and building design

The west wing of the AIATSIS building designed by Ashton Raggatt McDougall, is a black replica of Le Corbusier's iconic Villa Savoye.

Canberra

AIATSIS is located on the Acton Peninsula[160] in a building that was newly built for the Institute and opened in 2001. The building was officially opened by the Honourable W.C. Wentworth and Ken Colbung. As part of the opening the Ngunnawal people, the traditional owners of the land on which the AIATSIS building stands performed a Welcome to Country and smoking ceremony, and the Anbarra people from North Central Arnhem Land performed a friendship ceremony, known as the Rom ceremony.[59]

The architect, Howard Ragatt of the firm Ashton Raggatt McDougall designed the building for AIATSIS and for its neighbour on the Acton Peninsula, the National Museum of Australia.[161] During design of the AIATSIS building, it was reoriented from original plans to save two Apple Box trees that were identified as significant to the Peninsula.[162] The building cost $13.75 million and was funded by the Commonwealth Government's Centenary of Federation Grants Program.[59]

The design of the AIATSIS building has been the subject of differing interpretations. The rear of the building has been described as a black copy of pioneer architect Le Corbusier's 1920s Villa Savoye in France.[163] The architect, Howard Raggatt, was quoted as confirming this influence[164] but has also stated that it is designed to be reminiscent of Sidney Nolan's famous paintings of Ned Kelly.[165]

A new building is planned in Canberra, to be located in a precinct to be named Ngurra, on the shores of Lake Burley Griffin, in the Parliamentary Triangle. The new precinct A$316.5 million will also include a new centre for learning and knowledge, and a resting place for ancestral remains of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from around the nation who are unable to be located in their Country.[166] The name Ngurra occurs in several Aboriginal languages, meaning "home", "camp", "a place of belonging or inclusion".[167] A design competition was held in 2022 to select the architects for the project.[168]

AIATSIS Central Australia

A new AIATSIS facility known as AIATSIS Central Australia[66] was opened on 2 February 2024[63] in Alice Springs/Mparntwe, to serve Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Central Australia.[64] The offices and exhibition spaces were created from two vacant retail premises in Todd Mall.[169]

Collections

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (February 2024)
This section may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. (February 2024)

Overview

AIATSIS is considered to be Australia's premier resource for information about the cultures and societies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.[170][171][172]

AIATSIS is the only Commonwealth of Australia institution responsible for collecting and maintaining materials documenting the oral and visual traditions and histories of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.[94] The Institute identifies its collection as a "keeping place for culturally significant objects" that is "a resource for anybody looking to improve their knowledge of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander history and culture".[173] The institute's holdings represent thousands of years of history and more than 500 Australian Indigenous languages, dialects and groups. This collection supports, and is a result of, research in the fields of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies.[94]

An independent assessment in 2014 confirmed that AIATSIS holds over 6 million feet of film,[173] over 40,000 hours of audio, 12,800 unpublished manuscripts and record series, 653,000 photographs, and 120,000 print and published materials (3,000 of which are rare books) among other miscellanea.[174] As of 2024 it was estimated that it holds over a million cultural items, which include 42,000 hours of audio, over 700,000 photographs, and around 6 million feet of film.[63]

There are a number of items within the AIATSIS collection that have been both nationally and internationally recognised as significant:

Part of the UNESCO listed Australian Indigenous Language collection held at AIATSIS
The vaults holding the Manuscript Collection at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies in Canberra, ACT Australia

The Audiovisual Archives also holds copies of the first audio recorded in Australia;[179] a series of ethnographic wax cylinder recordings made in the Torres Strait Islands in 1898. The Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to the Torres Strait, led by Alfred Cort Haddon, recorded songs and speech from Mer/Murray Island, Mabuiag/Jervis Island, Saibai Island, Tudu Island and Iama/Yam Island.

The AIATSIS collection is housed and managed through the Library and the Audiovisual Archive,[180] and is broadly categorised into the following groups:

Art and artefact: a collection of items including ritual objects, folk art, children's art and modern or 'high art' and span from the late 19th century to the present day. This sub-collection comprises around 600 artworks and 500 artefacts, acquired either as a result of AIATSIS-sponsored field research or through donation or purchase.[181]

Books and printed material: a collection of books, pamphlets, serials including magazines and government reports, reference publications such as dictionaries and other published material. This sub-collection holds over 175,680 titles, including 16,000 books and 3740 serials consisting of 34,000 individual issues and is used to support research, especially in Native Title cases and Link-Up services for members of the Stolen Generations.[182]

Film: a collection of historical ethnographic films, documentaries and other published film and video titles, consisting of over 8 million feet of film and 4000 videos. Many of the films in the collection were produced by the AIAS Film Unit, which operated between 1961 and 1991.[183]

Colour slides from the Wright collection, containing images of Upper Yule River Rock Art

Manuscripts and rare books: a collection of more than 11,700 manuscripts,[173] 2,600 rare books dating from 1766,[184] 2,200 rare pamphlets and 1,700 rare serial titles consisting of 14,650 issues held in secure, environmentally controlled storage. Items are included in this classification on the basis of their age, rarity, value or sensitivity of the content for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Among these items are the Sorry Books and the WEH Stanner papers.[185]

Pictorial: this collection contains roughly 650,000 photographs that date from modern day as far back as the late 1800s, and more than 90% of images in the pictorial collection are unique to AIATSIS, making it the most comprehensive record of its kind relating to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.[186]

Sound: a collection of many unique and unpublished sound recordings totalling approximately 40,000 hours of audio. The recordings represent a breadth of cultural and historical information including languages, ceremonies, music, oral histories and interviews with participants in significant events such as the 1965 Freedom Rides and Prime Minister Kevin Rudd's Apology to the Stolen Generations.[187]

Acquisitions

Since the establishment of the Institute in 1964, the AIATSIS collection has been developed through acquisition by donation, gift and purchase or, through materials created and collected during the work of ethnographic field researchers and filmmakers funded by the AIATSIS grants program. The collection has also been built through deposits of materials, an arrangement which permits the original owners to assign access and use conditions appropriate to the cultural information contained in the items.

AIATSIS' approach to collection building is based on three primary criteria:

  1. Comprehensiveness – the aim is to have the collection be as comprehensive as possible. Given limited resources, the Audiovisual Archive focuses primarily on unpublished audio and visual materials and the Library generally on published materials. Other items are collected where possible.
  2. Significance – items that meet this criterion are considered to make 'a lasting contribution to worldwide knowledge', reflect current AIATSIS research areas, valued by a particular Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander community, are not well represented in other collections, have a link to AIATSIS' own history.
  3. Representativeness – when resources are limited, AIATSIS will focus on collecting items that are 'representative of a particular class of creativity, research discipline or mode of cultural production.'[94]

Collection management

Once material has been acquired by AIATSIS, the Institute faces the challenges of maintaining a cultural resource collection.[188] This is achieved through a collection management plan that involves processes of recording and cataloguing, and appropriate storage and handling to extend the life of physical items and preserving their content through format shifting.

Preservation of physical items in the collection is achieved in two key ways:

  1. Assessment and monitoring for contaminants, such as insects and mould, as well as any potential deterioration through environmental factors or physical damage.[189]
  2. Storage of collection items in climate-controlled vaults, to maintain their integrity and to minimise contact with deteriorating agents such as moisture and light. The Institute also follows international archiving guidelines for the storage and preservation of materials.[190]

There are a wide variety of analogue photograph, tape and film formats held in the AIATSIS collection, which pose special preservation and future access risks. The age of some of these formats and materials, combined with the varying conditions in which they were stored prior to their acquisition by AIATSIS, heightens the deterioration of the media. Another preservation issue inherent in these analogue materials is the machines that can play back that particular format, as in some cases the material and the playback device are no longer manufactured. To manage these risks and maintain future access to the collection, preservation of the actual content contained in collection items is also achieved through a program of digitisation.[191]

An AIATSIS pictorial technician prepares a tin type photograph for scanning.

Due to the potential issues of long-term archiving and storage of digital items, the opposite process is often employed to ensure access and preservation.[192][193] In the case of digital publications and manuscripts, the originals will often be printed and incorporated into the print collections as an additional preservation measure.

The AIATSIS collection holds material that is sensitive and/or secret/sacred to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.[194] In accordance with its founding Act,[195] and as part of their collection management plan, AIATSIS adheres to strict protocols when handling and processing these sensitive items. The institute also supports and adheres to the protocols developed by the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Library, Information and Resource Network (ATSILIRN).[93] Restricted visual media such as photographs and printed items are stored separately to the rest of the collection and audio and moving image items are not played until any cultural requirements are checked. Restricted material must also be carefully handled during digitisation, which means that the work is carried out in secured conditions such as enclosed booths and by staff that can meet the protocols of the item being digitised.[196]

(R-L) The Shadow Telecine for motion picture film and the Sondor Magnetic film dubber, used by the AIATSIS Moving Image Unit to convert film stock to video tape or file

Digitisation program

AIATSIS launched its Library Digitisation Pilot Program in 2001, before which the Library had no dedicated digitisation equipment or policies for managing digital materials. This two-year program was originally funded by the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC), and involved the creation of digital collections across the institution.[180]

Since then AIATSIS has continued to incorporate digitisation of the collection into its management plan,[189] but have publicly stated that an increase in funding is required for the institute to digitise some of the at risk formats held in the collection before those items are lost.[197][198]

Given these limitations, AIATSIS prioritises the selection of materials for digitisation using factors including significance of the item/s, the level of deterioration, cultural protocols, copyright status, and client demand.[189][191] One of the identified priorities of the program is to digitise and preserve all of the audiovisual collection currently on endangered magnetic tape formats by the 2025 deadline set by UNESCO.[189]

Access to the collection

Library stacks showing some of the print collection available at AIATSIS

The collection is housed in the AIATSIS building on Acton Peninsula and is accessible through a number of resources. The AIATSIS Library is open to the public and holds a range of printed materials including manuscripts, journals, readers in different Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, dictionaries, published books and rare books, maps, and posters.

Access to AIATSIS' print and manuscript collections can be made through the Library's Stanner Reading Room and the film, sound and pictorial collections by appointment through the Access Unit. These physical access points are open limited hours.[199]

The AIATSIS Digitisation Program contributes to increased access to the collection; whether access is through on site resources, the provision of copies of materials or the sharing of the collection online. Due to increasing obsolescence of analogue formats, AIATSIS identifies digitisation as the way to preserve those items for future generations to access.[94] This is considered to be particularly important for facilitating "remote access by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities" as well as for access by researchers and the general public.[189]

The AIATSIS Access Unit runs a program called Return of Material to Indigenous Communities (ROMTIC), through which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients are provided with up to twenty copies of collection materials that relate to their language group or family. This service is limited to items that have been preserved, so AIATSIS' digitisation program has allowed an increasing number of digital items available to ROMTIC clients.[200]

AIATSIS also makes the collection available through a series of online exhibitions and digitised collection material published on their website.[201] These showcase different themes or discrete collections of material, including:

Access to the AIATSIS collection is also dictated by legislation governing the Institute and in some instances by legal agreements outlining the terms under which collection materials can be used.

The terms for access to the AIATSIS collection are in the first instance set by the AIATSIS Act, Section 41. This section states:

1. "Where information or other matter has been deposited with the Institute under conditions of restricted access, the Institute or the Council shall not disclose that information or other matter except in accordance with those conditions.

2. The Institute or the Council shall not disclose information or other matter held by it (including information or other matter covered by subsection (1)) if that disclosure would be inconsistent with the views or sensitivities of relevant Aboriginal persons or Torres Strait Islanders."[210]

The conditions referred to in Section 41(1) of the AIATSIS Act are usually covered in the agreement that AIATSIS enters into when material is deposited. These agreements, along with the section 41(2) of the Act, can govern the way that unpublished material can be accessed and used.[196]

Access to and use of material in the AIATSIS collection is also subject to the terms set out in the Copyright Act (1968).[211]

When a donation or deposit is being made, AIATSIS requests to be made aware of any sensitive items included in the material.[212] The secret or sacred nature of information contained in many collection items is an important factor in access to the AIATSIS collection. To protect items of high cultural sensitivity and reflect appropriate cultural values, access to items that contain culturally sensitive information are restricted to groups or individuals who have the permission of the relevant Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander community and the depositor if restrictions have been applied by them.[213]

AIATSIS also acknowledges the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and in particular Article 31's recognition of the right of Indigenous people to "maintain, control, protect and develop their cultural heritage, traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions."[189][214]

In response to these complex issues AIATSIS developed an overarching Access and Use Policy in 2014, to "manage legal and cultural rights over material while maximising accessibility".[215]

Collection resources

Since its inception, AIATSIS has developed and maintained a range of resources to enhance discoverability of the collection. One of the most significant of these resources is the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Biographical Index (ABI). The ABI had its beginnings in 1979 as a non-selective biographical register of names, constructed using information on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from published material in the collection. In the early years of the biographical register, it was hoped it could "provide an important record of the achievements of Aboriginal people, and be a source of pride for generations to come".[216]

Mura is AIATSIS' collection catalogue, which can be searched online. The word mura is a Ngunnawal word meaning "pathway".[217] The index continues to be updated, to access the collection of more than a million items by 2024.[218]

The former Perfect Pictures Database[219] appears to have been superseded by the Photographic Collection, which contains around 400,000 (and growing) digitised images, and more than 700,000 images in total. For copyright and cultural reasons, the images may only be viewed in the Stanner Reading Room, but caption information is available online, and copies of the images may be requested.[220]

AIATSIS also hosts or contributes to other online resources, aimed at facilitating access to and understanding of the collection. These include:

References

  1. ^ "Executive". Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  2. ^ International Social Science Bulletin: Disappearing Cultures, vol 9, No 3, 1957, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Paris.
  3. ^ Heine-Geldern, R (1959), 'The International Committee on Urgent Anthropological and Ethnological Research', American Anthropologist, 61: 1076–1078. doi: 10.1525/aa.1959.61.6.02a00130
  4. ^ Berndt, RM (1959), 'Areas of research in Aboriginal Australia which demand urgent attention', Bulletin of the International Committee on Urgent Anthropological and Ethnological Research, Vienna, vol. 2, pp 63–9
  5. ^ Strehlow, TGH (1959), 'Anthropological and ethnological research in Australia', Bulletin of the International Committee on Urgent Anthropological and Ethnological Research, Vienna, vol 2, pp. 70–5
  6. ^ a b c d e Mulvaney, DJ (2008), 'WEH Stanner and the foundation of the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, 1959–1964', pp. 58–75, in: An Appreciation of Difference: WEH Stanner and Aboriginal Australia, Hinkson, Melinda and Beckett, Jeremy (eds), Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Bryson, Ian (2002), 'Aborigines, film and science', Bringing to Light: a history of ethnographic filmmaking at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra, pp. 9–17
  8. ^ a b c "The Wentworth Lectures: Honouring fifty years of Australian Indigenous Studies". AIATSIS. 1 November 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Chapman, Valerie (1988), 'The Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies', Resources for Australian Studies in the ACT, Biskup, Peter & Goodman, Doreen (eds), Centre for Library and Information Studies, CCAE, pp. 194–214
  10. ^ Shiels, H (ed) 1963, Australian Aboriginal Studies: A Symposium of Papers at 1961 Research Conference, Oxford University Press, Melbourne
  11. ^ a b c 'Australian Institute for Aboriginal Studies Agency Details', National Archives of Australia, naa.gov.au, retrieved 28 October 2014.
  12. ^ a b c "Council". AIATSIS. 18 September 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  13. ^ 'Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies: Independent Review', Final Report to the Department of Education, May 2014, p (i), http://aiatsis.gov.au/sites/default/files/docs/about-us/review-of-aiatsis-full-report-2014.pdf, retrieved 17 March 2015.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g 'Our history', Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) website, http://aiatsis.gov.au/about-us/our-history Archived 28 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved 17 March 2015.
  15. ^ 'Interim Council for the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies Agency Details', National Archives of Australia website, www.naa.gov.au, retrieved 28 October 2014.
  16. ^ a b Mulvaney, D. J. 'Reflections', Antiquity, Vol. 80, no. 308, June 2006, pp. 425–434, http://antiquity.ac.uk/Ant/080/0425/ant0800425.pdf
  17. ^ 'Fred McCarthy: the founding principal of AIATSIS', Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) website, "Fred McCarthy". Archived from the original on 28 October 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2015., retrieved 28 October 2014.
  18. ^ a b Bryson, Ian (2002), 'Capturing a changing culture: The first phase of the Film Unit' , Bringing to Light: a history of ethnographic filmmaking at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra, p 18-19
  19. ^ 'Australian Ethnographic Film', Australian Screen Online website, http://aso.gov.au/titles/collections/ethnographic-film-in-Australia/, retrieved 28 October 2014.
  20. ^ 'AIATSIS Collections: Film', Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) website, http://aiatsis.gov.au/collections/about-collections/film, retrieved 17 March 2015
  21. ^ Elkin, A. P. (1970). "The Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies: Publications". Oceania. 41 (1): 52–57. doi:10.1002/j.1834-4461.1970.tb01116.x. ISSN 0029-8077. JSTOR 40329899.
  22. ^ a b Widder, T et al, Open Letter concerning the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, referred to as the "Eaglehawk and Crow letter", 29 March 1974, http://www.50yearjourney.aiatsis.gov.au/stage4/_media/eaglehawk_and_crow_letter.pdf
  23. ^ Lambert, Jacqueline, A History of the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies 1959 -1989: An analysis of how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people achieved control of a national research institute, thesis submitted for the Doctor of Philosophy, Menzies Library, Australian National University, November 2011, p. 106
  24. ^ "Indigenous Rights: Phillip Roberts", National Museum of Australia website, http://www.nma.gov.au/indigenous/people/pagination/phillip_roberts, retrieved 10 November 2014
  25. ^ Pilling, A. R. (1963), "I, the Aboriginal", Douglas Lockwood, American Anthropologist, 65: 1152–1153. doi: 10.1525/aa.1963.65.5.02a00280
  26. ^ a b Lambert 2011, p. 106
  27. ^ Lambert 2011, p. 128
  28. ^ Widders, Thompson, Bellear & Watson (1974), Eaglehawk and Crow: an open letter concerning the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, 29 March, AIAS, cited in Lambert 2011, p. 142
  29. ^ Lambert 2011, p. 107
  30. ^ Rolls, Mitchell & Johnson, Murray, Historical Dictionary of Australian Aborigines, Scarecrow Press, Maryland, 2011, p xxv
  31. ^ a b Pratt, Angela, 'Make or Break? A Background to the ATSIC Changes and the ATSIC Review', Parliament of Australia website, http://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/Publications_Archive/CIB/cib0203/03cib29, retrieved 10 November 2014
  32. ^ a b c d e f Bryson, Ian (2002), Recording culture in transition, Bringing to Light: a history of ethnographic filmmaking at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra, pp 52–73
  33. ^ a b Shennan, Stephen (8 July 2007). "Peter Ucko". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 11 August 2023.
  34. ^ a b Moser, Stephanie, 'The Aboriginalisation of Archaeology', in Ucko, Peter J (ed) Theory in Archaeology: A World Perspective, Routledge, London, 1995, p. 152
  35. ^ Mulvaney, John (2011), Digging Up the Past, University of NSW Press, Sydney, p. 186
  36. ^ Lambert 2011, p. 164
  37. ^ Lambert 2011, p. 185
  38. ^ Lambert 2011, p. 175
  39. ^ a b c "Collection - Australian Ethnographic Film on ASO - Australia's audio and visual heritage online". aso.gov.au. Retrieved 11 August 2023.
  40. ^ MacDougall, David, 'Subtitling Ethnographic Films: Archetypes into Individualities', Visual Anthropology Review, 11 (1): 83–91
  41. ^ "Waiting for Harry", Royal Anthropological Institute website, https://www.therai.org.uk/film/volume-ii-contents/waiting-for-harry Archived 29 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved 11 November 2014
  42. ^ 'A Short History of Indigenous Filmmaking', Australian Screen Online website, http://aso.gov.au/titles/collections/indigenous-filmmaking/, retrieved 10 November 2014
  43. ^ Australian aboriginal studies: journal of the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Deaking University Library, http://encore.deakin.edu.au/iii/encore/record/C__Rb2865270, retrieved 17 March 2015
  44. ^ Studies, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (31 January 2023). "Australian Aboriginal Studies journal". aiatsis.gov.au. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  45. ^ Lambert 2011, p. 280
  46. ^ a b Taylor, Penny. The after 200 years photographic project.
  47. ^ Ward. Graeme K, 'The role of AIATSIS in research and protection of Australian rock art', in: Rock Art Research. Vol 28, no. 1 (May 2011), p 7-16
  48. ^ Lambert 2011, pp. 288–308
  49. ^ Palmer, Kingsley, 'ATSIC: Origins and Issues for the Future', A Critical Review of Public Domain Research and Other Materials, AIATSIS Research Discussion Paper # 12, 2004, p5, http://aiatsis.gov.au/sites/default/files/products/discussion_paper/palmerk-dp12-atsic-origins-issues-future-research.pdf, retrieved 17 March 2015
  50. ^ Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies Act 1989 , retrieved 20 November 2014
  51. ^ AIATSIS Act 1989, Section 12, retrieved 17 November 2014
  52. ^ AIATSIS Act 1989, Section 32 Archived 7 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved 17 November 2014
  53. ^ Aboriginal Studies Press: Forthcoming titles and selected backlist, 2014, retrieved 20 November 2014
  54. ^ a b c d Horton, David R. (1996). "Map of Indigenous Australia". AIATSIS. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  55. ^ Barbara Lewincamp & Julie Faulkner, 'A keyhole to the collection', 11th Information Online Conference (2003) website, Archived 29 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved 20 November 2014
  56. ^ a b Studies, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (17 January 2023). "New Dawn". aiatsis.gov.au. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  57. ^ AIATSIS Annual Report 2004-2005, retrieved 17 March 2015
  58. ^ 'Koori Mail digitised', Orange Family History Group, retrieved 20 November 2014
  59. ^ a b c d Studies, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (9 August 2022). "Koori Mail". aiatsis.gov.au. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  60. ^ a b "Events". AIATSIS. 30 August 2022. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  61. ^ a b AIATSIS AIATSIS Annual Report 2013-2014, p47 Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved 19 March 2015
  62. ^ 'After 200 Years Revisited – Photographic Exhibit at Parliament House', AIATSIS website, 26 May 2014
  63. ^ a b c d Brennan, Dechlan (2 February 2024). "AIATSIS expansion sees priceless collection of Indigenous artefacts on display in Mparntwe for the first time". National Indigenous Times. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  64. ^ a b Allison, Charmayne (2 February 2024). "Alice Springs' Indigenous culture collection allows access to priceless knowledge on country for first time". ABC News (Australia). Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  65. ^ "AIATSIS to open Alice Springs engagement and digitisation centre with NT Government backing". AIATSIS. 14 January 2022. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  66. ^ a b "AIATSIS Central Australia Unveiled: A Cultural Milestone in Mparntwe". AIATSIS. 1 February 2024. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  67. ^ a b "Governance and structure". AIATSIS. 11 October 2023. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  68. ^ "Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies Act 1989". Federal Register of Legislation. 5 March 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  69. ^ a b c AIATSIS Act 1989, Section 5, retrieved 18 November 2014
  70. ^ AIATSIS Act 1989 (Cth), retrieved 18 November 2014
  71. ^ AIATSIS Act 1989, Section 12, retrieved 18 November 2014
  72. ^ Stone, Jonathan (1 January 2000). "Neil William Macintosh". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  73. ^ Maza, Rachael (26 March 2004). "Ken Colbung". Message Stick. Presented by Rachael Maza. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 16 December 2014.
  74. ^ "Leading by Example". Western Sydney University. 3 June 2021. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  75. ^ "Archibald Prize Archibald 2019 work: Yindyamarra: a portrait of Professor Michael McDaniel by Kate Gradwell". Art Gallery of NSW. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  76. ^ a b c d e f g "Committees". AIATSIS. 20 October 2023. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  77. ^ a b c "AIATSIS Annual Report 2012-2013" (PDF). pp. 61, 66, 112. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2015.
  78. ^ "Appendix A: Governance Committees". AIATSIS. 18 September 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  79. ^ "Principal's report", in AIATSIS Annual Report 2003-2004, p xii, retrieved 27 November 2014
  80. ^ "AIATSIS Act 1989 (Cth) Section 32". Archived from the original on 7 March 2014.
  81. ^ "Research Ethics Committee". AIATSIS. 4 April 2023. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  82. ^ "Section 5: Research governance and ethics review". National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research. National Health and Medical Research Council. 2023. ISBN 978-0-6484644-3-3.
  83. ^ 'AIATSIS', Australian National University website, Deepening Histories of Place, retrieved 26 February 2015
  84. ^ "Long History Deep Time". AIATSIS. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  85. ^ "Research". AIATSIS. 25 May 2022. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  86. ^ "Current projects". AIATSIS. 25 May 2022. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  87. ^ "Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies". National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation. Archived from the original on 26 February 2015.
  88. ^ "AIATSIS commemorative coin launched". Royal Australian Mint. 25 June 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  89. ^ AIATSIS collection: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages – Resource guide, Queensland Curriculum and Assessment Authority, retrieved 26 February 2015
  90. ^ Stroud, Rod, 'AIATSIS Thesauri Recognised Internationally', Incite, Volume 29 Issue 9 (September 2008)
  91. ^ Focusing Australia's Publicly Funded Research Review: Maximising the Innovation Dividend, Review Key Findings and Future Directions, October 2011, Australian Government, Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research, http://www.industry.gov.au/research/Documents/ReviewAdvicePaper.pdf Archived 26 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved 26 February 2015
  92. ^ 'Research themes', AIATSIS website, http://aiatsis.gov.au/research/research-themes Archived 14 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved 19 March 2015
  93. ^ a b 'Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Library, Information and Resource Network (ATSILIRN) Protocols for Libraries, Archives and Information Services', http://atsilirn.aiatsis.gov.au/protocols.php Archived 15 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved 12 March 2015
  94. ^ a b c d e "AIATSIS Collection Development Policy 2013 – 2016" (PDF). AIATSIS. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  95. ^ "News:A better deal for AIATSIS, 'site of pilgrimage'". Significance International. Archived from the original on 26 February 2015.
  96. ^ a b c A Guide to applying The AIATSIS Code of Ethics for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Research (PDF). AIATSIS. 2020.
  97. ^ Janke, Terri, Writing up Indigenous research: authorship, copyright and Indigenous knowledge systems, 2009
  98. ^ "Code of Ethics". AIATSIS. 28 February 2022. Retrieved 6 February 2024. In October 2020 AIATSIS published the AIATSIS Code of Ethics for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Research (the AIATSIS Code). This document supersedes and replaces the AIATSIS Guidelines for Ethical Research in Australian Indigenous Studies 2012 (GERAIS).
  99. ^ AIATSIS Code of Ethics for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Research (PDF). AIATSIS. 2020. ISBN 9781925302363.
  100. ^ "Evaluation of NHMRC Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Research Ethics". The Lowitja Institute. 20 May 2013. Archived from the original on 10 March 2015.
  101. ^ a b c d "Native title and traditional ownership". AIATSIS. Archived from the original on 14 August 2020., retrieved 18 March 2015
  102. ^ "Native Title and traditional ownership partners". AIATSIS. Archived from the original on 14 August 2020., retrieved 18 March 2015
  103. ^ 'Native Title and traditional ownership current projects', AIATSIS website, http://aiatsis.gov.au/research/research-themes/native-title/current, retrieved 18 March 2015
  104. ^ 'About NTRU Publications', AIATSIS website, http://aiatsis.gov.au/research/research-themes/native-title-and-traditional-ownership/native-title-and-traditional-ownership-resources-and-information-services, retrieved 18 March 2015
  105. ^ "Native Title Corporations". nativetitle.org.au. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  106. ^ "Native Title collections services". AIATSIS. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  107. ^ a b "The Annual National Native Title Conference 2015". AIATSIS. Archived from the original on 14 April 2020., retrieved 18 March 2015
  108. ^ a b "National Native Title Conference 2020 cancelled". AIATSIS. 30 July 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  109. ^ Studies, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (2 October 2023). "Family history". aiatsis.gov.au. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  110. ^ Studies, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (25 May 2022). "People and languages". aiatsis.gov.au. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  111. ^ 'Family history kit', AIATSIS website, http://aiatsis.gov.au/research/finding-your-family/family-history-kit, retrieved 19 March 2015
  112. ^ "Brief Guide to Indigenous Family Research" (PDF). aiatsis.gov.au.
  113. ^ "Finding Your Family: About Names". aiatsis.gov.au. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
  114. ^ Studies, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (25 May 2022). "Proof of Aboriginality". aiatsis.gov.au. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  115. ^ Studies, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (25 May 2022). "Link-Up". aiatsis.gov.au. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  116. ^ Jones, F. Lancaster, A demographic survey of the Aboriginal population of the Northern Territory, with special reference to Bathurst Island Mission, Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra, 1962, NLA record: http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/5923511
  117. ^ "Trademark Details – Aboriginal Studies Press". IP Australia., retrieved 10 December 2014
  118. ^ Ross, Helen, Just For Living, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra, 1987, retrieved 15 December 2014
  119. ^ "AIATSIS Annual Report 2011-2012" (PDF). AIATSIS. p. 32. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 July 2016., retrieved 19 March 2015
  120. ^ "eBooks". AIATSIS. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015., retrieved 18 March 2015
  121. ^ "Aboriginal Sydney: A guide to important places of the past and present". AIATSIS. Archived from the original on 22 March 2015., retrieved 18 March 2015
  122. ^ "Aboriginal Sydney: a guide to important places of the past and present". BETTER FUTURE. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  123. ^ "AIATSIS Annual Report 2012-13" (PDF). AIATSIS.
  124. ^ "Children's". AIATSIS Shop. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  125. ^ "AIATSIS Annual Report 2004-2005" (PDF). p. 47. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 March 2016., retrieved 18 March 2015
  126. ^ "AIATSIS Annual Report 2011-12" (PDF). aiatsis.gov.au.
  127. ^ Doreen Kartinyeri, My Ngarrindjeri calling, Aboriginal Studies Press, 2008, p 206
  128. ^ Joan Martin (Yaarna), A Widi woman, Aboriginal Studies Press, 2011, p xii
  129. ^ "Australian Aboriginal Studies journal". AIATSIS. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  130. ^ Australian Aboriginal studies: Journal of the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. 1983. ISSN 0729-4352. Retrieved 7 October 2020 – via National Library of Australia.
  131. ^ "Australian Aboriginal Studies". Informit. RMIT University. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  132. ^ "Contact | DVD | ABC Shop". Archived from the original on 15 December 2014. Retrieved 25 December 2014., retrieved 25 November 2014
  133. ^ "Contact" Media Kit, www.sobrarbe.com/descargas/contact_media_kit.pdf, retrieved 25 November 2014
  134. ^ "The Little Red Yellow Black Book". AIATSIS Shop. 22 January 2024. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  135. ^ "AIATSIS Annual Report 2008-09" (PDF). aiatsis.gov.au.
  136. ^ "AIATSIS Annual Report 2011-2012" (PDF). AIATSIS. p. 61. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  137. ^ "Award-Winning Titles". aiatsis.gov.au.
  138. ^ Technologies (www.eruditetechnologies.com.au), Erudite. "National Library of Australia Bookshop". bookshop.nla.gov.au. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  139. ^ "The little red yellow black book: an introduction to Indigenous Australia". Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet. Promote and practice. 19 December 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  140. ^ "Indigenous Language Map". ABC. Archived from the original on 26 April 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  141. ^ "Aboriginal Australia Map". Screen NSW. Archived from the original on 15 December 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  142. ^ Wellfare, Sharon (8 January 2014). "Review of 'Encyclopedia of Aboriginal Australia: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander history, society and culture". Australian Archaeological Association.
  143. ^ "After 200 years : photographic essays of Aboriginal and Islander Australia today / edited by Penny..." (Catalogue entry). National Library of Australia Catalogue. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  144. ^ a b "Stanner Award". AIATSIS. 30 June 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  145. ^ "Auntie Rita". AustLit. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  146. ^ Harrison, Sharon M. Huggins, Jacqueline (Jackie) Gail (1956–). ISBN 978-0-7340-4873-8. Retrieved 7 February 2024. ((cite book)): |website= ignored (help)
  147. ^ Grossman, Michele (2003). Blacklines: Contemporary Critical Writing by Indigenous Australians. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press. ISBN 978-0-522-85069-7.
  148. ^ "Haebich, Anna Elizabeth (1949-)". The Encyclopedia of Women and Leadership in Twentieth-Century Australia. The University of Melbourne. 29 May 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  149. ^ "Aboriginal architecture expert receives Stanner Award". UQ News. 27 March 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  150. ^ "About AUSTLANG". AIATSIS Collection. 18 December 2017. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  151. ^ "Conferences". AIATSIS. Archived from the original on 14 August 2020., retrieved 18 March 2015
  152. ^ "ACT Community embraces NAIDOC on the Peninsula". AIATSIS. 11 July 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  153. ^ "NAIDOC on the Peninsula". AIATSIS. Archived from the original on 23 March 2015., retrieved 19 March 2015
  154. ^ "2021 AIATSIS Summit". AIATSIS. 31 May 2021. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  155. ^ "AIATSIS Summit 2024". AIATSIS. 22 January 2024. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  156. ^ "Wentworth Lectures [1978-2012 list]". Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. Archived from the original on 9 April 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  157. ^ "The Wentworth Lectures: Honouring fifty years of Australian Indigenous Studies". AIATSIS. 1 November 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  158. ^ "2019 Wentworth Lecture". AIATSIS. 19 September 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  159. ^ "The Wentworth Lecture". AIATSIS. 17 March 2023. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  160. ^ Studies, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (18 January 2024). "Contact us". aiatsis.gov.au. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  161. ^ The National Museum of Australia as Danse Macabre' in Healy, C & Witcomb, A (eds), South Pacific Museums: Experiments in Culture, Monash University ePress, Victoria, 2006, p. 191
  162. ^ Report relating to the proposed new facilities for the National Museum of Australia and the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works, Parliament of Australia, 1998, p. 64
  163. ^ Healy, C.; Witcomb, A. (2006). South Pacific Museums: Experiments in Culture. EBL ebooks online. Monash University ePress. p. 19.8. ISBN 978-0-9757475-9-9. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  164. ^ "Letters and Fixes". architectureau.com.
  165. ^ Reed, Dimitry (ed), National Museum of Australia: Tangled Destinies, Images Publishing, Victoria, 2002, p. 66
  166. ^ Perez, Philippe (11 February 2022). "A new era for AIATSIS on Ngunnawal Country (and beyond)". CAAMA. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  167. ^ "Ngurra". AIATSIS. 5 December 2022. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  168. ^ "Ngurra design competition". AIATSIS. 1 April 2022. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  169. ^ "New AIATSIS centre in Alice Springs". Revitalising Alice. 25 March 2022. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  170. ^ Langton, Marcia. "Submission to the review of AIATSIS" (PDF). acilallen.com.au. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  171. ^ "Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS)". National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation. Archived from the original on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  172. ^ "AIATSIS celebrates 50 years of protecting Indigenous culture". ABC News. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  173. ^ a b c Studies, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (29 March 2023). "Collection". aiatsis.gov.au. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  174. ^ "50 Years of Culture and Collections". www.indigenous.gov.au. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  175. ^ "Collection Item | AIATSIS". aiatsis.gov.au. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  176. ^ "Australian Indigenous Languages Collection". Australian Memory of the World. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  177. ^ "Sorry Books: Citation". UNESCO Memory of the World. Archived from the original on 9 April 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  178. ^ "2012 Registry Additions". National Film and Sound Archive. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  179. ^ "Musical Connections: The Life and Work of Alice Moyle, AIATSIS Online Exhibition". aiatsis.gov.au. Archived from the original on 20 March 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  180. ^ a b Barbara Lewincamp & Julie Faulkner (2003) 'A keyhole to the collection: the AIATSIS Library Digitisation Pilot Program', ‘'The Australian Library Journal'’, 52:3, 239–245, DOI: 10.1080/00049670.2003.10721551
  181. ^ "About Collections: Art and Artefacts". aiatsis.gov.au. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  182. ^ "About Collections: Books and Printed Materials". aiatsis.gov.au. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  183. ^ "About Collections: Film". aiatsis.gov.au. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  184. ^ Callander, John, ‘'Terra australis cognita, or, Voyages to the Terra australis'’, Printed for the author and sold by Messrs Hawes, Clark, and Collins, in Pater-noster-Row, London, 1766–1768, call number RB C156.25/T1, AIATSIS library catalogue
  185. ^ "About Collections: Manuscripts and Rare Books". aiatsis.gov.au. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  186. ^ "About Collections: Pictorial". aiatsis.gov.au. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  187. ^ "About Collections: Sound". aiatsis.gov.au. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  188. ^ AIATSIS Act 1989, Section 5 (e)
  189. ^ a b c d e f "About Us: Collection Management Plan" (PDF). aiatsis.gov.au.
  190. ^ 'Preservation, AIATSIS website, http://aiatsis.gov.au/collections/caring-collection/preservation, retrieved 12 March 2015
  191. ^ a b 'Caring for the collection', AIATSIS website, http://aiatsis.gov.au/collections/caring-collection, retrieved 12 March 2015
  192. ^ 'Future Watch: Strategies for Long-Term Preservation of Electronic Records', Gordon E.J Hoke, CRM, http://content.arma.org/IMM/May-June2012/futurewatchstrategiesforlongtermpreservation.aspx Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved 25 February 2015
  193. ^ 'Electronic Records – Problem Solved?: the Victorian Electronic Records Strategy and the future of electronic record keeping in Victoria', VALA website, http://www.vala.org.au/vala2000/2000pdf/Gib_Hea.PDF, retrieved 25 February 2015
  194. ^ 'Using the collection', AIATSIS website, http://aiatsis.gov.au/collections/using-collection, retrieved 12 March 2015
  195. ^ AIATSIS Act, Section 41, http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/aioaatsisa1989702/s41.html, retrieved 23 February 2015
  196. ^ a b "About Us: Collections Access Use Policy" (PDF). aiatsis.gov.au. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  197. ^ Barnsley, Warren, "AIATSIS digitisation funding welcome but still 'inadequate'", National Indigenous Radio Service, 16 May 2014, http://nirs.org.au/blog/NEWS/article/33902/AIATSIS-digitisation-funding-welcome-but-still-inadequate.html
  198. ^ Raggatt, Matthew, "Historic indigenous collection in 'severe and catastrophic state'", The Canberra Times, 6 December 2014, http://www.canberratimes.com.au/act-news/historic-indigenous-collection-in-severe-and-catastrophic-state-20141206-121hl1.html
  199. ^ 'Visiting the collection', AIATSIS website, http://aiatsis.gov.au/collections/using-collection/visiting-collection, retrieved 12 March 2015
  200. ^ 'Return of materials to Indigenous communities', AIATSIS website, http://aiatsis.gov.au/collections/using-collection/return-material-indigenous-communities, retrieved 12 March 2015
  201. ^ 'Collections online', AIATSIS website, http://aiatsis.gov.au/collections/collections-onlinel[permanent dead link], retrieved 12 March 2015
  202. ^ Studies, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (31 August 2022). "A.M. Fernando notebooks". aiatsis.gov.au. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  203. ^ Studies, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (14 December 2020). "The Aborigines Inland Mission". aiatsis.gov.au. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  204. ^ Studies, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (11 April 2021). "The 1967 Referendum". aiatsis.gov.au. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  205. ^ "1965 Freedom Ride". AIATSIS. 12 February 1965. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  206. ^ "50 Year Journey". 50yearjourney.aiatsis.gov.au.
  207. ^ "To Remove and Protect". aiatsis.gov.au.
  208. ^ "Sorry Books". aiatsis.gov.au.
  209. ^ "Maningrida Mirage". aiatsis.gov.au.
  210. ^ Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies Act, 1989, retrieved 6 February 2024
  211. ^ Studies, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (27 May 2022). "Accessing items in the Collection". aiatsis.gov.au. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  212. ^ 'Donate to the collection', AIATSIS website, http://aiatsis.gov.au/collections/donate-collection, retrieved 12 March 2015
  213. ^ 'AIATSIS Collection Access and Use Policy', p 7, 9, AIATSIS website, http://aiatsis.gov.au/sites/default/files/docs/about-us/collections-access-use-policy.pdf Archived 18 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved 12 March 2015
  214. ^ United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, United Nations, 2000, http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/DRIPS_en.pdf, retrieved 12 February 2015
  215. ^ AIATSIS Annual Report 2013-2014, p42, AIATSIS website, http://aiatsis.gov.au/publications/products/aiatsis-annual-report-2013-2014 Archived 24 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved 12 March 2015
  216. ^ Parkes, Laurie; Barwick, Diane (1982). "Beginning a national Aboriginal biographical register at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies". Aboriginal History. ANU Press. 6 (1/2): 135–138. ISSN 0314-8769. JSTOR 24045554. Retrieved 7 February 2024. PDF
  217. ^ "How to search the Collection". AIATSIS. 25 May 2022. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  218. ^ "Collection". AIATSIS. 29 March 2023. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  219. ^ "Pictures database". AIATSIS. Archived from the original on 30 October 2018.
  220. ^ "AIATSIS Collection". AIATSIS Collection. 1 January 1955. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  221. ^ "AIATSIS on Trove". AIATSIS. 25 January 2016. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  222. ^ "Pathways: the AIATSIS Thesauri Homepage". Pathways. 13 December 2022. Retrieved 7 February 2024.

35°17′33″S 149°07′07″E / 35.2926°S 149.1185°E / -35.2926; 149.1185