Ivatan people
An elderly Ivatan woman
Total population
38,622 (2020 census)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Ivatan, Ilocano, Tagalog, English
Christianity (predominantly Roman Catholicism),
minority also, ancestral worship
Related ethnic groups
Taiwanese aborigines, Ilocanos, other Austronesian peoples

The Ivatan people are an Austronesian ethnolinguistic group native to the Batanes and Babuyan Islands of the northernmost Philippines. They are genetically closely related to other ethnic groups in Northern Luzon, but also share close linguistic and cultural affinities to the Tao people of Orchid Island in Taiwan.[2][3][4]

The culture of the Ivatans is partly influenced by the environmental condition of Batanes. Unlike the old-type nipa huts common in the Philippines, Ivatans have adopted their now-famous stone houses made of coral and limestone, designed to protect against the hostile climate.


See also: Austronesian peoples and Philippine jade culture

A 2011 genetic study has concluded that it is likely that the Batanes Islands were initially only used as "stepping stones" during the early stages of the maritime Austronesian expansion from Taiwan into the Philippine Islands (c. 3000 BCE). It was later re-colonized by Austronesians from northern Luzon at around 1200 BCE, which became the ancestors of the Ivatan people.[2][5]

Archaeological excavations also reveal that the islands were part of the extensive trade in jade artifacts (lingling-o), a network that extended to Taiwan, Vietnam, Palawan, Luzon, and northern Borneo. The Ivatan also maintained close trade relationships and intermarried with the neighboring Tao people of Orchid Island in Taiwan.[5][6][7]

The archaeological assemblages of Batanes can be divided into four distinct phases, with minor variation between islands. Phase 1 (2500 to 1000 BCE), is characterized by red-slipped and fine cord-marked pottery similar to the pottery assemblages of prehistoric Taiwan. Phase 2 (1300 BCE to 1 CE), is characterized by circle-stamped and red-slipped pottery that later also developed rectangular and "fishnet" designs. Phase 2 also features Fengtian nephrite sourced from Taiwan. Phase 3 (500 BC/1 CE to 1200 CE), is characterized by plain red-slipped pottery. Phase 4 (c. 1200 CE onwards), is characterized by imported pottery, indicating trade contacts with the Song and Yuan dynasties of China.[5]


An Ivatan man fresh from work.

On June 26, 1783, Batanes was incorporated into the Spanish East Indies.[8] In 1786, Ivatans were forced to resettle in the lowlands of Batanes.[9] The Ivatans lived under Spanish rule for 115 years and gained their independence on September 18, 1898. However, June 6 is celebrated in Batanes as its founding day.[8]


In 1990, the population of the Ivatans was 15,026, an increase of 24% over the 1980 population of 12,091. These were distributed to the six municipalities, with 38% residing in Basco, 23% in Itbayat, 12% in Sabtang, 11% in Mahatao and 8% for Uyugan, and Ivana.[4] In the 2000 census, 15,834 Ivatans were among the 16,421 population in Batanes.[10]

Ivatans can be found in almost every part of the country as a minority, especially in Metro Manila, Palawan and Mindanao particularly in Bukidnon, Lanao del Sur and Cotabato. [11]

The mother tongue of the Ivatans is the Chirin nu Ibatan but is commonly known as Ivatan. A distinct Austronesian language, the Ivatan has two dialects including Basco, the Itbayáten,[12] and possibly Yami.[8] The Ivatans widely speak and understand the Ilocano (lingua franca of northern Luzon), Tagalog, and English languages.[4] Ivatan residents of Mindanao and their descendants are also fluent speakers of Cebuano (majority language of large parts of Mindanao), Hiligaynon (main lingua franca of Soccsksargen) and various indigenous Mindanaoan languages in addition to their native language. However Ivatan language has been endangered especially among newer generation of Ivatans born in Mindanao due to assimilation to the Cebuano-speaking majority, with Cebuano is their main language with varying fluency in their ancestors' native language or none at all.[13][14][15][16]

Today, most Ivatans are Catholics, like the rest of the country, although some have not converted and practice ancestral worship to their anitos.[8] However, there are growing Protestant denominations especially in Basco, the capital town of Batanes.[4]


An Ivatan woman wearing a vakul, a headgear for sunlight and rain protection made from vuyavuy palm fiber.[17]

The Ivatan's culture has been largely influenced by the climate of Batanes. Due to severe climatic disruptions to their agriculture, Ivatans have developed numerous successful strategies to protect their food supply and way of life.

Traditionally, because of frequent typhoons and drought, they plant root crops able to cope with the environment. These crops include yam, sweet potato, taro, garlic, ginger, and onion, as they ensure higher chances of survival during awry climate conditions.[18] The Ivatan study the behavior of animals, sky color, wind, and clouds to predict the weather. Ivatans usually gather their animals and stay in their houses when they see that the cows take shelter from the payaman (communal pasture) and birds taking refuge in houses or in the ground. A pink sky with an orange hue also heralds a storm.[19]

The sea is vital to the Ivatan's way of life.[9] They depend on the flying fish (dibang) and dolphinfish (arayu) present on the shores of Batanes in the months of March through May.[4] They have a native delicacy called uvod (the pith of the banana stalk) which is served with the wine palek, on festive occasions such as weddings.[8]

A Sinadumparan Ivatan house, one of the oldest structures in the Batanes islands. The house is made of limestone and coral and its roofing of cogon grass.

Before Spaniards arrived in the Philippines, Ivatans built their houses from cogon grass. These homes were small, well-situated, and designed to protect against strong winds.[4][9] The Spaniards introduced large-scale production of lime to the Ivatan for the construction of their now-famous stone houses. Meter-thick limestone walls,[9] are designed to protect against the harsh Batanes environment,[20] which is known as a terminal passage of typhoons in the Philippines. The basic cogon grass is still preserved as roofs of their houses, thickly constructed to withstand strong winds.[4] These houses are comparable to the white houses in New Zealand, Ireland, and the Scottish Highlands.[21] Pre-colonial Ivatans also constructed fortified hills protected by sheer embankments known as ijang (or idjang).[22][23]

One of the endemic clothing of the Ivatans is the vakul. A vakul is a headgear designed to protect the wearer from sun and rain. It is made from vuyavuy palm fiber.[9][17]

The Ivatans have three folk song styles: the laji, the kanta, and the kalusan.[4] The laji are ancient lyrical songs that are supposed to be sung when they are merry or just finished work.[24] The kalusan is sung during work.[4]

The Ivatan have legends that are called kabbata.[25] They have the rawod, chants that chronicle the adventures of the Ivatan's forefathers as they escape a disaster.[26]

Indigenous Ivatan religion

Main article: List of Philippine mythological figures


See also


  1. ^ "Ethnicity in the Philippines (2020 Census of Population and Housing)". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved July 4, 2023.
  2. ^ a b Loo, Jun-Hun; Trejaut, Jean A; Yen, Ju-Chen; Chen, Zong-Sian; Lee, Chien-Liang; Lin, Marie (2011). "Genetic affinities between the Yami tribe people of Orchid Island and the Philippine Islanders of the Batanes archipelago". BMC Genetics. 12 (1): 21. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-12-21. PMC 3044674. PMID 21281460.
  3. ^ Quismundo, Tarra (April 6, 2015). "Taiwan's 'Rock Star' Tribal Folk Share Same Ancestry with Filipinos". Inquirer.net. Retrieved May 11, 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Datar, Francisco A. "The Batanes Islands". National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Retrieved April 6, 2008.[dead link]
  5. ^ a b c Bellwood, Peter; Dizon, Eusebio, eds. (2013). 4000 Years of Migration and Cultural Exchange: The Archaeology of the Batanes Islands, Northern Philippines. ANU E Press. doi:10.22459/TA40.12.2013. ISBN 9781925021288.
  6. ^ Hung, H.-C.; Iizuka, Y.; Bellwood, P.; Nguyen, K. D.; Bellina, B.; Silapanth, P.; Dizon, E.; Santiago, R.; Datan, I.; Manton, J. H. (2007). "Ancient Jades Map 3,000 Years of Prehistoric Exchange in Southeast Asia". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (50): 19745–19750. doi:10.1073/pnas.0707304104. PMC 2148369. PMID 18048347.
  7. ^ Bellwood, Peter; Hung, Hsiao-Chun; Itzuka, Yoshiyuki (2011). "Taiwan Jade in the Philippines: 3,000 Years of Trade and Long-distance Interaction". In Benitez-Johannot, Purissima (ed.). Paths of Origins: The Austronesian Heritage in the Collections of the National Museum of the Philippines, the Museum Nasional Indonesia, and the Netherlands Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde (PDF). ArtPostAsia. ISBN 9789719429203.
  8. ^ a b c d e "The Ivatan". National Commission on Indigenous Peoples. Archived from the original on March 11, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008.
  9. ^ a b c d e Rowthorn, Chris (2003). Philippines. Lonely Planet. p. 203. ISBN 1-74059-210-7.
  10. ^ Philippine National Statistics Office (July 10, 2002). "Population in Batanes Showed an Upward Swing" (Press release). Archived from the original on April 3, 2008. Retrieved April 17, 2008.
  11. ^ "Ivatan People of the Philippines: History, Customs, Culture and Traditions [Batanes Islands]". yodisphere.com. Retrieved September 9, 2023.
  12. ^ Galvez Rubino, Carl R. (2000). Ilocano Dictionary and Grammar. University of Hawaii. p. 213. ISBN 0-8248-2088-6. Retrieved April 6, 2008.
  13. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/372483339_Islandness_in_the_Province_The_Language_of_a_Migrated_Ivatan
  14. ^ "Ivatan People of the Philippines: History, Customs, Culture and Traditions [Batanes Islands]". yodisphere.com. Retrieved January 7, 2024.
  15. ^ https://www.asj.upd.edu.ph/mediabox/archive/ASJ-10-01-1972/hooker%20cohesion%20in%20ivatan.pdf
  16. ^ "Ivatan Language of the Batanes Islands". iloko.tripod.com. Retrieved January 7, 2024.
  17. ^ a b Madulid, Domingo A.; Agoo, Esperanza Maribel G. (2009). "Notes on The Economic Plants of Batanes: Citrus Species and Phoenix loureiroi Var. Loureiroi". Bulletin of National Museum of Ethnology. 34 (1): 191–205. doi:10.15021/00003920.
  18. ^ Bankoff, Greg (2002). Cultures of Disaster: Society and Natural Hazards in the Philippines. RoutledgeCurzon. p. 165. ISBN 0-7007-1761-7.
  19. ^ Trinidad-Echavez, Andrea (June 29, 2008). "Ivatan of Batanes Share Secrets of Survival in Typhoon Belt". Inquirer.net. Archived from the original on June 29, 2008. Retrieved July 1, 2008.
  20. ^ Brown, Jessica; et al. (2005). The Protected Landscape Approach: Linking Nature, Culture and Community. The World Conservation Union. p. 103. ISBN 2-8317-0797-8.
  21. ^ Calubiran, Maricar M. (January 16, 2008). "Ivatan Joins Dinagyang to Promote Batanes Tourism". The News Today. Retrieved April 17, 2008.
  22. ^ Bellwood, Peter; Dizon, Eusebio (2013). "The Batanes Islands, Their First Observers, and Previous Archaeology". In Bellwood, Peter; Dizon, Eusebio (eds.). 4000 Years of Migration and Cultural Exchange: The Archaeology of the Batanes Islands, Northern Philippines. ANU E Press. pp. 1–8. doi:10.22459/TA40.12.2013.01. ISBN 9781925021288. JSTOR j.ctt5hgz91.6.
  23. ^ Dizon, Eusebio Z.; Santiago, Rey A. (1996). "Archaeological Explorations in Batanes Province". Philippine Studies. 44 (4): 479–499. JSTOR 42634196.
  24. ^ Quindoza-Santiago, Lilia. "Early Philippine Literature". National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Archived from the original on November 15, 2007.
  25. ^ Peralta, Jesus T. "Ivatan/Itbayat". Glimpses: Peoples of the Philippines. National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Archived from the original on January 21, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008.
  26. ^ Espiritu, E. V. (September 6, 2007). "'Tatayak' Making Keeps Ivatan Seafarers Alive". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on April 17, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008.
  27. ^ a b c Hornedo, Florentino H. (1994). "Death and After Death: Ivatan Beliefs and Pracices". Philippine Studies. 42 (4): 509–527. JSTOR 42633468.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Hornedo, Florentino H. (1980). "The World and the Ways of the Ivatan Añitu". Philippine Studies. 28 (1): 21–58. JSTOR 42632505.