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Palawan, which includes Coron, is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve.

Tourism is an important sector for the Philippine economy. The travel and tourism industry contributed 6.2% to the country's GDP in 2022;[1] this was lower than the 12.7% recorded in 2019 prior to the COVID-19 lockdowns.[2] Coastal tourism, encompassing beach and diving activities, constitutes 25% of the Philippines' tourism revenue, serving as its primary income source in the sector.[3] Popular destinations among tourists include Boracay, Palawan, Cebu and Siargao. While the Philippines has encountered political and social challenges that have affected its tourism industry, the country has also taken steps to address these issues.[4] Over the past years, there have been efforts to improve political stability, enhance security measures, and promote social inclusivity, all of which contribute to creating a more favorable environment for tourism, such as the Boracay rehabilitation.[5]

As of 2022, 5.23 million Filipinos were employed in the tourism industry and as of September 2023, the Philippines generated ₱316.9 billion ($5.5 billion) in revenue from tourists, coming mostly from South Korea, the United States and Japan.[6] The country attracted a total of 5,360,682 foreign visitors in 2015 through its tourism campaign of It's More Fun in the Philippines![7] In 2019, foreign arrivals peaked at 8,260,913.[8]

The country is also home to one of the New 7 Wonders of Nature, the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park, and one of the New 7 Wonders Cities, the Heritage City of Vigan. It is also home to six UNESCO World Heritage Sites scattered in nine different locations, three UNESCO biosphere reserves, three UNESCO intangible cultural heritage, four UNESCO memory of the world documentary heritage, one UNESCO creative city, two UNESCO World Heritage cities, seven Ramsar wetland sites, and eight ASEAN Heritage Parks.[7]

Overview

In 2011, the administration of President Noynoy Aquino through his Department of Tourism (DOT) recorded 3.9 million tourists visiting the country,[9] 11.2% higher than the 3.5 million registered in 2010. Tourist arrivals jumped to 4.27 million in 2012, after the Aquino government launched a widely publicized tourism marketing campaign entitled "It's More Fun In the Philippines", which became an international success.[10]

The 2017 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report of the World Economic Forum ranked the Philippines 79th out of 136 countries overall. The country's best-rated features were price competitiveness (22nd) and natural resources (37th).[11]

The tourism industry employed 3.8 million Filipinos, or 10.2% of the nations employment, in 2011.[12]

The official heritage properties of the Philippines are listed under the National Government's Philippine Registry of Cultural Property (PRECUP),[13] Pinagmulan: Enumeration from the Philippine Inventory of Intangible Cultural Heritage,[14] and the National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS).[15][16] Properties registered among those lists are heralded as possible nominations to the UNESCO World Heritage List, where at least 16 declarations containing 19 properties have been recognized by UNESCO through its 4 different lists (UNESCO World Heritage List,[17] UNESCO Memory of the World Register,[18] UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List,[19] and UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Registry).[20]

History

Some of the carvings in the Angono Petroglyphs, the oldest rock art in the Philippines and UNESCO Tentative Site
Callao Cave, a paleolithic site in the Cagayan Valley where the 67,000-year old Callao Man was found and a UNESCO Tentative Site

Tourism in the Philippines traces its origins during the ancient times when the first set of people chose to migrate through land bridges, followed by the other sets of migrations from the Malayan archipelago in the south and Taiwan in the north. Trade also became part of the tourism as Arabs, Indians, Japanese, Chinese, Malays, and other ethnic groups in mainland Southeast Asia, Taiwan, and Ryukyu traded goods with the natives. When the islands became part of the territory of Spain, an influx of Spanish people migrated into the country, though still few compared to the Spanish migrations in South America as the Philippines was farther from Spain.[citation needed]

The tourism industry flourished during the late 19th to early 20th century due to the influx of immigrants from Europe and the United States. It was listed as one of the best countries to visit in Asia aside from Hong Kong and Japan, earning the nickname "Pearl of the Orient Seas". The tourism declined during and after the World War II, leaving the country with a completely devastated economy, and a landscape filled with destroyed heritage towns. The second wave of tourist influx flourished in the 1950s but declined drastically during the dictatorship era. After the People Power Revolution, the tourism industry continued to decline due to the domino effect caused by the Marcos dictatorship. The industry only managed to cope in 1991 and 1992, where 1.2 million tourists visited the Philippines. It afterwards waned again after a decade due to corrupt practices in government.[citation needed]

The tourism industry flourished again at the early part of the 2010s under the "It's More Fun in the Philippines" slogan of the administration of President Noynoy Aquino, which was regarded as an international success. The country saw an influx of foreign tourists, with the aid of social media and the creative tagline. Tourism reached its peak in 2015 with 5,360,682 foreign tourists arrivals recorded.[21] The industry continued to grow in 2017, but the growth rate from Western tourists decreased due to the drug war.[22]

8,260,913 international visitors arrived from January to December 2019, up by 15.24% for the same period in 2018.[23] 58.62% (4,842,774) of these came from East Asia, 15.84% (1,308,444) came from North America, and 6.38% (526,832) came from other ASEAN countries.[24]

The tourism industry was severely affected during the COVID-19 pandemic, when tourist arrivals dropped to only 1.48 million in 2020 due to government pandemic-related lockdowns to control the spread of the virus,[25] and when Super Typhoon Odette ravaged tourism-dependent remote islands, including Siargao, in central and southern Philippines in December 2021.[26] The country was reopened to international tourists starting February 10, 2022, after nearly two years of border closure due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[27]

Government initiatives since 2018

Further information: Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on tourism

Under the National Tourism Development Plan (NDTP), the Duterte administration set aside $23 billion to develop tourist infrastructure that was "not only sustainable and highly competitive in the region, but also socially responsible to propel inclusive growth".[28] In 2018, the Department of Tourism recorded 7.1 million foreign tourists to the Philippines that year, despite the closure of popular destination Boracay for cleanup.[29] A total of 8.26 million international tourists visited the country throughout 2019, breaking the department's record and exceeding the NDTP target.[30]

In January 2021, the Department of Public Works and Highways reported 120 billion was allocated from 2016 to 2021 for the construction and improvement of 4,147 km (2,577 mi) of roads leading to tourist destinations, of which 2,168 km (1,347 mi) were completed.[31] Following a decline in tourism due to a COVID-19 border closure of two years, the administration reopened the Philippines to international tourists[27] and stopped requiring RT-PCR tests of fully-vaccinated passengers upon arrival.[32]

Statistics

Country visitor statistics

Rank Country Jan 2024[33] 2023[34] 2022 [35] 2021 [36] 2020[37] 2019[38] 2018[39] 2017[40] 2016[41] 2015[42] 2014[43] 2013[44] 2012[45] 2011[46] 2010[47]
1  South Korea 174,119 1,439,336 428,014 6,456 338,877 1,989,322 1,587,959 1,607,821 1,475,081 1,339,678 1,175,472 1,165,789 1,031,155 925,204 740,622
2  United States 93,202 903,299 505,089 39,326 211,816 1,064,440 1,034,396 957,813 869,463 779,217 722,750 674,564 652,626 624,527 600,165
3  China 33,389 263,836 39,627 9,674 170,432 1,743,309 1,255,258 968,447 675,663 490,841 394,951 426,352 250,883 243,137 187,446
4  Japan 28,454 305,580 99,557 15,024 136,664 682,788 631,801 884,180 635,238 495,662 463,744 433,705 412,474 375,496 358,744
5  Australia 28,013 266,551 137,974 2,184 55,330 286,170 279,821 259,433 251,098 241,187 224,784 213,023 191,150 170,736 147,649
6  Canada 25,088 221,920 121,413 6,781 55,273 238,850 226,429 300,640 175,631 153,363 143,899 131,381 123,699 117,423 106,345
7  Taiwan 16,678 194,851 23,604 1,619 48,644 327,273 240,842 236,777 229,303 177,670 142,973 139,099 216,511 181,738 142,455
8  United Kingdom 14,540 154,698 101,034 4,348 39,980 209,206 301,039 282,708 173,229 154,189 133,665 122,759 113,282 104,466 96,925
9  Singapore* 11,475 149,230 53,448 653 19,998 158,595 171,795 168,637 176,057 181,176 179,099 175,034 148,215 137,802 121,083
10  India 9,865 70,286 51,542 7,202 29,014 134,963 121,124 107,278 90,816 74,824 61,152 52,206 46,395 42,844 34,581
11  Germany 9,325 74,731 39,013 2,037 25,893 103,756 92,098 85,431 86,363 75,348 72,801 70,949 67,023 61,193 58,725
12  France 7,772 51,601 23,949 1,425 24,530 88,577 74,400 64,777 55,384 45,505 38,946 39,042 33,709 29,591 27,302
13  Malaysia* 7,287 97,639 46,805 1,620 23,359 139,882 145,242 143,566 139,133 155,814 139,245 109,437 114,513 91,752 79,694
14  Hong Kong SAR 6,233 80,512 8,589 354 12,444 91,653 117,992 111,135 116,328 122,180 114,100 126,008 118,666 112,106 133,746
15  Indonesia* 5,554 53,707 24,596 1,888 13,734 70,819 76,652 62,923 44,348 48,178 46,757 45,582 36,627 34,542 31,997
16  Vietnam* 4,552 67,661 38,605 1,785 11,406 66,698 52,334 39,951 33,895 31,579 29,800 26,599 20,817 17,781 17,311
17  Netherlands 3,984 31,956 19,306 1,510 8,961 41,313 37,051 33,821 31,876 28,632 25,236 22,595 22,195 21,029 19,227
18  Spain 3,613 34,063 19,194 1,220 9,621 49,748 44,133 36,954 32,097 24,144 19,353 17,126 15,895 14,648 12,759
19  Italy 3,530 22,496 12,933 1,212 8,976 38,951 35,182 30,437 25,945 21,620 19,865 17,668 16,740 15,798 16,350
20  Thailand* 3,340 40,952 16,300 1,464 9,788 61,292 59,793 48,727 47,913 44,038 45,943 47,874 40,987 37,862 36,713
21  Russia 3,266 23,104 8,040 1,027 12,643 36,111 29,967 33,279 28,210 25,278 32,087 35,404 28,270 20,185 14,642
22  United Arab Emirates 3,010 33,769 2,084 2,733 2,518 10,192 15,402 16,399 17,634 16,881 17,000 15,155 12,684 13,404 12,734
23  New Zealand 2,869 29,272 17,503 345 6,883 37,872 33,341 28,983 23,431 20,579 17,704 15,783 14,100 12,782 11,323
24   Switzerland 2,843 24,048 11,092 598 7,094 29,966 31,075 29,837 29,420 27,200 25,548 24,907 23,557 22,335 21,224
25  Guam 2,816 35,501 2,875 644 2,882 19,835 32,357 36,637 38,777 35,262 38,016 42,204 42,695 41,013 40,928
26  Sweden 2,187 16,789 9,389 508 6,996 27,892 28,085 27,703 26,062 23,206 21,861 22,957 21,807 17,973 15,510
27  Saudi Arabia 1,640 19,311 10,414 2,252 7,014 43,748 46,967 54,716 56,081 50,884 43,483 38,969 30,040 27,945 22,214
28  Norway 1,639 20,000 12,004 508 4,365 23,464 23,571 21,890 21,606 20,968 20,846 20,625 19,572 17,959 16,742
29  Ireland 1,509 16,379 12,009 600 3,621 21,475 20,051 18,051 16,557 14,050 12,354 10,576 8,362 6,023 5,368
30  Belgium 1,378 14,459 8,961 648 3,756 19,156 17,285 15,703 14,477 12,825 12,236 11,454 11,649 10,959 10,512
31  Myanmar* 1,124 6,395 4,255 271 2,877 13,978 9,630 9,571 7,442 7,033 6,633 4,948 4,290 3,246 3,983
32  Israel 796 13,334 9,711 452 4,745 22,851 20,343 17,446 16,725 11,756 8,776 7,675 5,895 4,990 4,525
33  Brunei* 374 6,639 1,884 37 1,037 8,126 9,533 8,679 8,211 9,015 9,677 8,297 5,992 5,247 4,072
34  Cambodia* 251 3,999 1,454 40 942 5,988 4,154 4,712 3,526 3,503 3,276 3,228 2,661 2,469 2,244
35  Laos* 65 988 495 15 203 1,454 1,183 1,580 1,173 1,231 1,056 1,062 1,088 971 1,079
All Countries 574,439 5,450,557 2,653,858 163,879 1,482,535 8,260,913 7,168,467 6,620,908 5,967,005 5,360,682 4,833,368 4,681,307 4,272,811 3,917,454 3,520,471

* Country in ASEAN

Annual statistics (foreign arrivals)

Regional statistics (2019)

Attractions

Main article: List of tourist attractions in the Philippines

See also: Philippine Registry of Cultural Property, Wildlife of the Philippines, and List of protected areas of the Philippines

Boracay Island in Aklan
Summit of Mount Apo, the highest mountain in the Philippines


The island of Luzon is considered the political and economic center of the Philippines. The economy of Luzon is centered in Metro Manila, the national capital region. Manila was ranked 11th most attractive city for American shoppers out of 25 Asia Pacific cities by a Global Blue survey in 2012.[68] Shopping malls can be found around the metropolis, especially in the business and financial districts of Makati, Ortigas and Bonifacio Global City.[citation needed]

The most popular destinations in the Visayas are Cebu and Boracay known for their white sand beaches and has been favorite island destinations for local and foreign visitors.[69][70] In 2012, Boracay received the "best island" award from the international travel magazine Travel + Leisure.[71][72] Boracay is also a popular destination for relaxation, tranquility and an exciting nightlife.[73] In 2018, three Philippine islands, Siargao Island, Boracay, and Palawan, were listed on Condé Nast Traveler's list of Asia's best islands. The three islands were ranked first, second, and third, respectively.[74]

Mindanao, the southernmost island of the Philippines, is home to the country's highest mountain, Mount Apo. The mountain has become a popular hiking destination for mountain climbers.[75] On average, it takes two days to reach the summit. The mountain has a wide range of flora and fauna, including over 272 bird species, 111 of which are endemic to the area, including the national bird, the Philippine eagle.[76]

Immovable Tangible Heritage

Main articles: List of World Heritage Sites in the Philippines, List of Ramsar sites in the Philippines, ASEAN Heritage Parks, and List of protected areas of the Philippines

Batad Rice Terraces, part of the Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras, a World Heritage Site
Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park, UNESCO World Heritage Site and Future Policy Awardee for marine resource management[77]

The Philippines has six UNESCO World Heritage Sites scattered in nine different locations: Vigan, Baroque Churches of the Philippines (comprising Santa Maria Church, Paoay Church, San Agustin Church, Miagao Church), Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras which includes five different rice terrace clusters, Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park, Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park, and Mount Hamiguitan Wildlife Sanctuary.[17]

There country has one UNESCO World Heritage City, Vigan,[78] and one UNESCO Creative City, (Baguio).[79] There are three UNESCO Biosphere Reserves (Palawan Biosphere Reserve, Albay Biosphere Reserve, and Puerto Galera Biosphere Reserve),[20] and eight ASEAN Heritage Parks (Mount Apo National Park,[80] Mounts Iglit–Baco National Park,[80] Mount Kitanglad National Park,[81] Mount Makiling National Park,[82] Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park,[83] Mount Hamiguitan Wildlife Sanctuary,[83] and Timpoong and Hibok-Hibok Natural Monument).[84]

Movable Tangible Heritage

See also: Philippine Registry of Cultural Property, Archaeology of the Philippines, and Art of the Philippines

The Philippines possesses numerous significant movable tangible heritage, both in cultural and natural terms. Many are declared as national treasures and are highly protected by the law. The country has four documentary heritage inscribed in the UNESCO Memory of the World Register, namely, the José Maceda Collection, Philippine Paleographs (Hanunoo, Buhid, Tagbanua, and Pala’wan), Presidential Papers of Manuel L. Quezon, and Radio Broadcast of the Philippine People Power Revolution. Many of the cultural objects of the country are housed in government and private museums and libraries throughout the archipelago, such as the National Museum of the Philippines and the National Library of the Philippines. Aside from movable heritage under Philippine possession, there are also Philippine-originated artifacts and art pieces that have been looted or bought by foreigners and are now housed by other countries. Such pieces include the Golden Tara, the two existing copies of Doctrina Cristiana, the Boxer Codex, and many others.[citation needed]

Intangible Heritage

Main article: Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Philippines

The country currently possesses at least three UNESCO intangible cultural heritage elements, one of which, the Hudhud Epic Chants of the Ifugao, was declared by UNESCO as one of the eleven great traditions of humanity.[85] The other two elements inscribed by UNESCO are the Darangen Chant of the Maranao people of Lake Lanao[86] and the Punnuk tug-of-war Game of the Ifugao.[87] Education concerning Philippine mythology is also a notable intangible heritage of the country.[88]

Filipino cuisine

Main articles: Filipino cuisine and List of Philippine dishes

A selection of dishes found in Filipino cuisine

Filipino cuisine is the polymerization of 144 distinct cuisines in the Philippines, coming from separate ethno-linguistic groups. The style of cooking and the food associated with it have evolved over many centuries from their Austronesian origins (shared with Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines) to a mixed cuisine of Indian, Chinese, Spanish, and American influences, in line with the major waves of influence that had enriched the cultures of the archipelago, as well as others adapted to indigenous ingredients and the local palate. Well-known Filipino food include adobo, sinigang, kare-kare, pinakbet, lumpia, pancit, lechon, sisig, halo-halo, pandesal, puto, chicharrón, bibingka, dinengdeng, suman, and balut. Adobo and ube are the most internationally known.[89]

Tourism activities

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Beaching and diving

Main article: List of beaches in the Philippines

A beach in El Nido, Palawan

Various beaches in the Philippines have landed in multiple magazine rankings. Among the most popular beach and diving choices in the country include Boracay, El Nido, Coron, Cebu, and Siargao.[90] In 2018, Canadian-based travel agency Flight Network listed Hidden Beach in Palawan (No. 1) as the best beach in all of Asia. The beach was also cited by Travel+Leisure as among the 13 places to see the bluest water in the world. Other beaches ranked from the Philippines were Guyam White Sand Beach in Siargao (No. 13), Palaui Beach in Cagayan Valley (No. 22), Caramoan Island Beach in Camarines Sur (No. 29), Dahican Beach in Mati, Davao Oriental (No. 41), Gumasa Beach in Sarangani (No. 45), Alona Beach in Panglao, Bohol (No. 46), Kalanggaman Island in Cebu (No. 49), and Paliton Beach in Siquijor (No. 50).[91]

Hiking

Further information: List of mountains in the Philippines

Chocolate Hills, a geologic natural monument in Bohol and a UNESCO Tentative Site

Among the most famous hiking areas in the country are Mount Apo, Mount Pinatubo, Mount Halcon, Mount Banahaw, Mount Makiling, and Mount Pulag. An Online magazine, Culture Trip, cited Mount Batulao in Batangas, Masungi Georeserve in Rizal, Tarak Ridge in Bataan, Mount Daraitan and Maynoba in Rizal, Kibungan Circuit in Benguet, and Mount Pulag in Nueva Vizcaya for having the most spectacular hiking trails in the country in 2017.[92]

Research and education

See also: List of protected areas of the Philippines and Philippine mythology

The University of Santo Tomas possesses the oldest extant university charter in Asia.

Due to the diverse number of flora and fauna of the country, researchers from around the world have flocked various biodiversity sites in Philippine environmental corridors. Among the big draws for environmental researchers include Mount Mantalingajan, Sibuyan Island, Dinagat Islands, Mount Hamiguitan, Central Panay Mountain Range, Verde Island Passage, Tubbataha Reef, Mount Malindang, Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, and Turtle Islands, Tawi-Tawi. Local and foreign archaeologists and anthropologists have also flocked the country's archaeological sites, such as Cagayan Valley, Butuan, Tabon Cave, Callao Cave, Banton, Ifugao, Cebu, Lanao del Sur, and many others.[citation needed]

Common nationals that seek graduate degrees or reviewer sessions in the Philippines usually come from India, South Korea, and Palau. Language schools with English language programs are also popular among Asian foreigners from South Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, Myanmar, Taiwan, and Japan. Government-approved institutions that teach Philippine mythology and suyat scripts, such as baybayin, have also become popular among locals and foreigners.[citation needed]

Arts and crafts tourism

Main article: Art of the Philippines

Baguio, UNESCO Creative City

Arts and crafts tourism in the Philippines has recently expanded following several attempts to establish a cultural renaissance. The country was conferred its first UNESCO Creative City through Baguio in 2016. Other arts and crafts centers are in Manila, Quezon City, San Fernando City, Iloilo City, Angono, Santiago, Cebu City, Basey, Davao City, Lake Sebu, Angeles City, Vigan, Basco, Zamboanga City, Marawi, Tugaya, Cotabato City, Sariaya, Tagbilaran, and Dumaguete.

Pilgrimage

Further information: Baroque Churches of the Philippines and List of mosques in the Philippines

Taal Basilica, the largest church in Asia

The Philippines is the Catholic pilgrimage capital of Asia, possessing hundreds of olden churches, most of which were established between the 15th to 19th centuries through the earthquake baroque architecture. Historic mosques, temples, and indigenous places of worship such as dambanas are also present throughout the country. Popular pilgrimage sites in the country include Paoay Church, Quiapo Church, Manaoag Church, Taal Basilica, and Naga Cathedral.

Festivals

Main article: List of festivals in the Philippines

Participants at the Ati-Atihan festival

The country has thousands of festivals, most of which are annual spectacles. Each of the festivals, locally known as fiesta, have different traditions at play, and may be religious or secular in nature. Among the most popular include the Ati-Atihan Festival of Aklan, Sinulog Festival of Cebu, the Dinagyang Festival of Iloilo, the Panagbenga Festival of Baguio, the Moriones Festival of Marinduque, and the MassKara Festival of Bacolod.[93]

Protection and restoration

Main article: Culture of the Philippines

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Villanueva Building (Calle Real) in Iloilo City

The Philippines is home to numerous heritage towns and cities, many of which have been intentionally destroyed by the Japanese through fire tactics in World War II and the Americans through bombings during the same war. After the war, the government of the Empire of Japan withheld from giving funds to the Philippines for the restoration of the heritage towns they destroyed, effectively destroying any chances of restoration since the pre-war Philippines' economy was devastated and had limited monetary supply. On the other hand, the United States gave minimal funding for only two of the hundreds of cities they destroyed, namely, Manila and Baguio. Today, only the centers (poblacion or downtown areas) remain in most of the expansive heritage cities and towns in the country.[citation needed]

Vigan, a World Heritage Site

Yet, some heritage cities in their former glory prior to the war still exist, such as the UNESCO city of Vigan which was the only heritage town saved from American bombing and Japanese fire and kamikaze tactics. The country currently lacks a city/town-singular architectural style law.[citation needed] Due to this, unaesthetic cement or shanty structures have taken over heritage buildings annually, destroying many former heritage townscapes. Some heritage buildings have been demolished or sold to corporations, and have been replaced by commercial structures such as shopping centers, condominium units, or newly-furnished modern-style buildings, completely destroying the old aesthetics of many former heritage towns and cities.[citation needed] Only the heritage city of Vigan has a town law that guarantees its singular architecture (the Vigan colonial style) shall always be used in constructions and reconstructions. While Silay, Iloilo City, and San Fernando de Pampanga have ordinances giving certain tax exemptions to owners of heritage houses.[94] In 2010, the Philippine Cultural Heritage Act passed into law, effectively giving protection to all cultural heritage properties of the Philippines.[95] However, despite its passage, many ancestral home owners continue to approve the demolition of ancestral structures.[citation needed]

Visa policy

Main article: Visa policy of the Philippines

The visa policy of the Philippines is governed by Commonwealth Act No. 613, also known as the Philippine Immigration Act, and by subsequent legislation amending it. The Act is jointly enforced by the Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA) and the Bureau of Immigration (BI).

Generally, foreign nationals who wish to enter the Philippines require a visa unless:

157 foreign nationals are visa-free for 14 days, 30 days, or 59 days. Of more than 200 countries and territories, 39 need visas to enter the Philippines.[96][97]

Immigration and customs

Entry guidelines for temporary visitors

Nationals traveling to the Philippines for business and tourism purposes are allowed to enter the Philippines obtaining visa on arrival for a stay not exceeding 30 days, provided they hold valid tickets for their return journey to port of origin or next port of destination. However, immigration officers at ports of entry may exercise their discretion to admit holders of passports valid for at least sixty days beyond the intended period of stay.[98]

Customs

Upon arriving, visitors are allowed to bring in duty-free personal belongings, two cartons of cigarettes or two tins of pipe tobacco and up to one liter of alcohol. Exceeding this is illegal. Balikbayans have separate rules and should check with the embassy or consulate in their home city.[98]

Currency regulations

It is illegal for any incoming or outgoing passenger to bring in or out Philippine pesos in excess of P10,000.00 without prior authority from the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas. Any violation of this rule may lead to its seizure and civil penalties and / or criminal prosecution.[98]

The transportation of foreign currency or monetary instruments is legal. However, the carrying of foreign currency in excess of US$10,000.00 or its equivalent in other foreign currencies must be declared to a Customs Officer or the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas. Violation of this rule may lead to seizure and sanctions, fines and / or penalties.[98]

Transportation

Terminal 2 interior of the Mactan-Cebu International Airport, the main gateway to the Central Visayas Region

Air transportation

Further information: List of airports in the Philippines § International airports

Currently, there are 16 airports classified by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines as International Airports. There are also hundreds of principal domestic airports and community airports throughout the country. The international airports include:[99]

Sea transportation

Main article: List of ports in the Philippines

The country traditionally used sea vehicles since pre-colonial times. The archipelagic country has four areas of ports concentration, as administered by the Philippine Ports Authority. These areas are the South China Sea ports area, Philippine Sea ports area, Celebes Sea ports area, and Inland Seas ports area. Each area has hundreds of ports serving local and international ships and other sea vehicles.[102][failed verification]

International Tourism Offices

Philippine Embassy in Washington, D.C.

Every town and city in the Philippines has at least one tourism office. The country has also established numerous tourism offices in various foreign countries. The international tourism offices include:[103]

Embassies and consulates of the Philippines throughout the world also serve as de facto international tourism offices.

Threats

Nepenthes sibuyanensis (Pitcher Plant) from the protected Sibuyan Island

Terrorism may pose the greatest threat to tourists' safety in the Philippines, notably in the southern regions bordering Malaysia. The far-southern region is widely known as a no-go zone for foreign visitors. Areas surrounding Marawi and other parts of the island are considered unsafe due to violent activities of rebel groups which include the Maute Group.[104]

Certain militant Islamist groups such as Abu Sayyaf and Jema'ah Islamiyah are particularly dangerous, since they are responsible for the majority of recent attacks, which have included bombings, piracies, kidnappings and killings of foreign nationals if their government failed to pay the demanded ransom.[105]

Other threats include cultural heritage destruction due to damage, demolition, or looting of heritage structures, and urbanization of younger generations away from indigenous traditions, causing various rituals and practices to fade away. Threats to natural heritage include mining, severe population growth, urbanization, introduction of invasive species, deforestation, water pollution, air pollution, and climate change.[106][107][108][109]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Tourism Contributes 6.2 Percent to GDP in 2022" (Press release). Philippine Statistics Authority. Archived from the original on July 11, 2023. Retrieved June 15, 2023.
  2. ^ "Share of Tourism to GDP is 12.7 percent in 2019" (Press release). Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  3. ^ Inquirer, Philippine Daily (December 30, 2021). "ADBI floats idea of ocean tourism in PH". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved September 27, 2023.
  4. ^ "The problem with the Philippine tourism industry". Archived from the original on December 3, 2021. Retrieved August 11, 2020.
  5. ^ "Philippines to temporarily shut down tourist island". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved August 18, 2023.
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