Province of Aurora
Cuaresma beach casiguran.jpg
Dicasalarin Cove.jpg
(from top: left to right) Dinadiawan Beach in Dipaculao, Ditawini beach in Dinalungan, Cuaresma beach in Casiguran and Disacalarin Cove in Baler.
Flag of Aurora
Official seal of Aurora
Location in the Philippines
Location in the Philippines
Coordinates: 15°53′N 121°33′E / 15.88°N 121.55°E / 15.88; 121.55Coordinates: 15°53′N 121°33′E / 15.88°N 121.55°E / 15.88; 121.55
RegionCentral Luzon
Founded1951 (as sub-province of Quezon)
Province13 August 1979
Named forAurora Quezon
Largest MunicipalityMaria Aurora
 • GovernorGerardo Noveras (PDP-Laban)
 • Vice GovernorChristian M. Noveras (PDP-Laban)
 • LegislatureAurora Provincial Board
 • Total3,147.32 km2 (1,215.19 sq mi)
 • Rank42nd out of 81
Highest elevation
(Mount Mingan)
1,901 m (6,237 ft)
 (2020 census) [2]
 • Total235,750
 • Rank70th out of 81
 • Density75/km2 (190/sq mi)
  • Rank77th out of 81
 • Independent cities0
 • Component cities0
 • Municipalities
 • Barangays151
 • DistrictsLegislative district of Aurora
 • Ethnic groups
 • Languages
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
IDD:area code+63 (0)42
ISO 3166 codePH-AUR

Aurora (Tagalog: Lalawigan ng Aurora; Ilocano: Probinsia ti Aurora) is a province in the Philippines located in the eastern part of Central Luzon region, facing the Philippine Sea. Its capital is Baler and borders, clockwise from the south, the provinces of Quezon, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Quirino, and Isabela.

Before 1979, Aurora was part of the province of Quezon. Aurora was, in fact, named after Aurora Aragon, the wife of Pres. Manuel L. Quezon, the president of the Philippine Commonwealth, after whom the mother province was named.


Map of northern Tayabas in 1918
Map of northern Tayabas in 1918

Spanish era

In 1572, the Spanish explorer Juan de Salcedo became the first European to visit the region that would be known as Aurora while he was exploring the northern coast of Luzon. Salcedo reportedly visited the towns of Casiguran, Baler and Infanta.

In the early days of the Spanish colonial period, Aurora was ecclesiastically linked to Infanta, which today rests further south, in northern Quezon. The earliest missionaries in the province were the Franciscans, who had established missions in Baler and Casiguran in 1609.[3] Due to lack of available personnel, the region was given to the jurisdiction of the Augustinians and Recollects in 1658, but was returned to the Friars Minor in 1703. Other early missions included Dipaculao, established in 1719, and Casiguran, in 1753.

District of El Principe

The early history of Aurora is linked to Quezon province, of which it formed a part, and Nueva Ecija, under which the area was governed as the District of El Príncipe. In 1902, the district was separated from Nueva Ecija and transferred to the province of Tayabas (now Quezon).[3][4]


Aurora became a sub-province of Quezon in 1951 through Republic Act No. 648,[5] and finally became an independent province during the presidency of Ferdinand E. Marcos, through Batas Pambansa Blg. 7 enacted on November 21, 1978.[3][6]

Administrative assignment

As original part of the province of Quezon, Aurora was part of the Southern Tagalog Region (Region IV). Upon the issuance of Executive Order No. 103, dated May 17, 2002, by then-President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, the province of Aurora was moved to Central Luzon (Region III). The provinces south of Aurora formed as Calabarzon and Mimaropa.


Aurora is a coastal province covering an area of 3,147.32 square kilometres (1,215.19 sq mi)[7] in east-central Luzon. To the north, it is bordered by the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park of Isabela, to the west by the central range of the Sierra Madre which contains the Casecnan Protected Landscape and Aurora Memorial National Park, to the south by the Umiray River, and to the east by the Philippine Sea which opens to the Pacific Ocean. The San Ildefonso Peninsula lies in the province's northern portion between the Philippine Sea and the Casiguran Sound.


The province covers a portion of the Sierra Madre mountain range. As such, the elevation is generally steep to very steep and only about 14% of the province's total area is flat.[3]


Aurora's climate is classified as Tropical rainforest climate.[8] It experiences significant rainfall throughout the year.[8] Because the coastal province faces the Pacific Ocean, it is frequently visited by typhoons.[3][9]

Administrative divisions

Ph fil aurora.png

Aurora is politically subdivided into 8 municipalities, all encompassed by a lone legislative district.

Municipality[i] Population ±% p.a. Area[7] Density Barangay
(2020)[2] (2015)[10] km2 sqmi /km2 /sqmi
15°45′34″N 121°33′46″E / 15.7595°N 121.5627°E / 15.7595; 121.5627 (Baler) Baler 18.6% 43,785 39,562 +1.95% 92.54 35.73 470 1,200 13
16°12′15″N 122°02′24″E / 16.2041°N 122.0400°E / 16.2041; 122.0400 (Casiguran) Casiguran 11.3% 26,564 24,313 +1.70% 715.43 276.23 37 96 24
16°23′23″N 122°12′36″E / 16.3898°N 122.2099°E / 16.3898; 122.2099 (Dilasag) Dilasag 7.3% 17,102 15,835 +1.48% 306.25 118.24 56 150 11
16°08′30″N 121°57′22″E / 16.1416°N 121.9560°E / 16.1416; 121.9560 (Dinalungan) Dinalungan 5.3% 12,508 11,322 +1.91% 316.85 122.34 39 100 9
15°23′22″N 121°23′34″E / 15.3894°N 121.3927°E / 15.3894; 121.3927 (Dingalan) Dingalan 11.8% 27,878 25,482 +1.73% 304.55 117.59 92 240 11
15°50′52″N 121°32′12″E / 15.8477°N 121.5367°E / 15.8477; 121.5367 (Dipaculao) Dipaculao 14.1% 33,131 29,736 +2.08% 361.64 139.63 92 240 25
15°47′54″N 121°28′20″E / 15.7982°N 121.4723°E / 15.7982; 121.4723 (Maria Aurora) Maria Aurora 19.1% 44,958 40,734 +1.90% 426.29 164.59 110 280 40
15°43′09″N 121°31′04″E / 15.7191°N 121.5178°E / 15.7191; 121.5178 (San Luis) San Luis 12.7% 29,824 27,352 +1.66% 609.85 235.46 49 130 18
Total 235,750 214,336 +1.83% 3,133.40 1,209.81 75 190 151
 † Provincial capital  Municipality
  1. ^ The globe 
    WMA button2b.png
    icon marks the town center.


The 8 municipalities of the province comprise a total of 151 barangays, with Suclayin in Baler as the most populous in 2010, and Dibalo in San Luis as the least. [11]

Further information: List of barangays in Aurora


Population census of Aurora (province)
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 4,484—    
1918 5,980+1.94%
1939 18,280+5.46%
1948 22,825+2.50%
1960 42,827+5.38%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1970 80,459+6.50%
1975 90,060+2.29%
1980 107,145+3.53%
1990 139,573+2.68%
1995 159,621+2.55%
YearPop.±% p.a.
2000 173,797+1.84%
2007 187,802+1.07%
2010 201,233+2.55%
2015 214,336+1.21%
2020 235,750+1.89%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority [10][11][11]

The population of Aurora in the 2020 census was 235,750 people, [2] with a density of 75 inhabitants per square kilometre or 190 inhabitants per square mile.

Population by ethnicity (2000)[12]
Ethnicity Population
91,745 (52.85%)
54,557 (31.43%)
8,853 (5.10%)
7,079 (4.08%)
2,355 (1.36%)
1,529 (0.88%)
Dumagat (Umiray)
1,047 (0.6%)
832 (0.48%)

4,943 (2.85%)
Not Reported
649 (0.37%)

Based on the 2000 census survey, Tagalogs comprised 52.85% (91,745) of the total provincial population of 173,589, and about less than 1/3 of the population were Ilocano at 31.43% (54,557). Other ethnic groups in the province were Kasiguranin at 5.1% (8,853), Bicolano at 4.08% (7,079), Kankanaey at 1.36% (2,355), Bisaya at 0.88% (1,529), Dumagat (Umiray) at 0.6% (1,047), and Cebuano at 0.48% (832).[12]

There are also pockets of Negritos, called Dumagats. Most Dumagats are living in the hillsides or mountains. They are believed to have result from a fusion of Austronesian and Melanesian ancestries, and survive from fishing and hunting. There are three kinds of Dumagats in Aurora province, the Umiray Dumagat, Casiguran Dumagat, and the Palanan Dumagat.

The Tagalog and Ilocano languages are spoken by their respective ethnic groups. The province primarily speaks Tagalog dialect called Tayabas Tagalog that resembles a dominant part of Batangas Tagalog with a heavy mixture of Ilocano, Bicolano and Cebuano words; the dialect is also known for the popular term hane (meaning "this", similar to Standard Tagalog term ito). Ilocano spoken in Aurora was affected by Tayabas Tagalog accent. Most English is spoken in the municipalities of Baler and Maria Aurora.


Baler Church
Baler Church

The people of Aurora are heavily Christianized (large majority being Roman Catholic by 87%)[citation needed] as a result of hundreds of years of Spanish colonization. Some other Christian believers are also present which includes Methodists, Aglipayan Church, Baptists, Born Again Christians, Jehovah's Witnesses, Members Church of God International, Iglesia ni Cristo and Seventh-day Adventist while Muslims are also found which presence is traced to migration by some people from some parts of Mindanao. Muslims, Anitists, animists, and atheists are also present in the province.


Corn crops, rice and other major agricultural crops are grown in Aurora. It has a total of 38, 928 or 13% of provincial Land Area of Agricultural land. It also has 8,945 hectares (22,100 acres) of rice plantation that averages 24,000 tons every year.[citation needed]

Aurora Pacific Economic Zone

Casiguran is home to the Aurora Pacific Economic Zone and Freeport Authority or APECO a special economic zone located in this coastal town. Created in 2007 by virtue of Republic Act No. 9490 through the efforts of Sen. Edgardo Angara and Rep. Juan Edgardo Angara, it is expected be a major transshipment hub going to the pacific region. It aims to boost social, economic and industrial developments in Aurora and nearby provinces by generating jobs for the people, improving the quality of their living conditions, advocating an eco-friendly approach to industrialization and enhancing the potential of the community in productivity.


Notable people

See also


  1. ^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Archived from the original on 19 April 2016. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  2. ^ a b c Census of Population (2020). "Region III (Central Luzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d e Lancion, Jr., Conrado M.; cartography by de Guzman, Rey (1995). "The Provinces; Aurora". Fast Facts about Philippine Provinces (The 2000 Millenium ed.). Makati, Metro Manila, Philippines: Tahanan Books. p. 28. ISBN 971-630-037-9. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
  4. ^ National Historical Commission of the Philippines. "History of Baler". National Historical Commission of the Philippines. Archived from the original on May 14, 2013. Retrieved 2012-03-09. When military district of El Príncipe was created in 1856, Baler became its capital...On June 12, 1902 a civil government was established, moving the district of El Príncipe away from the administrative jurisdiction of Nueva Ecija...and placing it under the jurisdiction of Tayabas Province.
  5. ^ Republic Act No. 648 (14 June 1951), An Act Creating the Subprovince of Aurora, Which Shall Comprise the Municipalities of Baler, Casiguran, Dipaculao and Maria Aurora, Province of Quezon, retrieved 8 December 2015
  6. ^ Batas Pambansa Blg. 7 (21 November 1978), An Act Separating the Sub-province of Aurora from the Province of Quezon and Establishing It as an Independent Province, retrieved 8 December 2015
  7. ^ a b "Province: Aurora (province)". PSGC Interactive. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  8. ^ a b "Climate: Aurora". Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  9. ^ Iglesias, Iza; Vargas, Anthony; Cueto, Francis Earl A. (17 October 2015). "3 days of heavy rain". The Manila Times. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  10. ^ a b Census of Population (2015). "Region III (Central Luzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  11. ^ a b c Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region III (Central Luzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  12. ^ a b "Aurora: Housing Unit Occupancy Rate Almost 100 Percent; Table 4. Household Population by Ethnicity and Sex: Aurora, 2000". Philippine Statistics Authority. 11 June 2002. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  13. ^ "Poverty incidence (PI):". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  14. ^; publication date: 29 November 2005; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  15. ^; publication date: 8 February 2011; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  16. ^; publication date: 27 August 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  17. ^; publication date: 27 August 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  18. ^; publication date: 27 August 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  19. ^; publication date: 4 June 2020; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
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