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Governor-General of the Philippines
Gobernador y Capitán General de Filipinas
Gobernador-Heneral ng Pilipinas
フィリピン総督
ResidenceFort San Pedro (1565–1572)
Palacio del Gobernador (1572–1863)
Malacañang Palace (1863–1945)
Mansion House (1942–1945)
Appointer
Viceroy of New Spain
Monarch of Spain
Monarch of Great Britain
President of the United States
Emperor of Japan
PrecursorVarious,
the barangay system
FormationApril 27, 1565
First holderMiguel López de Legazpi
(under Spain)
Dawsonne Drake
(under Great Britain)
Wesley Merritt
(under the United States)
Masaharu Homma
(under Japan)
Final holderDiego de los Ríos
(under Spain)
Dawsonne Drake
(under Great Britain)
Frank Murphy
(under the United States)
Tomoyuki Yamashita
(under Japan)
AbolishedOctober 6, 1945

The governor-general of the Philippines (Filipinas; Filipino: Gobernador-Heneral ng Pilipinas/Kapitan Heneral ng Pilipinas) was the title of the government executive during the colonial period of the Philippines, governed by Mexico City and Madrid (1565–1898) and the United States (1898–1946), and briefly by Great Britain (1762–1764) and Japan (1942–1945). They were also the representative of the executive of the ruling power.

On November 15, 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established as a transitional government to prepare the country for independence from American control. The governor-general was replaced by an elected Filipino president of the Philippine Commonwealth, as the chief executive of the Philippines, taking over many of the duties of the governor-general. The former American governor-general then became known as the high commissioner to the Philippines.

From 1565 to 1898, the Philippines was under Spanish rule. From 1565 to 1821, the governor and captain-general was appointed by the viceroy of New Spain upon recommendation of the Spanish Cortes and governed on behalf of the monarch of Spain to govern the Captaincy General of the Philippines. When there was a vacancy (e.g. death, or during the transitional period between governors), the Real Audiencia in Manila appointed a temporary governor from among its members.

After Mexico won its independence in 1821, the country was no longer under the Viceroyalty of New Spain (present-day Mexico) and administrative affairs formerly handled by New Spain were transferred to Madrid and placed directly under the Spanish Crown.

Under New Spain (1565–1764)

No. Portrait Name Tenure start Tenure end Viceroy of New Spain Monarch
1 Miguel López de Legazpi
(1502–1572)
April 27,
1565
August 20,
1572
Francisco Ceinos
Dean of the Audiencia
(1564–1566)
Philip II
(1554–1598)
Gastón de Peralta
3rd Marquess of Falces

(1566–1567)
Alonso Muñoz and
Luis Carrillo
(1567–1568)
Alonso Muñoz
(1568)
Francisco Ceinos
Dean of the Audiencia
(1564–1566)
Martín Enríquez de Almanza
(1568–1580)
2 Guido de Lavezaris
(1512–1581)
August 20,
1572
August 25,
1575
3 Francisco de Sande
(1540–1602)
August 25,
1575
April
1580
4 Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa
(died 1583)
April
1580
March 10,
1583
Lorenzo Suárez de Mendoza
5th Count of Coruña

(1580–1583)
5 Diego Ronquillo
Acting Governor-General
March 10,
1583
May 16,
1584
Luis de Villanueva y Zapata
Dean of the Audiencia
(1583–1584)
6 Santiago de Vera
(died 1606)
May 16,
1584
May
1590
Pedro Moya de Contreras
Archbishop of Mexico
(1584–1585)
Álvaro Manrique de Zúñiga
1st Marquess of Villamanrique

(1585–1590)
Luis de Velasco
1st Marquess of Salinas

(1590–1595)
7 Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas
(1519–1593)
June 1,
1590
October 25,
1593
8 Pedro de Rojas
Acting Governor-General
October
1593
December 3,
1593
9 Luis Pérez Dasmariñas
(1567/1568–1603)
December 3,
1593
July 14,
1596
Gaspar de Zúñiga
5th Count of Monterrey

(1595–1603)
Philip III
(1598–1621)
10 Francisco de Tello de Guzmán
(1532–1603)
July 14,
1596
May
1602
11 Pedro Bravo de Acuña
(died 1606)
May
1602
June 24,
1606
Juan de Mendoza y Luna
3rd Marquess of Montesclaros

(1603–1607)
12 Cristóbal Téllez Almazán
Real Audiencia
(died 1612)
June 24,
1606
June 15,
1608
Luis de Velasco
1st Marquess of Salinas

(1607–1611)
13 Rodrigo de Vivero
Acting Governor-General
(1564–1636)
June 15,
1608
April
1609
14 Juan de Silva
(died 1616)
April
1609
April 19,
1616
García Guerra
Archbishop of Mexico
(1611–1612)
Pedro Otárola
Dean of the Audiencia
(1612)
Diego Fernández de Córdoba
1st Marquess of Guadalcázar

(1612–1621)
15 Andrés de Alcaraz
Real Audiencia
April 19,
1616
July 3,
1618
16 Alonso Fajardo de Tenza
(died 1624)
July 3,
1618
July
1624
Paz de Valecillo
Dean of the Audiencia
(1621)
Philip IV
(1621–1665)
Diego Carrillo de Mendoza
1st Marquess of Gélves

(1621–1624)
17 Jeronimo de Silva
Real Audiencia
July
1624
June
1625
Rodrigo Pacheco
3rd Marquess of Cerralvo

(1624–1635)
18 Fernándo de Silva
Acting Governor-General}
June
1625
June 29,
1626
19 Juan Niño de Tabora
(died 1632)
June 29,
1626
July 22,
1632
20 Lorenzo de Olaso
Real Audiencia
July 22,
1632
1633
21 Juan Cerezo de Salamanca
Acting Governor-General
August 29,
1633
June 25,
1635
22 Sebastián Hurtado de Corcuera
(1587–1660)
June 25,
1635
August 11,
1644
Lope Díez de Armendáriz
1st Marquess of Cadreita

(1635–1640)
Diego López Pacheco
7th Duke of Escalona

(1640–1642)
Juan de Palafox y Mendoza
Bishop of Puebla
(1642)
García Sarmiento de Sotomayor
2nd Count of Salvatierra

(1642–1648)
23 Diego Fajardo Chacón August 11,
1644
July 25,
1653
Marcos de Torres y Rueda
Bishop of Yucatan
(1648–1649)
Matías de Peralta
Dean of the Audiencia
(1649–1650)
Luis Enríquez de Guzmán
9th Count of Alba de Liste

(1650–1653)
24 Sabiniano Manrique de Lara
(1606–1679)
July 25,
1653
September 8,
1663
Francisco Fernández de la Cueva
8th Duke of Alburquerque

(1653–1660)
Juan Francisco Leiva y de la Cerda
5th Marquess of Adrada

(1660–1664)
25 Diego de Salcedo September 8,
1663
September 28,
1668
Diego Osorio de Escobar y Llamas
Bishop of Puebla
(1664)
Antonio Sebastián Álvarez de Toledo
2nd Marquess of Mancera

(1664–1673)
Charles II
(1665–1700)
26 Juan Manuel de la Peña Bonifaz
Acting Governor-General
(died 1669)
September 28,
1668
September 24,
1669
27 Manuel de León September 24,
1669
September 21,
1677
Payo Enríquez de Rivera
Bishop of Puebla and Archbishop of Mexico
(1673–1680)
28 Francisco Coloma y Maceda
Real Audiencia
(1617–1677)
April 11,
1677
September 25,
1677
29 Francisco de Montemayor y Mansilla
Real Audiencia
September 21,
1677
September 28,
1678
30 Juan de Vargas Hurtado September 28,
1678
August 24,
1684
Tomás de la Cerda
3rd Marquess of la Laguna de Camero Viejo

(1680–1686)
31 Gabriel de Curucealegui y Arriola August 24,
1684
April
1689
Melchor Portocarrero
3rd Count of Monclova

(1686–1688)
Gaspar de la Cerda
8th Count of Galve

(1688–1696)
32 Alonso de Abella Fuertes
Real Audiencia
April
1689
July
1690
33 Fausto Cruzat y Góngora
(died 1702)
July 25,
1690
December 8,
1701
Juan Ortega y Montañés
Bishop of Durango, Bishop of Guatemala, Bishop of Michoacán and Archbishop of Mexico
(1696)
José Sarmiento de Valladares
1st Duke of Atrisco

(1696–1701)
Philip V
(1700–1724)
Juan Ortega y Montañés
Archbishop of Mexico
(1701–1702)
34 Domingo Zabálburu de Echevarri December 8,
1701
August 25,
1709
Francisco Fernández de la Cueva
1st Duke of Alburquerque

(1702–1710)
35 Martín de Ursúa
1st Count of Lizárraga

(1653–1715)
August 25,
1709
February 4,
1715
Fernando de Alencastre
1st Duke of Linares

(1710–1716)
36 José Torralba
Real Audiencia
(1653–1726)
February 4,
1715
August 9,
1717
Baltasar de Zúñiga
1st Duke of Arión

(1716–1722)
37 Fernando Manuel de Bustillo Bustamante y Rueda
(died 1719)
August 9,
1717
October 11,
1719
38 Francisco de la Cuesta
Archbishop of Manila
Acting Governor-General
(1661–1724)
October 11,
1719
August 6,
1721
39 Toribio de Cossío August 6,
1721
August 14,
1729
Juan de Acuña
1st Marquess of Casa Fuerte

(1722–1734)
Louis I
(1724)
Philip V
(1724–1746)
40 Fernándo Valdés Tamón August 14,
1729
July
1739
Juan Antonio de Vizarrón y Eguiarreta
Archbishop of Mexico
(1734–1740)
41 Gaspar de la Torre y Ayala
(died 1745)
July
1739
September 21,
1745
Pedro de Castro
1st Duke of la Conquista

(1740–1741)
Pedro Malo de Villavicencio
President of the Audiencia
(1741–1742)
Pedro Cebrián
5th Count of Fuenclara

(1742–1746)
42 Juan de Arechederra
Bishop-elect of Nueva Segovia
Acting Governor-General
(1681–1751)
September 21,
1745
July 20,
1750
Juan Francisco de Güemes y Horcasitas
1st Count of Revillagigedo

(1746–1755)
Ferdinand VI
(1746–1759)
43 Francisco José de Ovando
1st Marquess of Brindisi

(1693–1755)
July 20,
1750
July 26,
1754
44 Pedro Manuel de Arandía Santisteban
(1699–1759)
July 26,
1754
May 31,
1759
Agustín de Ahumada
2nd Marquess of Amarillas

(1755–1760)
45 Miguel Lino de Ezpeleta
Bishop of Cebu
Acting Governor-General
(1701–1771)
June
1759
May 31,
1761
Charles III
(1759–1788)
Francisco Antonio de Echávarri
Dean of the Audiencia
(1760)
Francisco Cajigal de la Vega
(1760)
Joaquín de Montserrat
1st Marquess of Cruillas

(1760–1766)
46 Manuel Rojo del Río y Vieyra
Archbishop of Manila
Acting Governor-General
(1708–1764)
July
1761
October 6,
1762

British occupation of Manila (1761–1764)

Main article: British occupation of Manila

After the Spanish defeat at the Battle of Manila in 1762, the Philippines was briefly governed simultaneously by two Governors-General, one of the Spanish Empire and one of the British Empire.

Great Britain shortly occupied Manila and the naval port of Cavite as part of the Seven Years' War, while the Spanish Governor-General set up a provisional government in Bacolor, Pampanga to continue administering the rest of the archipelago.

British governor-general

No. Portrait Name Tenure start Tenure end Monarch
46a Dawsonne Drake
(1724–1784)
November 2,
1762
May 31,
1764
George III
(1760–1820)

Spanish governor-general

No. Portrait Name Tenure start Tenure end Viceroy of New Spain Monarch
47 Simón de Anda y Salazar
(1709–1776)
October 6,
1762
February 10,
1764
Joaquín de Montserrat
1st Marquess of Cruillas

(1760–1766)
Charles III
(1759–1788)

Under New Spain (1764–1821)

After the British returned Manila to the Spanish in 1764, the Spanish Governor-General Francisco Javier de la Torre resumed administration of the Philippines under the authority of the Viceroy of New Spain in modern-day Mexico (New Spain) as part of the Spanish Empire.

The Philippines, along with the rest of the Spanish Empire, became part of the First French Empire in 1808 after Napoleon overthrew Ferdinand VII and installed Joseph Bonaparte as king until his abdication in 1813, as part of a disastrous consequence of Napoleon's 1812 Russian campaign, the Peninsular Wars, particularly the Battle of Vitoria, and of forming the Sixth Coalition.

No. Portrait Name Tenure start Tenure end Viceroy of New Spain Monarch
48 Francisco Javier de la Torre
Acting Governor-General
March 17,
1764
July 6,
1765
Joaquín de Montserrat
1st Marquess of Cruillas

(1760–1766)
Charles III
(1759–1788)
49 José Antonio Raón y Gutiérrez
(1700–1773)
July 6,
1765
July
1770
Carlos Francisco de Croix
1st Marquess of Croix

(1766–1771)
(47) Simón de Anda y Salazar
(1709–1776)
July
1770
October 30,
1776
Antonio María de Bucareli
(1771–1779)
50 Pedro Sarrió
Acting Governor-General
October 30,
1776
July
1778
51 José Basco y Vargas
(1733–1805)
July
1778
September 22,
1787
Francisco Romá y Rosell
Regent of the Audiencia
(1779)
Martín de Mayorga
Captain General of Guatemala
(1779–1783)
Matías de Gálvez y Gallardo
Captain General of Guatemala
(1783–1784)
Vicente de Herrera y Rivero
Regent of the Audiencia
(1784–1785)
Bernardo de Gálvez
1st Count of Gálvez

(1785–1786)
Eusebio Sánchez Pareja
Regent of the Audiencia
(1786–1787)
Alonso Núñez de Haro y Peralta
Archbishop of Mexico
(1787)
Manuel Antonio Flórez
(1787–1789)
(50) Pedro Sarrió
Acting Governor-General
September 22,
1787
July 1,
1788
51 Félix Berenguer de Marquina
(1733–1826)
July 1,
1788
September 1,
1793
Charles IV
(1788–1808)
Juan Vicente de Güemes
2nd Count of Revillagigedo

(1789–1794)
52 Rafael María de Aguilar y Ponce de León
(1737–1806)
September 1,
1793
August 7,
1806
Miguel de la Grúa Talamanca
1st Marquess of Branciforte

(1794–1798)
Miguel José de Azanza
1st Duke of Santa Fe

(1798–1800)
Félix Berenguer de Marquina
(1800–1803)
José de Iturrigaray
(1803–1808)
53 Mariano Fernández de Folgueras
Acting Governor-General
(1766–1823)
August 7,
1806
March 4,
1810
Ferdinand VII
(1808)
Joseph Bonaparte
(1808–1813)
Pedro de Garibay
(1808–1809)
Francisco Javier de Lizana y Beaumont
Archbishop of Mexico
(1809–1810)
54 Manuel González de Aguilar March 4,
1810
September 4,
1813
Pedro Catani
(1810)
Francisco Javier Venegas
1st Marquess of Reunión and New Spain

(1810–1813)
Félix María Calleja del Rey
1st Count of Calderón

(1813–1816)
55 José de Gardoqui y Jarabeitia September 4,
1813
December 10,
1816
Ferdinand VII
(1813–1833)
Juan Ruiz de Apodaca
1st Count of Venadito

(1816–1821)
(53) Mariano Fernández de Folgueras
Acting Governor-General
(1766–1823)
December 10,
1816
September 15,
1821
Francisco Novella Azabal Pérez y Sicardo
(1821)
Juan O'Donojú
(1821)

Direct Spanish control (1821–1898)

After the 1821 Mexican War of Independence, Mexico became independent and was no longer part of the Spanish Empire. The Viceroyalty of New Spain ceased to exist. The Philippines, as a result, was directly governed from Madrid, under the Spanish Crown.

No. Portrait Name Tenure start Tenure end Monarch
(53) Mariano Fernández de Folgueras
Acting Governor-General
(1766–1823)
September 16,
1821
October 30,
1822
Ferdinand VII
(1813–1833)
54 Juan Antonio Martínez October 30,
1822
October 14,
1825
55 Mariano Ricafort Palacín y Abarca
(1776–1846)
October 14,
1825
December 23,
1830
56 Pasqual Enrile y Alcedo
(1772–1836)
December 23,
1830
March 1,
1835
Isabella II
(1833–1868)
57 Gabriel de Torres March 1,
1835
April 23,
1835
58 Joaquín de Crame
Acting Governor-General
April 23,
1835
September 9,
1835
59 Pedro Antonio Salazar Castillo y Varona
Acting Governor-General
September 9,
1835
August 27,
1837
60 Andrés García Camba
(1793–1861)
August 27,
1837
December 29,
1838
61 Luis Lardizábal December 29,
1838
February 14,
1841
62 Marcelino de Oraá Lecumberri
(1788–1851)
February 14,
1841
June 17,
1843
63 Francisco de Paula Alcalá de la Torre June 17,
1843
July 16,
1844
64 Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa
1st Count of Manila

(1795–1851)
July 16,
1844
December 26,
1849
65 Antonio María Blanco
Acting Governor-General
December 26,
1849
July 29,
1850
66 Juan Antonio de Urbiztondo, Marquis of La Solana
(1803–1857)
July 29,
1850
December 20,
1853
67 Ramón Montero y Blandino
Acting Governor-General
December 20,
1853
February 2,
1854
68 Manuel Pavía y Lacy
1st Marquess of Novaliches

(1814–1896)
February 2,
1854
October 28,
1854
(67) Ramón Montero y Blandino
Acting Governor-General
October 28,
1854
November 20,
1854
69 Manuel Crespo y Cebrían
(1793–1868)
November 20,
1854
December 5,
1856
(67) Ramón Montero y Blandino
Acting Governor-General
December 5,
1856
March 9,
1857
70 Fernando de Norzagaray y Escudero
(1808–1860)
March 9,
1857
January 12,
1860
71 Ramón María Solano y Llanderal January 12,
1860
August 29,
1860
72 Juan Herrera Dávila
Acting Governor-General
August 29,
1860
February 2,
1861
73 José Lémery e Ibarrola
(1811–1886)
February 2,
1861
July 7,
1862
74 Salvador Valdés
Acting Governor-General
July 7,
1862
July 9,
1862
75 Rafaél de Echagüe y Bermingham
(1815–1915)
July 9,
1862
March 24,
1865
76 Joaquín del Solar e Ibáñez
Acting Governor-General
March 24,
1865
April 25,
1865
77 Juan de Lara e Irigoyen April 25,
1865
July 13,
1866
78 José Laureano de Sanz y Posse
Acting Governor-General
(1819–1898)
July 13,
1866
September 21,
1866
79 Antonio Osorio y Mallén
(1808-1881)
Acting Governor-General
September 21,
1866
September 27,
1866
(76) Joaquín del Solar e Ibáñez September 27,
1866
October 26,
1866
80 José de la Gándara y Navarro
(1820–1885)
October 26,
1866
June 7,
1869
Francisco Serrano
1st Duke of la Torre

Regent
(1868–1870)
(81) Manuel Maldonado
Acting Governor-General
June 7,
1869
June 23,
1869
82 Carlos María de la Torre y Navacerrada
(1809–1879)
June 23,
1869
April 4,
1871
Amadeo I
(1870–1873)
83 Rafael Izquierdo y Gutiérrez
(1820–1883)
April 4,
1871
January 8,
1873
(84) Manuel MacCrohon
Acting Governor-General
January 8,
1873
January 24,
1873
85 Juan Alaminos y Vivar
(1813–1899)
January 24,
1873
March 17,
1874
Estanislao Figueras
President
(1873)
Francesc Pi i Margall
President
(1873)
Nicolás Salmerón y Alonso
President
(1873)
Emilio Castelar
President
(1873–1874)
Francisco Serrano
President
(1874)
86 Manuel Blanco Valderrama
Acting Governor-General
March 17,
1874
June 18,
1874
87 José Malcampo
3rd Marquess of San Rafael

(1828–1880)
June 18,
1874
February 28,
1877
Alfonso XII
(1874–1885)
88 Domingo Moriones y Murillo
(1823–1881)
February 28,
1877
March 20,
1880
89 Rafael Rodríguez Arias
Acting Governor-General
(1819–1898)
March 20,
1880
April 15,
1880
90 Fernando Primo de Rivera
1st Marquess of Estella

(1831–1921)
April 15,
1880
March 10,
1883
(91) Emilio Molíns
Acting Governor-General
(1824–1889)
March 10,
1883
April 7,
1883
92 Joaquín Jovellar y Soler
(1819–1892)
April 7,
1883
April 1,
1885
(91) Emilio Molíns
Acting Governor-General
(1824–1889)
April 1,
1885
April 4,
1885
92 Emilio Terrero y Perinat
(1827–1890)
April 4,
1885
April 25,
1888
Maria Christina
Regent
(1885–1886)
Alfonso XIII
(1886–1931)
93 Antonio Moltó y Díaz Berrio
Acting Governor-General
April 25,
1888
June 4,
1888
94 Federico Lobatón y Prieto
Acting Governor-General
June 4,
1888
June 5,
1888
95 Valeriano Weyler
1st Marquess of Tenerife

(1838–1930)
June 5,
1888
November 17,
1891
96 Eulogio Despujol y Dusay
1st Count of Caspe

(1834–1907)
November 17,
1891
March 1,
1893
97 Federico Ochando
Acting Governor-General
(1848–1929)
March 1,
1893
May 4,
1893
98 Ramón Blanco
1st Marquess of Peña Plata

(1833–1906)
May 4,
1893
December 13,
1896
99 Camilo Garcia de Polavieja
1st Marquess of Polavieja

Acting Governor-General
(1838–1914)
December 13,
1896
April 15,
1897
100 José de Lachambre
Acting Governor-General
(1846–1903)
April 15,
1897
April 23,
1897
(90) Fernando Primo de Rivera
1st Marquess of Estella

(1831–1921)
April 23,
1897
April 11,
1898
101 Basilio Augustín[1]
(1840–1910)
April 11,
1898
July 24,
1898
102 Fermín Jáudenes[1]
Acting Governor-General
(1836–1915)
July 24,
1898
August 13,
1898
103 Francisco Rizzo[1]
Acting Governor-General
(1831–1910)
August 13,
1898
September
1898
104 Diego de los Ríos[1]
Acting Governor-General
(1850–1911)
September
1898
December 10,
1898

United States Military Government (1898–1902)

See also: United States Military Government of the Philippine Islands

The city of Manila was captured by American expeditionary forces on August 13, 1898.[2] On August 14, 1898, the terms of the Spanish capitulation were signed. From this date, American government in the Philippines begins.[2] General Wesley Merritt, in accordance with the instructions of the United States President, issued a proclamation announcing the establishment of United States military rule.[2]

During the transition period, executive authority in all civil affairs in the Philippine government was exercised by the military governor.

No. Portrait Name Tenure start Tenure end President
1 Wesley Merritt
(1836–1910)
August 14,
1898[3]
August 30,
1898[4]
William McKinley
(1897–1901)
2 Elwell Stephen Otis
(1838–1909)
August 30,
1898
May 5,
1900
3 Arthur MacArthur Jr.
(1845–1912)
May 5,
1900[5]
July 4,
1901
4 Adna Chaffee[6]
(1842–1914)
July 4,
1901
July 4,
1902
Theodore Roosevelt
(1901–1909)

Insular Government (1901–1935)

See also: Insular Government of the Philippine Islands

On July 4, 1901, executive authority over the islands was transferred to the president of the Second Philippine Commission who had the title of Civil Governor, a position appointed by the President of the United States and approved by the United States Senate. For the first year, a Military Governor, Adna Chaffee, ruled parts of the country still resisting the American rule, concurrent with Civil Governor, William Howard Taft.[7] Disagreements between the two were not uncommon.[8] The following year, on July 4, 1902, Taft became the sole executive authority.[6] Chaffee remained commander of the Philippine Division until September 30, 1902.[9]

After his retirement as Civil Governor, Governor Taft was appointed Secretary of War and he secured for his successor the adoption by Congress[10] of the title Governor-General of the Philippine Islands thereby "reviving the high designation used during the last period of Spanish rule and placing the office on a parity of dignity with that of other colonial empires of first importance".[2] The term "insular" (from insula, the Latin word for island)[11] refers to U.S. island territories that are not incorporated into either a state or a federal district. All insular areas were under the authority of the U.S. Bureau of Insular Affairs, a division of the US War Department.[12][13]

No. Portrait Name Tenure start Tenure end President
1 William Howard Taft
(1857–1930)
July 4,
1901
February 1,
1904
William McKinley
(1897–1901)
Theodore Roosevelt
(1901–1909)
2 Luke Edward Wright
(1846–1922)
February 1,
1904
November 3,
1905
3 Henry Clay Ide
(1844–1921)
November 3,
1905
September 19,
1906
4 James Francis Smith
(1859–1928)
September 20,
1906
November 11,
1909
William Howard Taft
(1909–1913)
5 William Cameron Forbes
(1870–1959)
November 11,
1909
September 1,
1913
Woodrow Wilson
(1913–1921)
Newton W. Gilbert
(1862–1939)
Acting Governor-General
September 1,
1913
October 6,
1913
6 Francis Burton Harrison
(1873–1957)
October 6,
1913
March 5,
1921
Warren G. Harding
(1921–1923)
Charles Yeater
(1861–1943)
Acting Governor-General
March 5,
1921
October 14,
1921
7 Leonard Wood
(1860–1927)
October 14,
1921
August 7,
1927
Calvin Coolidge
(1923–1929)
Eugene Allen Gilmore
(1871–1953)
Acting Governor-General
August 7,
1927
December 27,
1927
8 Henry L. Stimson
(1867–1950)
December 27,
1927
February 23,
1929
Herbert Hoover
(1929–1933)
Eugene Allen Gilmore
(1871–1953)
Acting Governor-General
February 23,
1929
July 8,
1929
9 Dwight F. Davis
(1879–1945)
July 8,
1929
January 9,
1932
George C. Butte
(1877–1940)
Acting Governor-General
January 9,
1932
February 29,
1932
10 Theodore Roosevelt Jr.
(1886–1944)
February 29,
1932
July 15,
1933
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1933–1945)
11 Frank Murphy
(1890–1949)
July 15,
1933
November 14,
1935

High Commissioner to the Philippines (1935–42 and 1945–46)

See also: High Commissioner to the Philippines

On November 15, 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was inaugurated as a transitional government to prepare the country for independence. The office of President of the Philippine Commonwealth replaced the Governor-General as the country's chief executive. The Governor-General became the High Commissioner of the Philippines with Frank Murphy, the last governor-general, as the first high commissioner. The High Commissioner exercised no executive power but rather represented the colonial power, the United States Government, in the Philippines. The high commissioner moved from Malacañang Palace to the newly built High Commissioner's Residence, now the Embassy of the United States in Manila.

After the Philippine independence on July 4, 1946, the last High Commissioner, Paul McNutt, became the first United States Ambassador to the Philippines.

No. Portrait Name Tenure start Tenure end President
1 Frank Murphy
(1890–1949)
November 14,
1935
December 31,
1936
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1933–1945)
J. Weldon Jones
(1896–1982)
Acting High Commissioner
December 31,
1936
April 26,
1937
2 Paul V. McNutt
(1891–1955)
April 26,
1937
July 12,
1939
J. Weldon Jones
(1896–1982)
Acting High Commissioner
July 12,
1939
October 28,
1939
3 Francis Bowes Sayre Sr.
(1885–1972)
October 28,
1939
October 12,
1942
4 Harold L. Ickes
(1874–1952)
October 12,
1942
September 14,
1945
Harry S. Truman
(1945–1953)
5 Paul V. McNutt
(1891–1955)
September 14,
1945
July 4,
1946

Japanese military governors (1942–1945)

In December 1941, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was invaded by Imperial Japan as part of World War II. The next year, the Japanese sent a military governor to control the country during the wartime period, followed by the formal establishment of the puppet Second Philippine Republic under Jose P. Laurel.[14]

On September 2, 1945, the position of Governor-General of the Philippines was abolished. The Philippines' independence from the United States was proclaimed by the Treaty of Manila on July 4, 1946, installing Manuel Roxas as the fifth President of the Philippines and ushering in the Third Philippine Republic.

No. Portrait Name Tenure start Tenure end Emperor
1 Masaharu Homma
(1887–1946)
January 3,
1942
June 8,
1942
Emperor Shōwa
(1926–1989)
2 Shizuichi Tanaka
(1887–1945)
June 8,
1942
May 28,
1943
3 Shigenori Kuroda
(1887–1952)
May 28,
1943
September 26,
1944
4 Tomoyuki Yamashita
(1885–1946)
September 26,
1944
September 2,
1945

Vice-governors of the Philippines

On October 29, 1901, the position of Vice-Governor was created. The Vice-Governor was appointed by the President of the United States to act as the Governor-General (known at that time as the Civil Governor) in case of illness or temporary absence.[15]

No. Portrait Name Tenure start Tenure end
1 Luke Edward Wright
(1846–1922)
[16]
October 29,
1901
January 31,
1904
2 Henry Clay Ide
(1844–1921)
[16]
February 1,
1904
March 30,
1906
3 William Cameron Forbes
(1870–1959)
[16]
July 31,
1908
November 10,
1909
4 Newton W. Gilbert
(1862–1939)
[16]
February 14,
1910
November 30,
1913
5 Henderson S. Martin
[16]
December 1,
1913
June 28,
1917
6 Charles Yeater
(1861–1943)
[17]
June 29,
1917
January 25,
1922
7 Eugene Allen Gilmore
(1871–1953)
[18]
January 26,
1922
June 20,
1930
Nicholas Roosevelt
(1893–1982)
Ad interim

[19]
July 29,
1930
September 24,
1930
8 George C. Butte
(1877–1940)
[20]
December 31,
1930
June 30,
1932
9 Joseph R. Hayden
(1887–1945)
[21]
November 7,
1933
November 15,
1935

Timelines

1750–1800

1800–1850

1850–1898

1898–1946

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Peterson 2007, p. 11.
  2. ^ a b c d David P. Barrows; The Governor-General of the Philippines under Spain and the United States; The American Historical Review Vol. 21, No. 2 (Jan. 1916), pp. 288-311 (PDF)
  3. ^ Halstead, Murat (1898). The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions, Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico. p. 116.
  4. ^ Tucker, Spencer (2009). The Encyclopedia of the Spanish–American and Philippine–American Wars: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 457. ISBN 978-1-85109-951-1.
  5. ^ Pershing, John J. (2013). My Life Before the World War, 1860--1917: A Memoir. University Press of Kentucky. p. 547. ISBN 978-0-8131-4199-2.
  6. ^ a b Elliott (1917), p. 509
  7. ^ Elliott (1917), p. 4
  8. ^ Tanner (1901), p. 383
  9. ^ Philippine Academy of Social Sciences (1967). Philippine social sciences and humanities review. pp. 40.
  10. ^ Act of Congress of February 6, 1905, entitled: "An Act To amend an Act approved July first, nineteen hundred and two, entitled "An Act temporarily to provide for the administration of the affairs of civil government in the Philippine Islands, and for other purposes," and to amend an Act approved March eighth, nineteen hundred and two, entitled "An Act temporarily to provide revenue for the Philippine Islands, and for other purposes" and to amend an Act March second, nineteen hundred and three, entitled "An Act to establish a standard of value and to provide for a coinage system in the Philippine Islands," and to provide for the more efficient administration of civil government in the Philippine Islands, and for other purposes." Section 8 thereof provided that "the civil governor of the Philippine Islands shall hereafter be known as the governor-general of the Philippine Islands.
  11. ^ "Island – from English to Latin". Google Translate. Retrieved on August 7, 2013.
  12. ^ "Definitions of Insular Area Political Organizations" Archived September 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Department of the Interior.
  13. ^ "Insular". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved on August 7, 2013.
  14. ^ Cahoon (2000)
  15. ^ Annual Report of the War Department for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1901. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1901. p. 64.
  16. ^ a b c d e Elliot, Charles Burke (1917). The Philippines to the End of the Commission Government: A Study in Tropical Democracy. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company. p. 509.
  17. ^ Order of Battle of the United States Land Forces in the World War (1917-1919): Zone of the Interior, Volume 3, Part 1. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1949. p. 229.
  18. ^ Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Insular Affairs, War Department, 1922. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1922. p. 2.
  19. ^ Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Herbert Hoover: 1930. Government Printing Office. 1976.
  20. ^ Annual Report of the Governor General of the Philippine Islands, 1930. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1932. p. 65.
  21. ^ The Michigan Alumnus, Volume XI, No. 8. 1933.

References

Further reading