Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Cambodia
នាយករដ្ឋមន្ត្រីនៃព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា
Incumbent
Hun Manet
since 22 August 2023
Office of the Council of Ministers
Royal Government of Cambodia
Office of the Prime Minister
Style
TypePrime minister
StatusHead of government
Commander-in-chief
(de facto)
Member ofCouncil of Ministers
Royal Council of the Throne
Reports toNational Assembly
ResidencePeace Palace
SeatPhnom Penh
NominatorLargest political party in parliament
AppointerMonarch by royal decree
Term lengthFive years
renewable; no term limits
Constituting instrumentConstitution of Cambodia
Formation18 March 1945 (78 years ago) (1945-03-18)
First holderNorodom Sihanouk
Salary10,000,000 KHR/US$ 2,465 per month[2]
Websitehunmanet.kh

The prime minister of Cambodia (Khmer: នាយករដ្ឋមន្ត្រីនៃកម្ពុជា, Néayôk Rôdthâmôntrei ney Kâmpŭchéa [niəjuək rɔəttʰamɔntrəj nəj kampuciə]) is the head of government of Cambodia. The prime minister is also the chairman of the Cabinet and leads the executive branch of the Royal Government of Cambodia. The prime minister is a member of parliament, and is appointed by the monarch for a term of five years. Since 1945, 37 individuals have served as prime minister; 33 as official prime ministers, and 4 in acting capacities.[3] The current prime minister since 2023 is Hun Manet.

History

The position was first held by King Norodom Sihanouk in March 1945, during the French colonial administration.[4] On 12 March 1945, Sihanouk collaborated with Imperial Japan and declared Cambodia's independence from France. On 18 March, he proclaimed himself prime minister and formed the first government which lasted until August 1945. He was succeeded by Son Ngoc Thanh until October 1945. Following the surrender of Japan, the French administration returned, ending the Japanese occupation.[5]

In 1946, France introduced reforms into its colonies in Indochina, and allowed for the first time political parties and parliamentary elections. Cambodia's first parliamentary elections were held on 1 September 1946. The Democratic Party remained the dominant-party in Cambodian politics throughout the 1940s until the formation of the Sangkum in 1955. Sangkum was the only legal party in Cambodia from 1955 to 1970 until a military coup by Marshal Lon Nol.

In 1993, constitutional monarchy was restored in Cambodia. The role of the prime minister was officially recognised in the constitution. Prince Norodom Ranariddh was considered the first democratically elected prime minister in a United Nations sponsored election. The CPP–FUNCINPEC coalition agreement of 1993 marked a brief period in Cambodia where Hun Sen and Prince Norodom Ranariddh were coequal Prime Ministers. In 1997, Hun Sen staged a coup that removed Ranariddh from office. The National Assembly voted to confirm Ung Huot to complete the remainder of Ranariddh's term. The 1998 election and every election since has been dominated by Hun Sen and the CPP. Unlike most parliamentary democracies, the prime minister serves a fixed five-year term in office, and does not have the power to call a snap election nor dissolve parliament prematurely.

Appointment

The prime minister is required to be a member of parliament. He first needs to be elected by a majority of parliament before a swearing-in ceremony can take place. The inauguration of the prime minister takes place at the Royal Palace. The prime minister-designate takes an oath of office in front of the monarch and the two heads of the Thammayut and Mohanikay order. A cabinet will then be unveiled. The formation of a new government takes place no more than 60 days after the election, as defined in the constitution. The prime minister is assisted by deputy prime ministers.

Article 125 of the Constitution[6] states that should the prime minister resign or die in office, an acting prime minister is appointed. In July 2022, the constitution was amended to eliminate the required majority vote in parliament to elect the prime minister.[7]

Office

The Prime Minister's Office

The Peace Palace serves as the principal workplace of the prime minister.[8] It was inaugurated on 19 October 2010 by the King. However, the prime minister resides at his own private residence.

Constitutional powers

The powers of the Prime Minister are established by the current Constitution of Cambodia, adopted on 24 September 1993 and amended on 4 March 1999.[9] They are defined by the following articles of the Constitution:

List of Prime Ministers of Cambodia

The following is a list of prime ministers of Cambodia after the restoration of the monarchy in 1993.

For a list, see List of prime ministers of Cambodia.

No. Portrait Name Term of office Political party Elected Monarch
(Reign)
Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
1 Norodom Ranariddh
នរោត្តម រណឫទ្ធិ
(1944–2021)
24 September
1993
6 August
1997
3 years, 316 days FUNCINPEC 1 (1993) King
Norodom Sihanouk

(1993–2004)
2 Hun Sen
ហ៊ុន សែន
(1952–)
24 September
1993
30 November
1998
5 years, 67 days CPP
3 Ung Huot
អ៊ឹង ហួត
(1945–)
6 August
1997
30 November
1998
1 year, 116 days FUNCINPEC
(2) Hun Sen
ហ៊ុន សែន
(1952–)
30 November
1998
22 August
2023
24 years, 265 days CPP 2 (1998)
3 (2003)
4 (2008)
King
Norodom Sihamoni

(2004–present)
5 (2013)
6 (2018)
4 Hun Manet
ហ៊ុន ម៉ាណែត
(1977–)
22 August
2023
Incumbent 206 days CPP 7 (2023)
Hun ManetHun SenUng HuotHun SenPrince Norodom Ranariddh

Deputy Prime Minister of Cambodia

For a list, see List of deputy prime ministers of Cambodia.

The deputy prime minister of Cambodia (Khmer: ឧបនាយករដ្ឋមន្ត្រី, Ŏbânéayôk Rôdthâmôntrei [upaniəjuək rɔətmuntrəj]) serves as the deputy to the prime minister of Cambodia and is the second most senior position in the Cabinet. As of February 2024, the prime minister is served by 11 deputy prime ministers concurrently.

Name Appointed Ministerial positions
Aun Pornmoniroth 6 September 2018 Minister of Economy and Finance (2013–present)
Vongsey Vissoth 22 August 2023 Minister in charge of the Office of the Council of Ministers (2023–present)
Sar Sokha 22 August 2023 Minister of Interior (2023–present)
Tea Seiha 22 August 2023 Minister of National Defence (2023–present)
Hangchuon Naron 22 August 2023 Minister of Education, Youth and Sport (2013–present)
Sok Chenda Sophea 22 August 2023 Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation (2023–present)
Keut Rith 22 August 2023 Minister of Justice (2020–present)
Say Sam Al 22 August 2023 Minister of Land Management, Urban Planning and Construction (2023–present);
Minister of Environment (2013–2023)
Neth Savoeun 22 August 2023 None
Sun Chanthol 22 August 2023 None;
Minister of Public Works and Transport (2004–2008; 2016–2023);
Minister of Commerce (2013–2016)
Hun Many 21 February 2024 Minister of Civil Service (2023–present)

See also

References

  1. ^ "King bestows Samdech title on Kingdom's top three leaders". Khmer Times. 4 September 2023. Retrieved 9 November 2023.
  2. ^ Taing, Rinith (3 April 2020). "Several ministers and officials pledge to donate salaries to fight coronavirus". Khmer Times. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  3. ^ "36 Cambodian Prime Ministers since 1945". Khmer Times. 21 August 2014.
  4. ^ "Countries Ca-Ce". rulers.org. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  5. ^ "សៀវភៅប្រវត្តិវិទ្យា (សម័យអាណាព្យាបាលបារាំង–ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជាទី២)" (in Khmer). Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport. 1 November 2017.
  6. ^ (in French) Ambassade royale du Cambodge en France – Constitution Archived 2 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "Cambodia's proposed constitutional amendment against people's will, citizens say". Radio Free Asia. 15 July 2022. Retrieved 28 July 2022.
  8. ^ "Cambodia's proud history of building art". The Phnom Penh Post. 13 July 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  9. ^ (in French) Ambassade royale du Cambodge en France – Constitution Archived 2 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine

Further reading