Prime Minister of Afghanistan
  • د افغانستان لومړی وزیر  (Pashto)
  • رئیس‌الوزرای افغانستان  (Dari)
Flag of Taliban.svg
Hasan Akhund.png
Incumbent
Hasan Akhund
(Acting)

since 7 September 2021
Government
TypeHead of government
Member of
SeatKabul
Appointer
Term lengthNo fixed term
Formation
First holderShir Ahmad
Abolished
  • 17 July 1973; 49 years ago (1973-07-17) (Kingdom)
  • 13 November 2001; 20 years ago (2001-11-13) (Islamic Emirate)
Deputy
Salary؋198,250 monthly[1]
WebsiteOffice of the Chief of Staff to the Prime Minister

The prime minister of Afghanistan (Pashto: د افغانستان لومړی وزیر; Dari: رئیس‌الوزرای افغانستان) is the head of government of Afghanistan.[2] The position was created in 1927 as an official appointed by the King of Afghanistan. The holder served mostly as an advisor, until the end of the Kingdom of Afghanistan in 1973. During the 1980s, the position was the head of government. The post was abolished after the US invasion that ousted the Taliban regime, after which a presidential form of government was established which lasted from 2004 to 2021. After the US withdrawal and the re-establishment of the Taliban rule, the post was revived.

On September 7, 2021 the Taliban officials who exercise de facto control of most of Afghanistan announced Islamic scholar Hasan Akhund as acting prime minister in a new interim government of the recently re-established Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.[3] The government is subject to the oversight of the leader of the Islamic Emirate, Hibatullah Akhundzada.

History

Kingdom

Main article: Kingdom of Afghanistan

The chairman of the Council of Ministers was not the prime minister, but the King. Only during his absence was the prime minister the acting chairman of the Council.

Until 1963, King Mohammed Zahir Shah appointed his relatives as prime ministers. King Zahir Shah also had the power to dismiss or transfer the prime minister. From 1963 onwards, this was changed, stating that the head of the Afghan government was the prime minister, and that the government consisted of its ministers. It was the first time that King Zahir Shah did not play an important role in the government, leaving it to an elected authority. However, it also stated that they cannot engage in any other profession during their tenure of office.

The 1964 Constitution also granted the prime minister the power to summon the Electoral College in case of the death of the king. The prime minister only answered to the Wolesi Jirga about the General Policy of the government, and individually for their prescribed duties.[4]

Democratic Republic

Main article: Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

In April 1978, Mohammed Daoud Khan was killed during a coup that started the Saur Revolution. The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) revived the office of prime minister that year, and it remained throughout the 1980s.

The president was in charge of the appointment of the prime minister, who in turn appointed the Council of Ministers. The Council's stated purpose was to formulate and implement domestic and foreign policies, to formulate economic development plans and state budgets, and to ensure public order.

Under the 1987 Constitution, the president was required to appoint the prime minister in order to form the government. The prime minister had the power to dissolve the government. Several Afghan presidents during the Democratic Republic era were also appointed as prime minister. With the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the prime minister was no longer in charge of the government. The general secretary of the PDPA or the director of the KHAD exercised greater power.

Also, the 1990 Constitution established that only Afghan-born citizens are eligible to hold the office, something that was not specified in the previous documents.

Islamic State

Main article: Islamic State of Afghanistan

After the collapse of Mohammad Najibullah's government, a transitional state was created. Thus, the office of prime minister once again played an important role in the history of the nation.

There was constant friction between the president and the premier during this period. The state had collapsed and there was not an effective central government from 1992 until 1996. Thus, the position became de facto ceremonial, with little power in what was left of the government.

Islamic Emirate

Main article: Taliban

The title was abolished when the Taliban forces of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan took over control in 1996. The deputy leader of the Taliban was often known as the prime minister throughout its rule. With the death of Mohammad Rabbani in 2001,[5] the Taliban decided not to revive the office.

Until September 1997, the government which the Taliban had ousted, which remained in rebellion until the end of the Taliban rule in 2001, had a prime minister in the government, but the position was abolished.

On September 7, 2021, the Taliban reinstated the position of prime minister.

List of prime ministers

(Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office)

Name Portrait Lifespan Term of office Political affiliation
Took office Left office Time in office
Kingdom of Afghanistan (1926–1973)
Shir Ahmad
No image.svg
c. 1885–? 25 October 1927 January 1929 1 year, 2 months Independent
Prime Minister; Deposed.
Shir Giyan
No image.svg
died 1929 January 1929 1 November 1929 10 months Independent
Prime Minister; Deposed.
Mohammad Hashim Khan
Mohammad Hashim Khan.jpg
1884–1953 1 November 1929 9 May 1946 16 years, 189 days Independent
Prime Minister; Member of the Barakzai dynasty.
Amanat Lewana
No image.svg
Unknown c. 1944 c. 1946 c. 2 years Unknown
Prime Minister under king Salemai; Eastern Province only during the 1944–47 tribal revolts.
Shah Mahmud Khan
No image.svg
1890–1959 9 May 1946 7 September 1953[6] 7 years, 121 days Independent
Prime Minister; Member of the Barakzai dynasty.
Mohammed Daoud Khan
Sardar Mohammed Daud.jpg
1909–1978 7 September 1953 10 March 1963 9 years, 184 days Independent
Prime Minister; Member of the Barakzai dynasty.
Mohammad Yusuf
No image.svg
1917–1998 10 March 1963 2 November 1965 2 years, 237 days Independent
Prime Minister.
Mohammad Hashim Maiwandwal
Mohammad Hashim Maiwandwal.jpg
1919–1973 2 November 1965 11 October 1967 1 year, 343 days Independent
(until 1966)
Progressive Democratic Party
Prime Minister.
Abdullah Yaqta
No image.svg
1914–2003 11 October 1967 1 November 1967 21 days Independent
Acting Prime Minister.
Mohammad Nur Ahmad Etemadi
No image.svg
1921–1979 1 November 1967 9 June 1971 3 years, 220 days Independent
Prime Minister.
Abdul Zahir
No image.svg
1910–1982 9 June 1971 12 November 1972 1 year, 156 days Independent
Prime Minister.
Mohammad Musa Shafiq
No image.svg
1932–1979 12 November 1972 17 July 1973 247 days Independent
Prime Minister; Deposed during the 1973 coup d'état.[7]
Post abolished (17 July 1973 – 1 May 1978)
Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (1978–1992)
Nur Muhammad Taraki
Nur Muhammad Taraki.png
1917–1979 1 May 1978 27 March 1979 330 days People's Democratic Party
(Khalq faction)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers.
Hafizullah Amin
Hafizullah Amin.jpg
1929–1979 27 March 1979 27 December 1979 275 days People's Democratic Party
(Khalq faction)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers; Assassinated by Soviet special forces during the Operation Storm-333.[8]
Babrak Karmal
No image.svg
1929–1996 27 December 1979 11 June 1981 1 year, 166 days People's Democratic Party
(Parcham faction)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers.
Sultan Ali Keshtmand
No image.svg
born 1935 11 June 1981 26 May 1988 6 years, 350 days People's Democratic Party
(Parcham faction)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers; First tenure.
Mohammad Hasan Sharq
No image.svg
born 1925 26 May 1988 21 February 1989 271 days Independent
Chairman of the Council of Ministers; Appointed as part of the National Reconciliation process.
Sultan Ali Keshtmand
No image.svg
born 1935 21 February 1989 8 May 1990 1 year, 76 days People's Democratic Party
(Parcham faction)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers; Second tenure.
Fazal Haq Khaliqyar
No image.svg
1934–2004 8 May 1990 15 April 1992 1 year, 343 days People's Democratic Party
(Parcham faction)
(until June 1990)
Homeland Party
Chairman of the Council of Ministers; Resigned.
Islamic State of Afghanistan (1992–2002)
Abdul Sabur Farid Kohistani
No image.svg
1952–2007 6 July 1992 15 August 1992 40 days Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin
Prime Minister.
Post vacant (15 August 1992 – 17 June 1993)
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, BBC Persian - Sep 28, 2019.jpg
born 1947 17 June 1993 28 June 1994 1 year, 11 days Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin
Prime Minister; First tenure.
Arsala Rahmani Daulat
No image.svg
1937–2012 28 June 1994 1995 0–1 years Ittehad-e Islami
Acting Prime Minister.
Ahmad Shah Ahmadzai
No image.svg
1944–2021 1995 26 June 1996 0–1 years Ittehad-e Islami
Acting Prime Minister.
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, BBC Persian - Sep 28, 2019.jpg
born 1947 26 June 1996 11 August 1997 1 year, 46 days Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin
Prime Minister; Second tenure; Fled Kabul following its fall to the Taliban on 27 September 1996;[9] Continued to serve as Prime Minister in areas controlled by the Northern Alliance during the 1996–2001 Civil War; Between 1996 and 2001, the Islamic State remained the internationally recognized government, despite only controlling about 10% of Afghan territory.
Abdul Rahim Ghafoorzai
No image.svg
1947–1997 11 August 1997 21 August 1997 10 days Independent
Prime Minister; Served only in areas controlled by the Northern Alliance due to the 1996–2001 Civil War; Between 1996 and 2001, the Islamic State remained the internationally recognized government, despite only controlling about 10% of Afghan territory; Killed in an aircraft crash.
Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (1996–2001)
Mullah
Mohammad Rabbani
No image.svg
1955–2001 27 September 1996 13 April 2001 4 years, 198 days Taliban
Deputy Head of the Supreme Council; Prime Minister; Deputy leader of the Taliban; Died in office;[10] Between 1996 and 2001, the Islamic Emirate never attained widespread international recognition, despite controlling about 90% of Afghan territory.
Mawlawi
Abdul Kabir
No image.svg
born 1958 16 April 2001 13 November 2001 211 days Taliban
Acting Deputy Head of the Supreme Council; Acting Prime Minister; Deposed during the fall of Kabul.[11]
Post abolished (13 November 2001 – 7 September 2021)
Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (2021–present)
Mullah
Hasan Akhund
Hasan Akhund.png
between 1945 and 1958[12] 7 September 2021 Incumbent 343 days Taliban
Acting Prime Minister; The Islamic Emirate is currently not internationally recognized, despite controlling virtually all Afghan territory.[13]

Timeline

Hasan AkhundAbdul KabirAbdul Rahim GhafoorzaiMohammad RabbaniAhmad Shah AhmadzaiArsala Rahmani DaulatGulbuddin HekmatyarAbdul Sabur Farid KohistaniFazal Haq KhaliqyarMohammad Hasan SharqSultan Ali KeshtmandBabrak KarmalHafizullah AminNur Muhammad TarakiMohammad Musa ShafiqAbdul Zahir (politician)Mohammad Nur Ahmad EtemadiAbdullah YaqtaMohammad Hashim MaiwandwalMohammad Yusuf (politician)Mohammed Daoud KhanShah Mahmud KhanAmanat LewanaMohammad Hashim KhanShir GiyanShir Ahmad

See also

References

  1. ^ Hakimi, Amina (5 December 2021). "Senior Officials' Salaries Reduced: MoF". TOLOnews. Retrieved 21 February 2022.
  2. ^ Kirby, Jen (13 September 2021). "What the Taliban's new government reveals about how they will rule". Vox. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  3. ^ "Taliban announce new government for Afghanistan". BBC News. 2021-09-07. Archived from the original on 2021-09-07. Retrieved 2021-09-07.
  4. ^ Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Richard S. Newell (1997). Peter R. Blood (ed.). Afghanistan: A Country Study. Federal Research Division. The Constitutional Period, 1964-73.
  5. ^ Dugger, Celia W. (20 April 2001). "Muhammad Rabbani, Advocate of Some Moderation in Taliban". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
  6. ^ "AFGHAN LEADER QUITS; Uncle of the King Resigns as Prime Minister". The New York Times. 8 September 1953. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  7. ^ "Afghan King Overthrown; A Republic Is Proclaimed". The New York Times. 18 July 1973. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  8. ^ "How Soviet troops stormed Kabul palace". BBC. 27 December 2009. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  9. ^ "Afghan Fundamentalists Sweep Into Kabul". The New York Times. 27 September 1996. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  10. ^ Celia W. Dugger (20 February 2001). "Muhammad Rabbani, Advocate Of Some Moderation in Taliban". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  11. ^ David S. Rohde with Dexter Filkins (13 November 2001). "Taliban Troops Abandon Capital Without a Fight". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  12. ^ "Security Council 1988 Committee Amends 105 Entries on Its Sanctions List | Meetings Coverage and Press Releases". www.un.org. Retrieved 2021-09-08.
  13. ^ Trofimov, Yaroslav (2021-09-13). "As Taliban Seek International Acceptance, Countries Seek to Engage—but Stop Short of Recognition". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2021-09-20.