Prime Minister of Albania
Kryeministri i Shqipërisë
Emblem of the Prime Minister
Portrait of the Prime Minister
Incumbent
Edi Rama
since 11 September 2013
StyleHis Excellency (diplomatic)
TypeHead of government
Member of
ResidenceKryeministria
SeatTirana
AppointerPresident
with Parliament confidence
Term lengthFour years,
renewable
Constituting instrumentConstitution
Inaugural holderIsmail Qemali
Formation4 December 1912; 111 years ago (1912-12-04)
DeputyDeputy Prime Minister
Salary228,730 lek[1]
Websitekryeministria.al

The prime minister of Albania (Albanian: Kryeministri i Shqipërisë), officially the prime minister of the Republic of Albania (Albanian: Kryeministri i Republikës së Shqipërisë), is the head of government of Albania. The office of the prime minister is a core institution in the politics of Albania formed after the Albanian declaration of independence on 28 November 1912. Since that time, the nation has navigated a dynamic political evolution spanning distinct periods, encompassing a monarchy, a communist regime and the eventual democratic order. In 1912, Ismail Qemali was inaugurated as the first prime minister of Albania, guiding the nation toward sovereignty amidst the complex conditions in the Balkans. In 1944, Enver Hoxha implemented a radical change in government, transforming Albania into an authoritarian and isolationist communist regime. In 1991, the nation transitioned into a democracy that marked a notable shift, when Fatos Nano emerged as the first post-communist prime minister of Albania.

The office of the prime minister is defined by the constitution of Albania. The appointment begins with general elections, during which parties or political coalitions nominate candidates for the parliament. The leader of the party with the most parliamentary seats becomes a contender for the office of the prime minister. After the results are certified, the president invites the majority leader to propose a prime ministerial candidate who must secure a majority from the parliament for selection. Once selected, the prime minister-elect is mandated to partake in a formal oath-taking ceremony presided over by the president. The prime minister is in charge of forming and guiding the council of ministers, presenting the nation's integral policies and coordinating government institutions. Located in Tirana, the Kryeministria is the official workplace of the prime minister and holds a crucial role in facilitating their duties and those of the council. Since September 2013, Edi Rama from the Albanian Socialist Party has served as prime minister.

History

1912–1990

Following the declaration of independence on 28 November 1912, the establishment of the office of the prime minister became an integral part of the constitutional framework of Albania.[2] Amidst the formative period characterised by tumultuous political and regional conflicts, a series of distinguished ministers assumed the position, each confronted with distinct challenges that left a lasting impact on Albanian politics. Ismail Qemali occupied the mantle of the first prime minister and directed the Albanian people toward the realisation of Independent Albania.[3] Subsequently, during their respective tenures as prime ministers from 1914 to 1920, Turhan Përmeti and Esad Toptani were instrumental in directing Albania through the challenges of World War I.[4] This period was marked by their dedication to preserving the country's independence in the face of shifting alliances and external interventions.[5] Similarly, the emergence of Ilias Vrioni as prime minister in 1920 occurred in the aftermath of World War I, and Vrioni addressed border disputes with the backing of several major Western nations that guaranteed Albania's sovereignty within the boundaries formed in 1913.[6] Following these developments, Ahmet Zogu served as prime minister in 1922, concentrating on centralising power, modernising the economy and attracting foreign investments.[7] In 1924, Fan Noli's brief tenure saw the introduction of sweeping reforms, including initiatives in education and land distribution aimed at reshaping the socio-economic landscape, alongside the establishment of the Albanian Orthodox Church.[8] Zogu returned as prime minister for a second term in 1925 and further solidified his influence, ultimately transitioning the country into a monarchy in 1928, with himself as king.[9]

With the global crisis of the Great Depression, Albania grappled with significant economic and financial challenges from 1930 to 1939. The government was tasked with stabilising the economy and fostering socio-economic growth. During this period, a succession of prime ministers, including Kostaq Kotta, Pandeli Evangjeli and Mehdi Frashëri, led the country. Amid World War II, despite declaring neutrality, Albania was invaded by Italy.[10] Prime Ministers of the era, including Shefqet Vërlaci and Mustafa Merlika-Kruja, assumed significant roles in navigating the challenges posed by foreign occupation. In 1943, Germany occupied the country, leading to the brief prime ministerial tenures of Rexhep Mitrovica, Fiqri Dine and Ibrahim Biçakçiu during the occupation.[11]

With the conclusion of World War II in Albania, the country entered an unprecedented transformative phase under the leadership of Enver Hoxha, who acceded to the mantle of prime minister in 1944. Hoxha's tenure was marked by a commitment to Marxism–Leninism, resulting in the establishment of the People's Republic of Albania in 1946.[12] The regime faced multifaceted challenges, encompassing widespread poverty, illiteracy, healthcare crises, and gender inequality.[13][14] In response, Hoxha initiated a comprehensive modernisation effort aimed at achieving economic and social progress and transitioning Albania into an industrialised society.[15] Mehmet Shehu served as a prominent figure in Hoxha's government, holding the position of prime minister for a significant part of the communist period, from 1954 to 1981.[16] He played an essential part in implementing the government's policies and exerting influence over the country's direction.[17] Adil Çarçani succeeded Shehu as prime minister and maintained the position for nine years, maintaining Albania's isolationist stance in external affairs and alignment with the Eastern Bloc countries.[18]

1991–present

After the fall of communism, the office of the prime minister of Albania was restored and a democratic order was established.[19] Responding to widespread protests in December 1990, the government of Ramiz Alia of the Party of Labour granted its approval for the first multi-party elections in March 1991 and the subsequent elections in March 1992.[20] This resulted in the legal recognition of the opposition Democratic Party and paved the way for the admission of other political parties, including the Socialist Party.[21] Subsequently, Fatos Nano emerged as the first post-communist prime minister on 22 February 1991. Nano prioritised the establishment of democratic institutions, the implementation of economic reforms and the reintegration of Albania into the international community.[22][23] On 4 June 1991, Nano resigned from office due to political and social pressure, allowing Ylli Bufi and Vilson Ahmeti to assume the mantle for a short period, respectively.[24][25] During their tenures, Albania became a member of the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE).[26] Aleksandër Meksi became prime minister on 13 April 1992 following the Democratic Party's victory in elections in March.[27] His cabinet was dedicated to further advancing democratic and economic development and strengthening Albania's international connections.[28][29][30] This commitment culminated to the country's accession to the Council of Europe (CoE) in July 1995.[31] However, the tenure of Meksi faced criticism for what some perceived as an increasingly authoritarian approach and allegations of corruption.[32] One of the most notable events during his rule was the outbreak of the Albanian Civil War in 1997 that resulted in a humanitarian crisis and an international intervention.[33]

Following the departure of Meksi on 25 March 1997, Bashkim Fino emerged as prime minister with a commitment to holding early elections in June.[34][35] Fatos Nano secured his second term as prime minister but faced several challenges, notably in assembling a cabinet, which led to his resignation.[36] Pandeli Majko succeeded Nano as Prime Minister on 28 September 1998 and focused on the preservation of public order and the fight against corruption and organised crime.[37][38][39][40] His cabinet garnered approval for a new constitution through a referendum in November 1998, all amidst continued instability in, and a large influx of refugees from, Albanian-speaking Kosovo.[41][40][42] With the resignation of Majko on 29 October 1999, Ilir Meta emerged as prime minister and served until his resignation on 29 January 2002.[43][44][45] Following Majko's return for his second term on 7 February 2002, Nano assumed the mantle for his third term as prime minister until 3 July 2005.[46][47] In the July 2005 elections, Sali Berisha emerged as prime minister with a dedication to sustainable economic development and advancing Albania toward European Union (EU) and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) membership.[48] The tenure of Berisha achieved a major milestone when the country secured NATO membership in April 2009.[49][50] However, his leadership was marred by increasing allegations of corruption, misappropriation of public funds and interference in public processes.[51] Edi Rama occupied the role as prime minister for three consecutive terms following his party's victory in the July 2013 elections.[52][53] Under his guidance, Albania achieved consistent economic growth and made continuous progress toward EU membership through a series of reforms aimed at socio-economic revitalisation, reinforcement of the rule of law, enhancement of the judicial system and transparency in governance.[52][53][54]

Appointment

Before assuming office, the prime minister takes the oath of office in a formal ceremony at the Presidenca overseen by the president.

The process of selecting the prime minister of Albania begins with the conducting of general elections, in which the members of the parliament are elected through a proportional representation system for four-year terms.[55][56] Political parties or coalitions nominate their candidates for the members of parliament.[57] The leader of the party or coalition which secures the most seats in the parliament emerges as a contender for the role of the prime minister.[58] Once the election results receive official certification, the president extends an invitation to the leader of the party or coalition with the parliamentary majority, urging them to propose a candidate for the position.[58] The nominated candidate subsequently seeks approval from the parliament, with the members of the parliament casting their votes either in favor or against the proposed candidate.[58] The candidate must garner a majority of affirmative votes to secure appointment, thereby confirming their selection as the prime minister.[58] In the event that the appointed prime minister does not secure approval from the parliament, a 10-day window is provided for the president to nominate a new candidate.[58] If, once more, the parliament does not endorse this subsequent nominee, it is granted an additional 10-day period to designate an alternative prime minister.[58] If the parliament remains unable to successfully elect a new prime minister within these defined timeframes, the president retains the prerogative to dissolve the parliament.[58]

Before assuming the office, the prime minister-elect is mandated to partake in a formal oath-taking ceremony presided over by the president.[59] The ceremony, conducted in compliance with the guidelines of the constitution, marks the commencement of the minister's official functions. During the oath, the prime minister affirms their allegiance to the constitution and laws, making a commitment to fulfill the functions of their office and prioritise the welfare of the Albanian people:[59]

Albanian: Betohem se do t'i bindem Kushtetutës dhe ligjeve të vendit, do të respektoj të drejtat dhe liritë e shtetasve, do të mbroj pavarësinë e Republikës së Shqipërisë dhe do t'i shërbej interesit të përgjithshëm dhe përparimit të popullit Shqiptar. Zoti më ndihmoftë!

English: I swear that I will obey to the Constitution and laws of the country, that I will respect the rights and freedoms of citizens, protect the independence of the Republic of Albania, and I will serve the general interest and the progress of the Albanian people. May God help me!

Functions

Main article: Kryeministria

Kryeministria at the Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard in Tirana is the official residence and workplace of the prime minister of Albania.

Located at Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard in Tirana, the Kryeministria operates as the official workplace of the prime minister and assumes a central role in facilitating the functions of the prime minister and the council of ministers.[60][61][62] According to the constitution, the office of the prime minister holds an integral position in the executive arm of government as the head of government.[63] One of the core functions of the prime minister is to form and lead the council of ministers, which include the deputy prime minister and several other ministers. The prime minister selects the members of the council and proposes their appointments for approval by the president.[58] The prime minister is also entrusted with the duty of formulating and presenting the principal general policies of the country. This task involves ensuring the implementation of legislation endorsed by the council of ministers.[64] Further to these core functions, the prime minister takes on the office of coordinating and supervising the work of both the council and other significant institutions of the government. This ensures the efficient operation of the framework of the government, the resolution of potential conflicts among ministers, the issuance of necessary instructions and an overall contribution to the efficient administration of government functions.[64]

The prime minister has the ability to propose a motion of confidence to the parliament, focusing on significant matters related to bill or decision approval.[65] This motion cannot involve investigations, appointments, immunity or parliamentary functioning. The duration of debate is determined by the conference of chairpersons, with a minimum of 3 minutes per deputy. Voting occurs after at least 3 days from the presentation of the motion.[65] If the motion fails, the prime minister can request the dissolution of the parliament within 48 hours, with the president dissolving parliament within 10 days of the request. Importantly, a motion of confidence cannot be proposed during the consideration of a motion of no confidence.[65] When the prime minister is absent or incapacitated, the deputy prime minister assumes the role of second-in-command to maintain the uninterrupted functioning of the government.[61] Their appointment and dismissal are determined by the council of ministers based on the recommendation of the prime minister.[1]

List

List of prime ministers of Albania[66][67]
No. Portrait Name Term Party Government Ref.
Start End Duration
Independent Albania (1912 – 1914)
1 Photograph Ismail Qemali
(1844 – 1919)
4 December
1912
22 January
1914
1 year, 1 month and 26 days Independent Provisional [68][69][70]
Photograph International Control Commission 22 January
1914
14 March
1914
1 month and 24 days Members [71][72]
Principality of Albania (1914 – 1925)
2 Photograph Turhan Përmeti
(1846 – 1927)
14 March
1914
3 September
1914
5 months and 18 days Independent Përmeti
(I and II)
[73]
3 Photograph Essad Toptani
(1863 – 1920)
5 October
1914
27 January
1916
1 year, 3 months and 23 days Toptani [74]
Photograph Turhan Përmeti
(1846 – 1927)
25 December
1918
29 January
1920
1 year, 1 month and 5 days Përmeti III [75]
4 Photograph Sulejman Delvina
(1884 – 1933)
30 January
1920
14 November
1920
9 months and 16 days Delvinal [76]
5 Photograph Ilias Vrioni
(1882 – 1932)
15 November
1920
16 October
1921
11 months and 2 days Vrioni
(I and II)
[77]
6 Photograph Pandeli Evangjeli
(1859 – 1949)
16 October
1921
6 December
1921
1 month and 21 days Evangjeli [78]
7 Photograph Qazim Koculi
(1887 – 1943)
6 December
1921
6 December
1921
1 day Koculi [79]
8 Photograph Hasan Prishtina
(1873 – 1933)
7 December
1921
12 December
1921
6 days Prishtina [80]
9 Photograph Idhomen Kosturi
(1873 – 1943)
12 December
1921
24 December
1921
13 days Kosturi [81]
10 Photograph Xhafer Ypi
(1880 – 1940)
24 December
1921
2 December
1922
11 months and 9 days Popular Ypi [82]
11 Photograph Ahmet Zogu
(1895 – 1961)
2 December
1922
25 February
1924
1 year, 2 months and 24 days Conservative Zogu [83]
12 Photograph Shefqet Vërlaci
(1877 – 1946)
3 March
1924
27 May
1924
2 months and 25 days Progressive Vërlaci [84]
Photograph Ilias Vrioni
(1882 – 1932)
31 May
1924
10 June
1924
11 days Independent Vrioni III [85]
13 Photograph Fan Noli
(1882 – 1965)
16 June
1924
24 December
1924
6 months and 9 days Liberal Noli
First Republic of Albania (1925 – 1928)[a]
Photograph Ahmet Zogu
(1895 – 1961)
6 January
1925
31 January
1925
8 months and 18 days Conservative Zogu II [87]
Kingdom of Albania (1928 – 1939)
14 Photograph Kostaq Kotta
(1886 – 1947)
5 September
1928
5 March
1930
1 year, 6 months and 1 day Independent Kotta [88]
Photograph Pandeli Evangjeli
(1859 – 1949)
6 March
1930
16 October
1935
5 years, 7 months and 11 days Evangjeli
(II, III and IV)
[89]
15 Photograph Mehdi Frashëri
(1872 – 1963)
21 October
1935
7 November
1936
1 year and 18 days Frashëri [90]
Photograph Kostaq Kotta
(1886 – 1947)
9 November
1936
7 April
1939
2 years, 4 months and 30 days Kotta II [91]
Italian protectorate of Albania (1939 – 1943)
Photograph Shefqet Vërlaci
(1877 – 1946)
12 April
1939
3 December
1941
2 years, 7 months and 22 days Fascist Vërlaci II [92]
16 Photograph Mustafa Merlika-Kruja
(1887 – 1958)
4 December
1941
4 January
1943
1 year, 1 month and 1 day Merlika-Kruja [93]
17 Photograph Ekrem Libohova
(1882 – 1948)
18 January
1943
11 February
1943
25 days Libohova [94]
18 Photograph Maliq Bushati
(1890 – 1946)
12 February
1943
28 April
1943
2 months and 17 days Bushati [95]
Photograph Ekrem Libohova
(1882 – 1948)
11 May
1943
10 September
1943
4 months Libohova II [96]
German occupation of Albania (1943 – 1944)
19 Photograph Rexhep Mitrovica
(1887 – 1967)
5 November
1943
16 June
1944
7 months and 12 days National Front Mitrovica [97]
20 Photograph Fiqri Dine
(1897 – 1960)
18 July
1944
28 August
1944
1 month and 11 days Dine [98]
21 Photograph Ibrahim Biçakçiu
(1905 – 1977)
6 September
1944
25 October
1944
1 month and 20 days Biçaku [99]
People's Socialist Republic of Albania (1944 – 1991)
22 Photograph Enver Hoxha
(1908 – 1985)
10 November
1944
20 July
1954
9 years, 8 months and 10 days Labour Hoxha
(I, II and III)
[100]
23 Photograph Mehmet Shehu
(1913 – 1981)
20 July
1954
18 December
1981
27 years, 4 months and 29 days Shehu
(I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII)
[101][102]
24 Photograph Adil Çarçani
(1922 – 1997)
4 January
1982
22 February
1991
9 years, 2 months and 4 days Çarçani
(I, II and III)
[103]
Republic of Albania (1991 – present)
25 Photograph Fatos Nano
(born 1952)
22 February
1991
4 June
1991
3 months and 14 days Socialist Nano
(I and II)
[104]
26 Photograph Ylli Bufi
(born 1948)
5 June
1991
10 December
1991
6 months and 6 days Stability [105]
27 Photograph Vilson Ahmeti
(born 1951)
10 December
1991
4 April
1992
3 months and 26 days Ahmeti [106]
28 Photograph Aleksandër Meksi
(born 1939)
13 April
1992
25 March
1997
4 years, 11 months and 13 days Democrat Meksi
(I and II)
[107]
29 Photograph Bashkim Fino
(1962 – 2021)
13 March
1997
25 July
1997
4 months and 13 days Socialist Fino [108]
Photograph Fatos Nano
(born 1952)
25 July
1997
28 September
1998
1 year, 2 months and 4 days Nano III [109]
30 Photograph Pandeli Majko
(born 1967)
28 September
1998
29 October
1999
1 year, 1 month and 2 days Majko [110]
31 Photograph Ilir Meta
(born 1969)
29 October
1999
29 January
2002
2 years, 3 months and 1 day Meta
(I and II)
[111]
Photograph Pandeli Majko
(born 1967)
7 February
2002
24 July
2002
5 months and 18 days Majko II [112]
Photograph Fatos Nano
(born 1952)
24 July
2002
8 September
2005
3 years, 1 month and 16 days Nano IV [113]
32 Photograph Sali Berisha
(born 1944)
8 September
2005
11 September
2013
8 years and 4 days Democrat Berisha
(I and II)
[114]
33 Photograph Edi Rama
(born 1964)
11 September
2013
Incumbent 10 years, 7 months and 2 days Socialist Rama
(I, II and III)
[115]

Notes

  1. ^ During the period, the office of the prime minister was exercised by the Minister of Justice, which included Hiqmet Delvina, Josif Kedhi, Petro Poga, Milto Tutulani and Ilias Vrioni.[86]

References

Citations

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