President of the Republic of Bulgaria
Президент на България
Rumen Radev
since 22 January 2017
StyleHis Excellency (diplomatic) Mr. President (informal, more widely used)
ResidenceSofia (office), Boyana [bg] (residential)
AppointerPopular vote
Term lengthFive years, renewable once
PrecursorState Council (1971-1990)
Chairman (President) (1990-1992)
Inaugural holderZhelyu Zhelev
Modern presidency; Petar Mladenov as inaugural Chairman (President)
Formation22 January 1992
Modern presidency; 3 April 1990 as Chairman (President)
DeputyVice President
Salary11 044 leva per month[1]

The President of the Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Президент на Република България, romanised: Prezident na Republika Bŭlgariya) is the head of state of Bulgaria and the commander-in-chief of the Bulgarian Army. The official residence of the president is at Boyana Residence, Sofia. After the completion of the second round of voting, candidate Rumen Radev was elected President of Bulgaria on 13 November 2016.

In Bulgaria, the president's role is primarily as a symbolic figure, with the main function being to be the 'arbitrator' of disputes between Bulgaria's different institutions. They are not considered head of government or part of the nation's executive power. However, in the absence of a prime minister, presidents are in charge of appointing an interim administration, giving them considerable influence over the government during such periods (Zhelyu Zhelev in 1994-95; Petar Stoyanov in 1997; Rosen Plevneliev in 2013 and 2014; and Rumen Radev in 2017, 2021, and since 2022). On some occasions, the president has appointed the prime minister as well.[2] The president is elected for a five-year term and is restricted to two terms, even if they are non-successive. After an individual has served two terms as president, that individual will forever be barred from being elected to the presidency again under the rules set out by Bulgaria's Constitution.[3] The president addresses the nation on national television annually on New Year's Eve, just moments before the start of the new year.[4]


Eligibility for election

For a Bulgarian citizen to be able to run for the office of President of Bulgaria, they must fulfil the following conditions:[3]

Electoral system

The president is elected directly by the Bulgarian people in a two-round majoritarian election. If a candidate manages to obtain more than 50% of the vote and the voter turnout was at least 50% in the first round, that candidate is elected. If no candidate manages to obtain more than 50% of the vote or the voter turnout was lower than 50% in the first round, then the two top-performing candidates face off in a second round with first-past-the-post voting, with the candidate receiving the larger number of votes considered elected.[a][3]


The president is banned from also being a member of the National Assembly, as well taking on any other government, public or private offices for the duration of his term. The president is also constitutionally forbidden from being involved in a leadership position of a political party while in office.[3] In practice, despite the fact that most candidates for president are elected from a political party's list[5] and despite the fact that the Constitution doesn't forbid the president from being an ordinary member of a political party, it is widely expected in Bulgarian society that the president be above politics. For this reason, the president-elect is expected to give up any membership in a political party.[6][7][8]

Powers and privileges

The president of Bulgaria has a number of functions and powers that are regulated in Chapter 4 of the 1991 Constitution of Bulgaria. The president is elected directly by a popular vote for a period of five years which is renewable.

Presidential powers

The following powers belong to the president of Bulgaria:[3]


The president enjoys blanket legal immunity during his tenure and is not held responsible for any act performed while on duty, with the exception of treason or violation of the Bulgarian constitution. His authority may only be stripped via impeachment and may not be removed by any other institution. The president cannot be detained and may not be prosecuted.[3]

List of presidents

List of presidents of Bulgaria from 1990 – till date.
No. Portrait Name
Term Party Endorsing parties Election Vice President
1 Zhelyu Zhelev
August 1, 1990

January 22, 1997
SDS DPS 1990


Atanas Semerdzhiev

Blaga Dimitrova

July 6, 1993 – January 22, 1997

2 Petur Stoyanov
January 22, 1997

January 22, 2002
ODS DPS 1996 Todor Kavaldzhiev
3 Georgi Purvanov
January 22, 2002

January 22, 2012




Angel Marin
4 Rosen Plevneliev
January 22, 2012

January 22, 2017
GERB - 2011 Margarita Popova
5 Rumen Radev
January 22, 2017

Independent BSP




Iliana Iotova

Vice president

Main article: Vice President of Bulgaria

The president is assisted in these duties by the vice president of Bulgaria. The vice president replaces the president in case of absence. Only upon the death, resignation, removal from office or disability of the president, the vice president assumes the presidential powers & duties, until elections are held. The Constitution permits the president to delegate to the vice president the powers to appoint and dismiss certain officials, issue pardons and amnesty, provide citizenship and refugee status, but does not allow the president to delegate any of his other powers., enjoys the same privileges of immunity as the president and can only be dismissed from his office under the same procedures as those regarding the president.[3]

Termination of office

According to the constitution, the mandate of the president is completed if and when:[3]


Impeachment can only begin if the president has committed treason or has violated the Constitution of Bulgaria. Impeachment starts after at least a quarter of the members of the National Assembly deposit an accusatory act before the assembly. The act must then be approved by a supermajority of 2/3 of all elected representatives in order to be accepted. If accepted, the case is referred to the Constitutional Court of Bulgaria, which must decide within a one-month time span whether or not the president is guilty of the crime he has been accused of by the Assembly. If the constitutional court finds that the president has committed treason or violated the constitution, as per the accusatory act, then the president is considered successfully impeached and is stripped of his authority.[3]

Bulgarian presidential line of succession

Latest election

Main article: 2021 Bulgarian general election § President

CandidateRunning matePartyFirst roundSecond round
Rumen RadevIliana IotovaIndependent (BSPzB, PP, ITN, IBG-NI)1,322,38549.421,539,65066.72
Anastas GerdzhikovNevyana MitevaIndependent (GERBSDS)610,86222.83733,79131.80
Mustafa KaradayiIskra MihaylovaMovement for Rights and Freedoms309,68111.57
Kostadin KostadinovElena GunchevaRevival104,8323.92
Lozan PanovMaria KasimovaIndependent (Democratic Bulgaria)98,4883.68
Luna YordanovaIglena IlievaIndependent21,7330.81
Volen SiderovMagdalena TashevaAttack14,7920.55
Svetoslav VitkovVeselin BelokonskiPeople's Voice13,9720.52
Milen MihovMariya TsvetkovaVMRO – Bulgarian National Movement13,3760.50
Rosen MilenovIvan IvanovIndependent12,6440.47
Goran BlagoevIvelina GeorgievaRepublicans for Bulgaria12,3230.46
Veselin MareshkiPolina TsankovaVolya Movement10,5360.39
Valeri SimeonovTsvetan ManchevPatriotic Front8,5680.32
Nikolay MalinovSvetlana KosevaRussophiles for the Revival of the Fatherland8,2130.31
Tsveta KirilovaGeorgi TutanovIndependent7,7060.29
Aleksandar TomovLachezar AvramovBulgarian Social Democratic PartyEuroLeft7,2350.27
Boyan RasateElena VatashkaBulgarian National Union – New Democracy6,7980.25
Marina MalchevaSavina LukanovaIndependent6,3150.24
Zhelyo ZhelevKalin KrulevSociety for a New Bulgaria6,1540.23
Blagoy PetrevskiSevina HadjiyskaBulgarian Union for Direct Democracy5,5180.21
Yolo DenevMario FilevIndependent5,3940.20
Maria KolevaGancho PopovPravoto4,6660.17
Georgi Georgiev-GotiStoyan TsvetkovBulgarian National Unification2,9580.11
None of the above60,7862.2734,1691.48
Valid votes2,675,93599.652,307,61099.83
Invalid/blank votes9,4870.353,9090.17
Total votes2,685,422100.002,311,519100.00
Registered voters/turnout6,949,93838.646,868,73733.65
Source: Electoral Commission of Bulgaria (first round), Electoral Commission of Bulgaria (second round)

See also

The Bulgarian President's Office


  1. ^ Bulgarian election law permits voters to vote against all candidates. In reality, this has no effect, as those votes aren't counted during the tally and as such would not affect the outcome of the election.
  2. ^ Revocation of citizenship can only be done to citizens who acquired their citizenship through the process of naturalization and not to native-born Bulgarians. It can only be applied after the citizen in question has been convicted of a serious crime and even then cannot be performed if the revocation would cause the person to enter into statelessness (i.e. has no other citizenship).
  3. ^ In practice this power is very weak, as after a veto the bill is sent back to the assembly for another vote, in which the veto can be overruled by a simple majority. If the veto is overruled, the President is constitutionally obliged to sign the bill into law.


  1. ^ "Bulgaria hikes pay for MPs, Prime Minister and President". 14 February 2018.
  2. ^ "Bulgaria President Appoints Social Policy Advisor Interim PM". Balkan Insight. 1 August 2022. Retrieved 2023-02-22.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria". Chapter 4. Retrieved 2019-10-21.
  4. ^ "Трите символа на телевизионната Нова година - приветствие, часовник и Дунавско". Retrieved 2019-10-21.
  5. ^ Тотева, публикувана от Паолина (2016-08-26). "Коларова: Никой президент не е напълно независим". Flashnews (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2019-10-21.
  6. ^ "Надпартиен президент? То е като коледното намаление". Retrieved 2019-10-21.
  7. ^ "България има нужда от надпартиен президент, смята Меглена Кунева". (in Bulgarian). 2 May 2011. Retrieved 2019-10-21.
  8. ^ "Президентът трябва да е надпартиен". - Да извадим фактите наяве. Retrieved 2019-10-21.

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