Bulgaria elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president is elected for a five-year term directly by the people. The National Assembly (Narodno Sabranie) has 240 members, elected for a four-year term by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies with a 4% threshold. Bulgaria has a multi-party system, in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each to form governments.
Parliamentary elections have been held in Bulgaria since 1879. There was a period when partisan politics was banned from 1934 to 1944; in the wake of the Bulgarian coup d'état of 1934 and the sequential personal rule of Tsar Boris III. There was also period of single party system between 1945 and 1989, during the People's Republic of Bulgaria, during which only candidates sanctioned by authorities could run. This, in practice, gave the Bulgarian Communist Party and its collaborators a monopoly on power.
Until 1945 there was no universal suffrage for the women. The table below show the elections since 1990, when the government became a democratic republic.
All elections since 1991 have had 240 members, elected for a four-year term by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies with a 4% threshold. The two elections that differed from this model was the 1990 Grand National Assembly election, where 400 representatives were elected: half by proportional representation and half by first-past-the-post voting. The other exception was the 2009 election when 209 representatives were elected by proportional representation and 31 through first past the post; seats corresponding to the provinces and the largest cities.
Main article: July 2021 Bulgarian parliamentary election
There Is Such a People received the most votes, finishing around 15,000 votes ahead of GERB–SDS. It was the first time that GERB or a GERB-led coalition had not won the most votes or seats since the party's establishment in 2006. Four other parties (BSP for Bulgaria, Democratic Bulgaria, Movement for Rights and Freedom, and Stand Up! Mafia, Get Out!) also won seats. There Is Such a People performed well among young voters, with 37.4% of Generation Z supporting the party and 30.9% of voters aged 30–39. GERB–SDS received high support from voters aged 40–69, and BSP for Bulgaria received high support from voters older than 70.
International observers from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe said freedoms were respected in the election.
|There Is Such a People||657,829||23.78||65||+14|
|BSP for Bulgaria||365,695||13.22||36||–7|
|Movement for Rights and Freedoms||292,514||10.57||29||–1|
|Stand Up! Mafia, Get Out!||136,885||4.95||13||–1|
|Left Union for a Clean and Holy Republic||10,309||0.37||0||New|
|Republicans for Bulgaria||8,546||0.31||0||0|
|National Association of the Right||7,872||0.28||0||New|
|Bulgarian National Union – New Democracy||4,690||0.17||0||0|
|Bulgaria of Work and Reason||3,948||0.14||0||New|
|Together Movement for Change||3,445||0.12||0||0|
|Green Party of Bulgaria||3,257||0.12||0||0|
|None of the above||35,201||1.27||–||–|
|Source: CIK, IFES|
Presidential elections have been held since 1992. From 1996 onwards, presidential elections have been held every five years.
Main article: 2016 Bulgarian presidential election
|Candidate||Running mate||Party||First round||Second round|
|Rumen Radev||Iliana Iotova||Independent (Bulgarian Socialist Party)||973,754||25.44||2,063,032||59.37|
|Tsetska Tsacheva||Plamen Manushev||GERB||840,635||21.96||1,256,485||36.16|
|Krasimir Karakachanov||Yavor Notev||United Patriots||573,016||14.97|
|Veselin Mareshki||Petar Petrov||Independent||427,660||11.17|
|Plamen Oresharski||Danail Papazov||Independent||253,726||6.63|
|Traycho Traykov||Sabi Sabev||Reformist Bloc||224,734||5.87|
|Ivailo Kalfin||Lyubomir Halachev||Alternative for Bulgarian Revival||125,531||3.28|
|Tatyana Doncheva||Mincho Spasov||Movement 21–NDSV||69,372||1.81|
|George Ganchev||Kolyo Paramov||Christian Social Union||27,928||0.73|
|Velizar Enchev||Bilyana Grancharova||Movement for Radical Change Bulgarian Spring||18,213||0.48|
|Dimitar Marinov||Radoslav Petrov||Bulgarian National Unification||14,974||0.39|
|Rumen Galabinov||Veska Voleva||Independent||10,286||0.27|
|Plamen Paskov||Svetozar Saev||Independent||10,103||0.26|
|Aleksandar Tomov||Radoslav Radoslavov||Bulgarian Socialdemocratic-Euroleft||9,513||0.25|
|Gospodin Tonev||Andrey Andreev||Bulgarian Democratic Community||6,855||0.18|
|Kemil Ramadan||Momchil Dobrev||Balkanic Democratic League||6,089||0.16|
|Kamen Popov||Georgi Nedelchev||Independent||5,212||0.14|
|Diana Dimitrova||Gabriel Gerasimov||Independent||4,362||0.11|
|Nikolay Banev||Sali Ibrayim||Independent||4,196||0.11|
|Yordanka Koleva||Veselin Hristov||Independent||4,182||0.11|
|Biser Milanov||Krasimir Nastev||Independent||3,215||0.08|
|None of the above||214,094||5.59||155,411||4.47|
|Source: Electoral Commission of Bulgaria|
Main article: European Parliament elections in Bulgaria
Four nationwide referendums have been held in Bulgaria since it gained its De Facto independence in 1878:
Several regional referendums have been held as well.
Main article: 2019 Bulgarian local elections