Elections in Hungary are held at two levels: general elections to elect the members of the National Assembly and local elections to elect local authorities. European Parliament elections are also held every 5 years.

National Assembly elections

Following a reform in 2012, general elections are now conducted under a one-round, two-ballot system. The total number of seats has been reduced and regional lists have been eliminated. The number of single-member seats has increased from 45.56% of the total to 53.3%. The first ballot is to choose MPs for 106 single-member districts using first-past-the-post. The remaining 93 party-list national seats are allocated based on the sum of second ballot list votes and wasted votes from the first ballot. Wasted votes are votes that were cast for unsuccessful candidates or surplus votes for winning candidates.[1] This formula for allocating national seats is a cross between a parallel mixed system and a compensatory mixed system.

The 2014 elections were the first to be held according to the new system, which included the following significant changes:

Minority lists that do not reach the 5% of all minority-list votes and do not get at least one seat, will be able to send a minority spokesman to the National Assembly, who has the right to speak but not to vote. Practically, only the German and Romani minorities are numerous enough to possibly elect MPs, while the other 13 minorities have spokesmen.

Nomination of candidates

Voting

On Hungarian elections citizens can vote for a party-list (or a minority-list), and in case of residing in Hungary (which is checked by showing the address card) citizens can also vote for a constituency candidate who will be responsible for the local community in the National Assembly.

Implementation of voting

Results

In case of the 106 constituency seats, the candidate that receives the most votes (not necessarily more than 50%) in the given constituency, obtains the constituency seat and will be responsible for that local region in the National Assembly. In the case of the 93 party-list seats, parties receive seats in proportion to the votes received out of all the party-list and minority-list votes. These numbers of seats obtained by the parties are calculated according to the D'Hondt method after checking out whether the party has reached the 5% threshold out of all the party-list votes and whether the minority has reached the 5% threshold out of all minority votes. If a minority-lists cannot obtain at least one seat then the first candidate on the minority-list will be minority spokesman, who has right to speak in the National Assembly but is not allowed to vote.

It is possible that the same person is a constituency candidate and a party-list candidate in the same time. If this person has obtained the seat in their constituency and would also obtain a seat because of the party-list that they are listed on then the next candidate in the party-list replaces the candidate that already has obtained a constituency seat. So, for example, someone being the 50th on a party-list can obtain a seat in the National Assembly even if their party has only won 30 party-list seats, if at least 20 candidates listed earlier than them win in their local constituency. (this rule has simplified as there is no county level between the constituency level and the national level)

Generally, big parties place their most important (national level) politicians only on the party-lists because these people want to deal only with national-level issues (like becoming minister). They represent citizens who voted for their parties and not the citizens of their local community, which is the responsibility of those MPs that obtain constituency seats. On the other hand, leaders of small parties usually qualify both on their party-lists and in their local constituencies because of maximizing votes; the leader of a small party might be much more famous or much more popular than an ordinary local politician of a big party.

By-elections

Main article: List of Hungarian by-elections

A by-election is an election held to fill a constituency seat that has become vacant between regularly scheduled elections. In case of the vacancy of a party-list seat, the next person on the list that is still interested gets to the National Assembly.[5] This rule has not changed. Note, that by-elections from 2012 are held according to the new system, so only one round is held and no minimum turnout is needed, while the constituencies are the same until 2014.

Latest general election

Main article: 2022 Hungarian parliamentary election

Turnout

Turnout (within Hungary only, excluding eligible voters abroad)[6]
7:00 9:00 11:00 13:00 15:00 17:00 18:30 Overall
1.82% 10.31% 25.77% 40.01% 52.75% 62.92% 67.80% 70.21%

Results by party

2022 Hungary National Assembly.svg
Party Party list Constituency Total
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Seats ±
Fidesz–KDNP 3,060,706 54.13 48 2,823,419 52.52 87 135 +2
United for Hungary 1,947,331 34.44 38 1,983,708 36.90 19 57 –8
Our Homeland Movement 332,487 5.88 6 307,064 5.71 0 6 New
Hungarian Two Tailed Dog Party 185,052 3.27 0 126,648 2.36 0 0 ±0
Solution Movement 58,929 1.04 0 64,341 1.20 0 0 New
Party of Normal Life 39,720 0.70 0 31,495 0.59 0 0 New
Leftist Alliance (ISZOMMMMP) 8,678 0.16 0 0 New
True Democratic Party 989 0.02 0 0 New
Civic Response 521 0.01 0 0 New
Our Party - IMA 326 0.01 0 0 New
Party of Greens 208 0.00 0 0 New
MSZDDSZ 177 0.00 0 0 New
Hungarian Liberal Party 152 0.00 0 0 ±0
National Self-Government of Germans 24,630 0.44 1 1 ±0
National Self-Government of Croats 1,760 0.03 0 0 ±0
National Self-Government of Slovaks 1,208 0.02 0 0 ±0
National Self-Government of Rusyns 645 0.01 0 0 ±0
National Self-Government of Romanians 526 0.01 0 0 ±0
National Self-Government of Serbs 418 0.01 0 0 ±0
National Self-Government of Ukrainians 396 0.01 0 0 ±0
National Self-Government of Poles 281 0.00 0 0 ±0
National Self-Government of Greeks 232 0.00 0 0 ±0
National Self-Government of Slovenes 219 0.00 0 0 ±0
National Self-Government of Armenians 163 0.00 0 0 ±0
National Self-Government of Bulgarians 157 0.00 0 0 ±0
Independents 0 0 –1
Total 100 93 100 106 199 0
Valid votes 5,651,057 98.84
Invalid/blank votes 66,125 1.16
Total 5,717,182 100
Registered voters/turnout 8,215,304[a] 69.59
Source: National Electoral Commission[6]

Result by Constituency

See also: 2022 Hungarian parliamentary election results by constituency

Party list results by county and in the diaspora

County Fidesz-KDNP United for Hungary Our Homeland MKKP MM NÉP Minority lists
Bács-Kiskun 57.25 29.66 7.58 3.08 1.01 0.81
Baranya 49.67 36.08 5.93 3.54 0.93 0.86
Békés 52.81 34.36 7.64 2.62 0.92 0.89
Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén 54.38 34.29 6.89 2.31 0.99 0.78
Budapest 40.84 47.84 4.11 5.19 1.26 0.53
Csongrád-Csanád 47.44 39.69 7.34 3.61 1.10 0.72
Fejér 53.55 33.80 6.62 3.52 1.15 0.76
Győr-Moson-Sopron 57.07 30.83 6.21 3.28 1.33 0.72
Hajdú-Bihar 57.88 30.87 6.60 2.69 1.02 0.83
Heves 54.98 33.37 7.31 2.50 0.97 0.74
Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok 55.58 33.02 7.15 2.45 0.95 0.82
Komárom-Esztergom 50.53 36.32 6.72 3.39 1.11 0.95
Nógrád 59.00 29.27 7.66 2.15 0.80 0.68
Pest 50.88 36.44 5.81 4.05 1.25 0.66
Somogy 56.33 33.48 5.97 2.22 1.02 0.66
Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg 61.66 29.04 5.59 1.64 0.91 0.80
Tolna 58.95 28.49 6.67 2.46 0.90 0.81
Vas 59.94 29.55 5.59 2.89 0.89 0.72
Veszprém 52.57 34.44 6.88 3.39 1.00 0.76
Zala 56.72 31.98 6.63 2.68 0.95 0.94
Total in Hungary 52.45 36.15 6.15 3.42 1.10 0.73
Diaspora 93.89 4.12 1.06 0.61 0.10 0.22
Total 54.13 34.44 5.88 3.27 1.04 0.70


Historical composition of the National Assembly since 1990

  MSZP
  SZDSZ
  Egy.
  LMP
  MLP
  Mom.
  DK
  Par.
  Fidesz
  KDNP
  MDF
  FKGP
  MIÉP
  Jobbik
  MHM
  Others
  Independent
1990–1994
33 93 21 1 9 21 164 44
1994–1998
209 69 1 1 20 22 38 26
1998–2002
134 24 14 1 148 17 48
2002–2006
178 20 164 24
2006–2010
190 20 1 141 23 11
2010–2014
59 16 47 1 227 36
2014–2018
29 1 3 4 1 5 23 117 16
2018–2022
15 5 1 9 8 26 1 117 16
2022–2026
10 6 15 11 5 10 6 1 117 18


The numbers come from the legislature's inaugural session. Later changes may occur:

Prime ministers and their governments since 1989

Parties   MSZMP / MSZP   Fidesz   MDF   Independent

# Picture Name From Until Political Party Cabinet Assembly
(Election)
Miklós Németh
(Provisional)
23 October 1989 23 May 1990 MSZP Németh
MSZP
35
Portrait of József Antall, Jr.tif
József Antall 23 May 1990 12 December 1993
(died)
MDF Antall
MDFFKGPKDNP
1 (1990)
36
Péter Boross 2014.JPG
Péter Boross
(acting)
12 December 1993 21 December 1993 MDF Boross
MDFFKGPKDNP
Péter Boross 21 December 1993 15 July 1994
37
Gyula Horn (2007).jpg
Gyula Horn 15 July 1994 8 July 1998 MSZP Horn
MSZPSZDSZ
2 (1994)
38
Viktor Orbán cropped.jpg
Viktor Orbán 8 July 1998 27 May 2002 Fidesz Orbán I
FideszFKGPMDF
3 (1998)
39
Medgyessy in August 2014 (cropped).JPG
Péter Medgyessy 27 May 2002 29 September 2004
(resigned)
Independent Medgyessy
MSZPSZDSZ
4 (2002)
40
Gyurcsany Ferenc-mszp-2-croped.jpg
Ferenc Gyurcsány 29 September 2004 9 June 2006 MSZP Gyurcsány I
MSZPSZDSZ
9 June 2006 14 April 2009
(resigned)
Gyurcsány II
MSZPSZDSZ[1]
5 (2006)
41
Bajnai Jerusalem.jpg
Gordon Bajnai 14 April 2009 29 May 2010 Independent Bajnai
MSZP[2]
(38)
Viktor Orbán cropped.jpg
Viktor Orbán 29 May 2010 6 June 2014 Fidesz Orbán II
FideszKDNP
6 (2010)
6 June 2014 18 May 2018 Orbán III
FideszKDNP
7 (2014)
18 May 2018 Incumbent Orbán IV
FideszKDNP
8 (2018)

1 SZDSZ left the Gyurcsány II Cabinet on 20 April 2008 and kept supporting it externally.

2 The Bajnai Cabinet was supported externally by SZDSZ.

Local elections

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2008)

Elections for mayors and municipalities (Hungarian: Helyi önkormányzati választások) occur every five years (formerly every four years in the autumn following the general elections). On the local elections, the following are elected directly by the voters:

in Budapest

in the towns/cities with county rank:

in the counties (excluding towns/cities with county rank):

The chairman of the County Council is elected by the members of the Council, unlike the Lord Mayor of Budapest or the Mayors of towns/cities with county rank, which are elected directly by people.

Latest local elections

Main article: 2019 Hungarian local elections

European Parliament elections

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (November 2011)

Since the EU expansion to Romania and Bulgaria, Hungary delegates 22 members to the European Parliament based on the Nice treaty. Any EU citizens with residence in Hungary have the right to vote for a party-list. In case of the EU elections there are no constituency votes.

The latest EP election in Hungary took place on 26 May 2019, which was the fourth one at all, after the 2004 EP election, which took place on 13 June 2004, bit more than a month after the EU expansion to 10 Eastern European countries.

Results:

Summary of the 2004 and 2009 European Parliament elections
Parties Votes 2004 % 2004 Seats 2004 Votes 2009 % 2009 Seats 2009 Difference
National Party European party
Fidesz - Hungarian Civic Union (Fidesz)[b] EPP 1,457,750 47.40 12 1,632,309 56,36 14 +2
Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) PES 1,054,921 34.30 9 503,140 17,37 4 -5
Jobbik none did not run - - 427,773 14,77 3 +3
Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF) ECR 164,025 5.33 1 153,660 5.31 1 0
Politics Can Be Different (LMP)[c] none did not exist - - 75,522 2.61 0 -
Alliance of Free Democrats (SZDSZ) ELDR 237,908 7.74 2 62,527 2.16 0 -2
Hungarian Communist Workers' Party (Munkáspárt) none[d] 56,221 1.83 0 27,817 0.96 0 0
Gypsy Alliance Party (MCF) none did not run - - 13,431 0.46 0 -
Total (turnout 36,31%[e]) 3,075,450 100.0 24 2,896,179 100.0 22
Source: Valasztas.hu

Referenda

The Constitution of Hungary prescribes two ways to hold a referendum (Article 8[7]):

The Constitution imposes a number of prohibitions on matters on which a referendum can be held, including amending Constitution, budget, taxing, obligations from international agreements, military operations, etc.[7]

Required voter turnout for the referendum to be valid is 50%. The decision made by a referendum is binding on the Parliament.[7]

Past referenda

There was one referendum in People's Republic of Hungary: referendum of 1989. There were 4 questions, all 4 passed.

There were 5 referenda in modern Hungary:

Presidential elections (indirect)

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2010)

The President of Hungary, who has a largely ceremonial role under the country's constitution, is elected by the members of the National Assembly to serve for a term of five years (maximum two times), and has to quit their political party (if they have one) in order to be impartial and able to express the unity of the nation (so the "Political Party" column refers to their party membership, prior to becoming president).

Presidents of Hungary:

# Picture Name From Until Political party Notes
Szűrös Mátyás (Heti Válasz).JPG
Mátyás Szűrös 18 October 1989 2 May 1990 Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) interim president

(until the formation of the first freely elected National Assembly)

1
GönczÁrpád.jpg
Árpád Göncz 2 May 1990 4 August 2000 Alliance of Free Democrats (SZDSZ) president of the republic
2
Ferenc Mádl.jpg
Ferenc Mádl 4 August 2000 5 August 2005 Non-partisan president of the republic
3
László Sólyom.jpg
László Sólyom 5 August 2005 6 August 2010 Non-partisan president of the republic
4
Pál Schmitt (2011).jpg
Pál Schmitt 6 August 2010 2 April 2012
(resigned)
Fidesz president of the republic
László Kövér Senate of Poland 01.JPG
László Kövér 2 April 2012 10 May 2012 Fidesz acting president
5
Ader Janos.jpg
János Áder 10 May 2012 Incumbent Fidesz president of the republic

Parties   Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP)   Alliance of Free Democrats (SZDSZ)   Fidesz

The non-partisan Ferenc Mádl had been elected by the Fidesz-FKgp-MDF government in 2000, while the also non-partisan László Sólyom (former President of the Constitutional Court) had been elected president as the opposition Fidesz's and MDF's candidate in 2005. The minor party of the coalition government (SZDSZ) did not support the superior coalition government party's (MSZP) candidate, therefore Mr. Sólyom could win as an opposition candidate.

Past elections

Main article: Hungarian parliamentary election, 2010

The previous general elections (2010) in the country resulted in an overwhelming majority win for the conservative opposition party Fidesz (which gained a 2/3 supermajority by winning the 68% of the seats (52.7% of the votes)), as well the dramatic rise of the far-right newcomers Jobbik (12.2% of seats, 16.7% of votes), who were just 2.5% short of the former ruling Hungarian Socialist Party (15.3% of seats, 19.3% of votes).

The green liberal, social progressivist Politics Can Be Different (4.1% of seats, 7.5% of votes) was also newcomer, while the liberal conservative formerly parliamentary Hungarian Democratic Forum (2.7% of votes) could not achieve the 5% threshold, and the formerly parliamentary (and also member of the coalition government before 2009) Alliance of Free Democrats was not able to run on the election because of the large decrease of popularity.

This election has changed the balance of power in the National Assembly of Hungary the most significantly since the end of the communist one-party system, as two brand new political forces could have got to the National Assembly while two formerly parliamentary parties fell out and the support of previous ruling party had significantly decreased (from 48.2% to 15.3% of seats, from 40.3% to 19.3% of votes).

Electoral system for National Assembly elections between 1990 and 2010

Until 2010, elections for the 386-seat National Assembly (Országgyűlés) involved two separate ballots, two rounds, and three classes of seats: 176 members were elected in single-member districts through a two-round system, and 146 were elected through proportional representation in 20 regional multi-member constituencies (MMCs), in a non-compensatory way (parallel allocation). Finally, 64 nationwide levelling seats were allocated in such a way to correct for discrepancies between votes and seats in the different constituencies[8] (the number of multi-member district seats and levelling seats varied over time; the shares shown here were for the 2010 election). For both MMCs and levelling seats, the electoral threshold was 5% of the MMC vote. (Where two parties presented a joint list, their threshold was 10%; for three or more joined parties, the threshold was 15%.)

The second round would be held two weeks after the first, in situations where no candidate in the single-member district won and/or where the MMC result was invalidated due to low turnout.

First round

In the first round, each voter may cast

After the polls close:

Second round

In the second round, each voter may cast

After the polls close:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ This number consists of 7,693,695 Hungarians eligible to vote within Hungary, plus 65,480 Hungarians eligible to vote at consulates and embassies abroad, plus 456,129 people eligible to vote by mail abroad.
  2. ^ Common list with the Christian Democratic People's Party (KDNP) in the 2009 election
  3. ^ Common list with the Humanist Party (HP)
  4. ^ The Hungarian Communist Workers' Party left the European Left in May.
  5. ^ In the previous election in 2004 turnout was 38.5%

References

  1. ^ "The New Electoral Law in Hungary: In-Depth Analysis" (PDF). Political Capital Institute. Retrieved 2018-04-08.
  2. ^ "Az új választókerületek népesség-arányai".
  3. ^ "Under pressure, Hungary PM drops contested voting rules". Reuters. 4 January 2013.
  4. ^ "Hungarian voter registration found unconstitutional".
  5. ^ "10. A megüresedett mandátum betöltése". Nemzeti Választási Iroda - (in Hungarian).
  6. ^ a b "Nemzeti Választási Iroda - Országgyűlési Választás 2022" [National Electoral Commission - Election of National Assembly Representatives 2022] (in Hungarian). 16 April 2022. Archived from the original on 22 April 2022.
  7. ^ a b c "The Fundamental Law of Hungary" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-01-02. Retrieved 2013-11-02.
  8. ^ Nathan Schackow, 2014, "Hungary's Changing Electoral System: Reform or Repression Inside theEuropean Union? p. 4.