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The politics of Hungary takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic. The prime minister is the head of government of a pluriform multi-party system, while the president is the head of state and holds a largely ceremonial position.

Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the parliament. The party system since the last elections has been dominated by the conservative Fidesz. The three larger oppositions are Democratic Coalition (DK), Momentum and Jobbik; there are also opposition parties with a small fraction in parliament (e.g. Politics Can Be Different). The judiciary is theoretically independent of the executive and the legislature, but in practice is strongly influenced by the ruling Fidesz Party.[1]

Hungary is an independent state, which has been a member of the European Union since 2004. Since 1989 Hungary has been a parliamentary republic. Legislative power is exercised by the unicameral National Assembly that consists of 199 members. Members of the National Assembly are elected for four years.

The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Hungary a "flawed democracy" in 2020.[2] With a democracy score of 3.96/7, Freedom House no longer considers Hungary a democracy.[3]

In the April 2022 election, Prime Minister Viktor Orbán won a fourth consecutive term in office. His party, Fidesz, secured another two-thirds majority in parliament.[4]

Executive branch

Main office-holders
Office Name Party Since
President Katalin Novák Fidesz 10 May 2022
Prime Minister Viktor Orbán Fidesz 29 May 2010

The president of the republic, elected by the National Assembly every five years, has a largely ceremonial role, but they are nominally the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and their powers include the nomination of the prime minister, who is to be elected by a majority of the votes of the members of Parliament, based on the recommendation made by the president of the republic. If the president dies, resigns or is otherwise unable to carry out his duties, the speaker of the National Assembly becomes acting president.

Due to the Hungarian Constitution, based on the post-World War II Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany, the prime minister has a leading role in the executive branch as he selects Cabinet ministers and has the exclusive right to dismiss them (similarly to the competences of the German federal chancellor). Each cabinet nominee appears before one or more parliamentary committees in consultative open hearings, survive a vote by the Parliament and must be formally approved by the president.

In Communist Hungary, the executive branch of the Hungarian People's Republic was represented by the Council of Ministers.

Legislative branch

Main article: Elections in Hungary

Parliament of Hungary.

The unicameral, 199-member National Assembly (Országgyűlés) is the highest organ of state authority and initiates and approves legislation sponsored by the prime minister. Its members are elected for a four-year term. The election threshold is 5%, but it only applies to the multi-seat constituencies and the compensation seats, not the single-seat constituencies.

Political parties and elections

For other political parties, see List of political parties in Hungary. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Hungary.

Turnout (within Hungary only, excluding eligible voters abroad)[5]
7:00 9:00 11:00 13:00 15:00 17:00 18:30 Overall
1.82% 10.31% 25.77% 40.01% 52.75% 62.92% 67.80% 70.21%
PartyParty-listConstituencyTotal
seats
+/–
Votes%SeatsVotes%Seats
FideszKDNP3,060,70654.13482,823,41952.8087135+2
United for Hungary1,947,33134.44381,983,70837.091957–8
Our Homeland Movement332,4875.886307,0645.7406New
Hungarian Two-Tailed Dog Party185,0523.270126,6482.37000
Solution Movement58,9291.04064,3411.2000New
Party of Normal Life39,7200.70031,4950.5900New
National Self-Government of Germans24,6300.44110
National Self-Government of Croats1,7600.03000
National Self-Government of Slovaks1,2080.02000
National Self-Government of Rusyns6450.01000
National Self-Government of Romanians5260.01000
National Self-Government of Serbs4180.01000
National Self-Government of Ukrainians3960.01000
National Self-Government of Poles2810.00000
National Self-Government of Greeks2320.00000
National Self-Government of Slovenes2190.00000
National Self-Government of Armenians1630.00000
National Self-Government of Bulgarians1570.00000
Leftist Alliance (ISZOMMMMP)8,6780.1600New
True Democratic Party9890.0200New
Civic Response5210.0100New
Our Party – IMA3260.0100New
Party of Greens2080.0000New
Democratic Organisation of the Hungarian Poor and Workers1770.0000New
Hungarian Liberal Party1520.00000
Total5,654,860100.00935,347,726100.001061990
Valid votes5,654,86099.00
Invalid/blank votes57,0651.00
Total votes5,711,925100.00
Registered voters/turnout8,215,30469.53
Source: National Electoral Commission,[5] National Electoral Commission

Result by constituency

See also: 2022 Hungarian parliamentary election results by constituency

Party list results by county and in the diaspora

County[6] Fidesz-KDNP United for Hungary Our Homeland MKKP MM NÉP Minority lists
Bács-Kiskun 57.25 29.66 7.58 3.08 1.01 0.81
Baranya 49.67 36.08 5.93 3.54 0.93 0.86
Békés 52.81 34.36 7.64 2.62 0.92 0.89
Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén 54.38 34.29 6.89 2.31 0.99 0.78
Budapest 40.84 47.84 4.11 5.19 1.26 0.53
Csongrád-Csanád 47.44 39.69 7.34 3.61 1.10 0.72
Fejér 53.55 33.80 6.62 3.52 1.15 0.76
Győr-Moson-Sopron 57.07 30.83 6.21 3.28 1.33 0.72
Hajdú-Bihar 57.88 30.87 6.60 2.69 1.02 0.83
Heves 54.98 33.37 7.31 2.50 0.97 0.74
Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok 55.58 33.02 7.15 2.45 0.95 0.82
Komárom-Esztergom 50.53 36.32 6.72 3.39 1.11 0.95
Nógrád 59.00 29.27 7.66 2.15 0.80 0.68
Pest 50.88 36.44 5.81 4.05 1.25 0.66
Somogy 56.33 33.48 5.97 2.22 1.02 0.66
Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg 61.66 29.04 5.59 1.64 0.91 0.80
Tolna 58.95 28.49 6.67 2.46 0.90 0.81
Vas 59.94 29.55 5.59 2.89 0.89 0.72
Veszprém 52.57 34.44 6.88 3.39 1.00 0.76
Zala 56.72 31.98 6.63 2.68 0.95 0.94
Total in Hungary 52.45 36.15 6.15 3.42 1.10 0.73
Diaspora 93.89 4.12 1.06 0.61 0.10 0.22
Total 54.13 34.44 5.88 3.27 1.04 0.70

There are basically two main factions in the Hungarian political system, the right-wing FIDESZ-KDNP coalition, and the center-right to left-wing United for Hungary which consists of the following parties: DK, MSZP, Jobbik, Dialogue, LMP-Greens, Momentum. There are also associate parties and movements such as ÚVNP, Liberals, New Start, MMM movement, 99M movement. There are also some minor parties which are not part of these two coalitions such as the far-right Our Homeland Movement, and the joke party called Hungarian Two Tailed Dog Party. Most of the Hungarian church also is involved with politics.

Judicial branches

Constitutional Court of Hungary.

A fifteen-member Constitutional Court has power to challenge legislation on grounds of unconstitutionality. This body was last filled in July 2010. Members are elected for a term of twelve years. Critics of the ruling coalition contend that since the Hungarian government filled the Constitutional Court with loyal judges, the institution mostly serves to legitimize government interests and has lost its original purpose as democratic defender of the rule of law and of human rights - as several reports of independent human rights NGOs, such as the Hungarian Helsinki Committee emphasize.[7]

The president of the Supreme Court of Hungary (Curia) and the Hungarian civil and penal legal system he leads is fully independent of the Executive Branch.

The attorney general or chief prosecutor of Hungary is currently fully independent of the executive branch, but his status is actively debated.

Several ombudsman offices exist in Hungary to protect civil, minority, educational and ecological rights in non-judicial matters. They have held the authority to issue legally binding decisions since late 2003.

Financial branch

The central bank, the Hungarian National Bank was fully self-governing between 1990 and 2004, but new legislation gave certain appointment rights to the executive branch in November 2004 which is disputed before the Constitutional Court.

Administrative divisions

Hungary is divided in 19 counties (megyék, singular – megye), 23 urban counties* (megyei jogú városok, singular – megyei jogú város), and 1 capital city** (főváros); Bács-Kiskun, Baranya, Békés, Békéscsaba*, Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Budapest**, Csongrád, Debrecen*, Dunaújváros*, Eger*, Érd*, Fejér, Győr*, Győr-Moson-Sopron, Hajdú-Bihar, Heves, Hódmezővásárhely*, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvár*, Kecskemét*, Komárom-Esztergom, Miskolc*, Nagykanizsa*, Nógrád, Nyíregyháza*, Pécs*, Pest, Salgótarján*, Somogy, Sopron*, Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, Szeged*, Szekszárd*, Székesfehérvár*, Szolnok*, Szombathely*, Tatabánya*, Tolna, Vas, Veszprém, Veszprém*, Zala, Zalaegerszeg*

Involvement in international organisations

Hungary is a member of the ABEDA, Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, CERN, CEPI EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (member, as by 1 May 2004), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, ITUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNOMIG, UNU, UPU, WCO, WFTU, Visegrád Group, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, and the Zangger Committee.

Ministries

Note: with restructuring and reorganisation, this information may change even within a governmental period.

Ministries of Hungary[8]
English name Hungarian name Minister
The Prime Minister's Office Miniszterelnökség Gergely Gulyás
The Prime Minister's Cabinet Office A Miniszterelnöki Kabinetiroda Antal Rogán
Ministry of Home Affairs Belügyminisztérium Sándor Pintér
Ministry of Defence Honvédelmi Minisztérium Tibor Benkő
Ministry of Human Resources Emberi Erőforrások Minisztériuma Miklós Kásler
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade Külgazdasági és Külügyminisztérium Péter Szijjártó
Ministry of Justice Igazságügyi Minisztérium Judit Varga
Ministry of Finance Pénzügyminisztérium Mihály Varga
Ministry of Agriculture Agrárminisztérium István Nagy
Ministry of Innovation and Technology Innovációs és Technológiai Minisztérium László Palkovics

Ministers without portfolio

Notes

References

  1. ^ "Hungary: Status of the Hungarian Judiciary – Legal Changes have to Guarantee the Independence of Judiciary in Hungary".
  2. ^ "Democracy Index 2020". Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
  3. ^ "Hungary: Nations in Transit 2020". FreedomHouse.org. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
  4. ^ Dougall, David Mac; Palfi, Rita (3 April 2022). "Key Takeaways as Viktor Orbán Wins Fourth Consecutive Term". Euronews. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  5. ^ a b "Nemzeti Választási Iroda - Országgyűlési Választás 2022" [National Electoral Commission - Election of National Assembly Representatives 2022] (in Hungarian). 16 April 2022. Archived from the original on 22 April 2022.
  6. ^ "Országgyűlési képviselők választása 2022 - országos listás szavazás eredménye". valasztas.hu.
  7. ^ https://helsinki.hu/en/hungarys-government-has-taken-control-of-the-constitutional-court/
  8. ^ "Government Members". The Hungarian Prime Minister's Office. Archived from the original on 5 February 2004. Retrieved 31 January 2010.