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Politics of Hungary takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic. The Prime Minister is the head of government of a pluriform multi-party system, while the President is the head of state and holds a largely ceremonial position.

Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the parliament. The party system since the last elections is dominated by the conservative Fidesz. The two larger oppositions are Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) and Jobbik; there are also opposition parties with no formal faction but representation in parliament (e. g. Politics Can Be Different) The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

Hungary is an independent, democratic and constitutional state, which has been a member of the European Union since 2004. Since 1989 Hungary has been a parliamentary republic. Legislative power is exercised by the unicameral National Assembly that consists of 199 members. Members of the National Assembly are elected for four years.

The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Hungary a "flawed democracy" in 2020.[1]

Executive branch

Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President János Áder Fidesz 10 May 2012
Prime Minister Viktor Orbán Fidesz 29 May 2010

The President of the Republic, elected by the National Assembly every five years, has a largely ceremonial role, but he is nominally the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces and his powers include the nomination of the Prime Minister who is to be elected by a majority of the votes of the Members of Parliament, based on the recommendation made by the President of the Republic. If the President dies, resigns or is otherwise unable to carry out his duties, the Speaker of the National Assembly becomes acting President.

Due to the Hungarian Constitution, based on the post-World War II Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany, the Prime Minister has a leading role in the executive branch as he selects Cabinet ministers and has the exclusive right to dismiss them (similarly to the competences of the German federal chancellor). Each cabinet nominee appears before one or more parliamentary committees in consultative open hearings, survive a vote by the Parliament and must be formally approved by the president.

In Communist Hungary, the executive branch of the People's Republic of Hungary was represented by the Council of Ministers.

Legislative branch

Main article: Elections in Hungary

Parliament of Hungary.

The unicameral, 199-member National Assembly (Országgyűlés) is the highest organ of state authority and initiates and approves legislation sponsored by the prime minister. Its members are elected for a four-year term. The election threshold is 5%, but it only applies to the multi-seat constituencies and the compensation seats, not the single-seat constituencies.

Political parties and elections

For other political parties, see List of political parties in Hungary. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Hungary.

Party Party lists FPTP Total
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Seats ±
Fidesz–KDNP 2,824,551 49.27 42 2,636,201 47.89 91 133 0
Jobbik – Movement for a Better Hungary 1,092,806 19.06 25 1,276,840 23.20 1 26 +3
Hungarian Socialist PartyDialogue for Hungary 682,701 11.91 12 622,458 11.31 8 20 –10
Politics Can Be Different 404,429 7.06 7 312,731 5.68 1 8 +3
Democratic Coalition 308,161 5.38 6 348,176 6.33 3 9 +5
Momentum Movement 175,229 3.06 0 75,033 1.36 0 0 New
Hungarian Two Tailed Dog Party 99,414 1.73 0 39,763 0.72 0 0 New
Together 37,562 0.66 0 58,591 1.06 1 1 –2
National Self-Government of Germans in Hungary 26,477 0.46 1 1 +1
Hungarian Workers' Party 15,640 0.27 0 13,613 0.25 0 0 0
Family Party 10,641 0.19 0 9,839 0.18 0 0 0
Hungarian Justice and Life Party 8,712 0.15 0 6,897 0.13 0 0 0
Party for a Fit and Healthy Hungary 7,309 0.13 0 5,523 0.10 0 0 0
National Self-Government of Gypsies 5,703 0.10 0 0 0
Tenni Akarás Mozgalom 5,312 0.09 0 1,177 0.02 0 0 New
Gypsy Party of Hungary 4,109 0.07 0 3,700 0.07 0 0 0
Common Ground 3,894 0.07 0 3,319 0.06 0 0 New
For Hungary's Poor People 3,048 0.05 0 3,283 0.06 0 0 New
We need Cooperation Party 2,722 0.05 0 2,659 0.05 0 0 New
Iránytű 2,001 0.03 0 1,679 0.03 0 0 New
National Self-Government of Croats 1,743 0.03 0 0 0
Order Party 1,708 0.03 0 1,416 0.03 0 0 0
Unity Party 1,407 0.02 0 3,167 0.06 0 0 0
Medete Party 1,292 0.02 0 2,166 0.04 0 0 New
National Self-Government of Slovaks 1,245 0.02 0 0 New
EU.ROM 1,003 0.02 0 1,471 0.03 0 0 0
NP 1,100 0.02 0 713 0.01 0 0 New
National Self-Government of Russians 539 0.01 0 0 New
National Authority of Roma in Hungary 428 0.01 0 0 0
National Self-Government of Serbs 296 0.01 0 0 0
National Self-Government of Ukrainians 270 0.00 0 0 0
National Self-Government of Poles 210 0.00 0 0 0
National Self-Government of Slovenes 199 0.00 0 0 0
National Authority of Hungarian Churches 159 0.00 0 0 0
National Self-Government of Armenians 159 0.00 0 0 0
National Self-Government of Bulgarians 104 0.00 0 0 0
The Motherland Party 1,980 0.04 0 0 0
Democratic Party 1,679 0.03 0 0 New
Independent Smallholders' Party 1,580 0.03 0 0 0
Lendülettel 1,377 0.03 0 0 New
Miszep 1,158 0.02 0 0 New
Go Hungary! 1,120 0.02 0 0 New
Értünk Értetek 1,033 0.02 0 0 New
ÚMF 780 0.01 0 0 New
Nation and Peace 767 0.01 0 0 New
Modern Hungary Movement 617 0.01 0 0 New
OP 613 0.01 0 0 New
SZP 554 0.01 0 0 New
Democratic Party for Hungary 498 0.01 0 0 New
IMA 477 0.01 0 0 New
MINŐKP 411 0.01 0 0 New
NEEM 350 0.01 0 0 New
TAMP 344 0.01 0 0 New
EMMO 316 0.01 0 0 New
HHP 255 0.00 0 0 New
DMP 248 0.00 0 0 New
EP 244 0.00 0 0 0
JÓ ÚT MPP 226 0.00 0 0 New
AQP 192 0.00 0 0 0
ECDP 187 0.00 0 0 New
Everyone's Homeland 180 0.00 0 0 New
ERP 169 0.00 0 0 New
ÉBMP 168 0.00 0 0 New
Hungarian Democratic Union 149 0.00 0 0 New
OCP 125 0.00 0 0 New
KEDN 118 0.00 0 0 New
Opre Roma 114 0.00 0 0 New
MMM 104 0.00 0 0 New
FITIP 91 0.00 0 0 New
JMP 64 0.00 0 0 New
National Greens 53 0.00 0 0 New
Oxygen Party 37 0.00 0 0 New
Civil Movement 35 0.00 0 0 New
KPP 35 0.00 0 0 New
HAM 22 0.00 0 0 New
NOP 18 0.00 0 0 0
EU Alternative 15 0.00 0 0 New
Independents 55,612 1.01 1 1 +1
Total 5,732,283 100 93 5,504,530 100 106 199 0
Valid votes 5,732,283 98.97
Invalid/blank votes 59,585 1.03
Total 5,791,868 100
Registered voters/turnout 8,312,173 70.22
Source: National Election Office

Judicial branches

Constitutional Court of Hungary.

A fifteen-member Constitutional Court has power to challenge legislation on grounds of unconstitutionality. This body was last filled on July 2010. Members are elected for a term of twelve years.

The President of the Supreme Court of Hungary and the Hungarian civil and penal legal system he leads is fully independent of the Executive Branch.

The Attorney General or Chief Prosecutor of Hungary is currently fully independent of the Executive Branch, but his status is actively debated

Several ombudsman offices exist in Hungary to protect civil, minority, educational and ecological rights in non-judicial matters. They have held the authority to issue legally binding decisions since late 2003.

Financial branch

The central bank, the Hungarian National Bank was fully self-governing between 1990–2004, but new legislation gave certain appointment rights to the Executive Branch in November 2004 which is disputed before the Constitutional Court.

Administrative divisions

Hungary is divided in 19 counties (megyék, singular - megye), 23 urban counties* (megyei jogú városok, singular - megyei jogú város), and 1 capital city** (főváros); Bács-Kiskun, Baranya, Békés, Békéscsaba*, Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Budapest**, Csongrád, Debrecen*, Dunaújváros*, Eger*, Érd*, Fejér, Győr*, Győr-Moson-Sopron, Hajdú-Bihar, Heves, Hódmezővásárhely*, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvár*, Kecskemét*, Komárom-Esztergom, Miskolc*, Nagykanizsa*, Nógrád, Nyíregyháza*, Pécs*, Pest, Salgótarján*, Somogy, Sopron*, Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, Szeged*, Szekszárd*, Székesfehérvár*, Szolnok*, Szombathely*, Tatabánya*, Tolna, Vas, Veszprém, Veszprém*, Zala, Zalaegerszeg*

Involvement in International Organisations

Hungary is a member of the ABEDA, Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, CERN, CEPI EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (member, as by 1 May 2004), FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, ITUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNOMIG, UNU, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, Visegrád group, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, and the Zangger Committee.

Ministries

Note: with restructuring and reorganization, this information may change even within a governmental period.

Ministries of Hungary[2]
English name Hungarian name Minister
The Prime Minister's Office Miniszterelnökség Gergely Gulyás
The Prime Minister's Cabinet Office A Miniszterelnöki Kabinetiroda Antal Rogán
Ministry of Home Affairs Belügyminisztérium Sándor Pintér
Ministry of Defence Honvédelmi Minisztérium Tibor Benkő
Ministry of Human Resources Emberi Erőforrások Minisztériuma Miklós Kásler
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade Külgazdasági és Külügyminisztérium Péter Szijjártó
Ministry of Justice Igazságügyi Minisztérium Judit Varga
Ministry of Finance Pénzügyminisztérium Mihály Varga
Ministry of agriculture Agrárminisztérium István Nagy
Ministry of Innovation and Technology Innovációs és Technológiai Minisztérium László Palkovics

Ministers without portfolio

Notes

References

  1. ^ "Democracy Index 2020". Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
  2. ^ Website of the Prime Minister's Office. Retrieved 31 January 2010.