Politics in Portugal operates as a unitary multi-party semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Portugal is the head of government, and the President of Portugal is the non-executive head of state with several significant political powers they exercise often.[1] Executive power is exercised by the Government, whose leader is the prime minister. Legislative power is primarily vested in the Assembly of the Republic (the Portuguese parliament), although the government is also able to legislate on certain matters.[2] The Judiciary of Portugal is independent of the executive and the legislature. The President exerts a sort of "moderating power", not easily classified into any of the traditional three branches of government.[1]

Since 1975, the party system has been dominated by the social democratic Socialist Party and the liberal-conservative Social Democratic Party.

According to the V-Dem Democracy indices Portugal was 2023 the 20th most electoral democratic country in the world.[3]

Political background

The national and regional governments are dominated by two political parties, the centre-left Socialist Party (PS), a Social democracy party and the centre-right, liberal conservative Social Democratic Party (PSD), which have similar basic policies in some respects: both are European, support NATO membership, welfare state and market economy. Other parties with seats in the parliament are CHEGA, the Portuguese Communist Party, the Left Bloc, the Ecologist Party "The Greens", LIVRE , and People-Animals-Nature. The Communists and the Greens are in coalition as the Unitary Democratic Coalition.

In the Portuguese legislative election of 2011, the PSD won enough seats to form a majority government with the CDS-PP. The coalition, led by Prime Minister Pedro Passos Coelho, was supported by a majority in the Parliament of 132 MPs. The major opposition party was the Socialist Party (the party of the former prime minister José Sócrates, in office 2005–2011) with 74 MPs. Also represented were the Portuguese Communist Party (14 MPs), "The Greens" (2 MPs) and the Left Bloc (8 MPs), all to the left of the governing coalition.

In the 2015 elections, which the PSD and People's Party (CDS-PP) contested as a coalition, Portugal Ahead, the government lost its absolute majority. The left-wing parties, the Socialist Party, Portuguese Communist Party, Ecologist Party "The Greens", and Left Bloc, argued that as they were willing to form a coalition which would have a majority in the assembly, they ought to be invited to form the government, while Portugal Ahead, as the largest grouping, argued that they should be invited to form the government. After three weeks of uncertainty, the President designated Passos Coelho as prime minister, which was followed by the formation of a minority government. However, the Government Programmed was rejected by the Parliament. It was the shortest-lived Portuguese national government since the Carnation Revolution. Since then, the left-wing parties, led by the Socialist Party (PS), have formed the government. On 26 November 2015, there was established a PS minority government led by Prime Minister António Costa.

In the Portuguese legislative of 2019, the centre-left PS of incumbent Prime Minister Costa obtained the largest share of the vote, and the most seats. On 26 October 2019, there was established a new PS minority government led by Prime Minister António Costa. In the snap 2022 election the ruling PS won an outright majority.

History

The São Bento Palace, home to the Portuguese Assembly of the Republic, in Lisbon

The first constitution was created in 1822 (following the Liberal Revolution of 1820),[4] followed by a second in 1826, followed by a third in 1838 (after the Liberal Wars),[5] a fourth in 1911 (following the 5 October 1910 revolution),[5] and a fifth 1933 (after the 28 May 1926 coup d'état).[5]

Portugal's 25 April 1976 constitution reflected the country's 1974–76 move from authoritarian rule to provisional military government to a representative democracy with some initial Communist and left-wing influence. The military coup in 1974, which became known as the Carnation Revolution, was a result of multiple internal and external factors like the colonial wars that ended in removing the dictator, Marcelo Caetano, from power. The prospect of a communist takeover in Portugal generated considerable concern among the country's NATO allies. The revolution also led to the country abruptly abandoning its colonies overseas and to the return of an estimated 600,000 Portuguese citizens from abroad. The 1976 constitution, which defined Portugal as a "Republic... engaged in the formation of a classless society," was revised in 1982, 1989, 1992, 1997, 2001, and 2004.

The 1982 revision of the constitution placed the military under strict civilian control, trimmed the powers of the president, and abolished the Revolutionary Council (a military body with legislative veto and quasi-judicial powers). The country joined the European Union in 1986, beginning a path toward greater economic and political integration with its richer neighbors in Europe. The 1989 revision of the constitution eliminated much of the remaining Marxist rhetoric of the original document, abolished the communist-inspired "agrarian reform", and laid the groundwork for further privatization of nationalized firms and the government-owned communications media. The 1992 revision made it compatible with the Maastricht Treaty.

The current Portuguese constitution provides for progressive administrative decentralization and calls for future reorganization on a regional basis. The Azores and Madeira archipelagos have constitutionally mandated autonomous status. A regional autonomy statute promulgated in 1980 established the Government of the Autonomous Region of the Azores; the Government of the Autonomous Region of Madeira operates under a provisional autonomy statute in effect since 1976. Apart from the Azores and Madeira, the country is divided into 18 districts, each headed by a governor appointed by the Minister of Internal Administration. Macau, a former dependency, reverted to Chinese sovereignty in December 1999.

I and II Constitutional Governments (1976–1978)

The Socialist Party, under the leadership of Mário Soares, rose to power after the 1976 legislative elections and formed the I Constitutional Government. However, this government faced a lot of problems due to the country's economic situation, and in 1978, the II Constitutional Government, a coalition between the Socialists and the Democratic and Social Centre, was sworn in. The coalition only lasted eight months and Mário Soares resigned.[6]

III, IV and V Constitutional Governments (1978–1980)

President Eanes then nominated the III Constitutional Government, under the leadership of Alfredo Nobre da Costa, which was sworn in on late August 1978, but lasted just three months as it failed to gain Parliamentary support.[7]

The IV Constitutional Government, under the leadership of Carlos Mota Pinto, was sworn in on late November 1978, but, like the previous government, lasted very little, eight months, due to its failure to pass policies in Parliament.[8]

The President then sworn in the V Constitutional Government, under the leadership of Maria de Lourdes Pintasilgo, the first and still only female Prime Minister in Portuguese history. The government managed the country until the early elections of December 1979.[9]

VI, VII, VIII Constitutional Governments (1980–1983)

The Democratic Alliance, under the leadership of Francisco Sá Carneiro, won the 1979 legislative elections by a big margin and the VI Constitutional Government was sworn in on January 1980. Sá Carneiro's tenure was short lived as he died in a tragic plane crash in December 1980.[10]

In January 1981, the Social Democratic Party, the main party within the Democratic Alliance, elected Francisco Pinto Balsemão as leader and the VII Constitutional Government was sworn in.[11] Internal issues within the Alliance forced a new government to take office, the VIII Constitutional Government, in September 1981, also led by Pinto Balsemão. Balsemão resigned in late 1982.[12]

XI Constitutional Government (1983–1985)

The Socialist Party, under the leadership of Mário Soares, returned to power after the 1983 legislative election and formed a Central Bloc government, the IX Constitutional Government, between the two main parties, the Socialists and the Social Democrats. Soares resigned in June 1985 after the Social Democrats withdrew from government.[13]

X, XI and XII Constitutional Governments (1985–1995)

The Social Democratic Party, under the leadership of Aníbal Cavaco Silva, rose to power after the 1985 legislative elections and formed a minority government. However, the government lost the confidence of Parliament in April 1987 after losing a non-confidence vote.[14] After this, President Mário Soares called an early election for July 1987.

The 1987 early elections were held on 19 July and resulted in a landslide majority government for the Social Democrats, the first time a party won a majority on its own in democracy.[15] The XI Constitutional Government, the first one to finish a full 4-year term in democracy, was sworn in on 17 August 1987. During this term, the PSD government initiated a big program of liberalization and privatization of several sectors of the economy.[16]

In the 1991 election the Social Democrats were returned again to power and, also, with an absolute majority. It was the third consecutive election victory for the PSD, a record in democracy. The XII Constitutional Government was sworn in on 31 October 1991. After 1992, the economy fell into a recession and despite the recession being over by mid 1994, the government was badly hit and Cavaco Silva decided to not run for a fourth term as prime minister.[17] Cavaco Silva's 10-year tenure as prime minister is the longest, so far, in democracy.[18]

XIII and XIV Constitutional Governments (1995–2002)

The Socialist Party, under the leadership of António Guterres, came to power following the October 1995 legislative elections. The Socialists later won a new mandate by winning exactly half the parliamentary seats in the October 1999 election, and constituting then the XIV Constitutional Government. Socialist Jorge Sampaio won the February 1996 presidential elections with nearly 54% of the vote. Sampaio's election marked the first time since the 1974 revolution that a single party held the prime ministership, the presidency, and a plurality of the municipalities. Local elections were held in December 1997.

Prime Minister Guterres continued the privatization and modernization policies initiated by his predecessor, Aníbal Cavaco Silva (in office 1985–1995) of the Social Democratic Party. Guterres was a vigorous proponent of the effort to include Portugal in the first round of countries to collaborate and put into effect the euro in 1999. In international relations, Guterres pursued strong ties with the United States and greater Portuguese integration with the European Union while continuing to raise Portugal's profile through an activist foreign policy. One of his first decisions as prime minister was to send 900 troops to participate in the IFOR peacekeeping mission in Bosnia. Portugal later contributed 320 troops to SFOR, the follow-up Bosnia operation. Portugal also contributed aircraft and personnel to NATO's Operation Allied Force in Kosovo. Guterres resigned in December 2001 after a disappointing result in the local elections.[19]

XV Constitutional Government (2002–2004)

Following the results of the 2002 early election, the XV Constitutional Government, led by José Manuel Durão Barroso, leader of the Social Democratic Party, in coalition with the People's Party, whose leader, Paulo Portas, became Minister of Defence, was sworn in on April 2002. This government lasted two years because, in June 2004, Durão Barroso announced his resignation in order to become President of the European Commission.[20]

XVI Constitutional Government (2004–2005)

After José Manuel Durão Barroso accepted the invitation to be the next European Commission President, a new government had to be formed. Though opposition parties called for general elections, President Jorge Sampaio named Pedro Santana Lopes, the new Social Democratic Party leader, as prime minister, who thus formed a new government, in coalition with the People's Party. However, in December 2004, due to several controversies involving the government, the President dissolved the parliament and called for early elections. Santana Lopes resigned after the announcement of the President's decision.

XVII and XVIII Constitutional Governments (2005–2011)

In the elections on 20 February, the Socialist Party obtained its largest victory ever, achieving an absolute majority for the first time in the party's history. Prime Minister José Sócrates was sworn in by President Jorge Sampaio on 12 March. To many's surprise, Sócrates formed a cabinet made up of roughly half senior members of the Socialist Party and half independents, notably including Diogo Freitas do Amaral, founder of the right wing People's Party, who assumed office as Ministry of Foreign Affairs (he later resigned due to personal issues).

In the elections on 27 September 2009, The Socialist Party, led by incumbent Prime Minister José Sócrates, won the largest number of seats, but did not repeat the overall majority they gained in 2005. Sócrates was reconducted but lost his majority. The 2010 European debt crisis led Portugal to ask for a bailout from the IMF and the European Union. This situation led to the resignation of José Sócrates as prime minister and the President dissolved parliament and called an early election for June 2011.

XIX and XX Constitutional Governments (2011–2015)

In the elections held on 5 June 2011, the Social Democratic Party won enough seats to form a majority government with the People's Party. The Government was led by Pedro Passos Coelho. It had 11 ministers and was sworn in on 21 June.

The Portuguese legislative election of 2015 was held on 4 October. The results display a relative victory of the right-wing coalition, but they also display a combined victory of the left-wing parties (including the Socialist Party), with a hung parliament (a right-wing single winner and a left-wing majority parliament). After the election, the XX Constitutional Government of Portugal had Pedro Passos Coelho (PSD) as the prime minister and lasted from 30 October 2015 to 26 November 2015. However, the Government Programme was rejected by the Parliament. It was the shortest-lived Portuguese national government since the Carnation Revolution.

XXI, XXII and XXIII Constitutitional Governments (2015–)

The 21st cabinet of the Portuguese government since the establishment of the current constitution. It was established on 26 November 2015 as a Socialist Party (PS) minority government led by Prime Minister António Costa.

The Portuguese legislative election of 2019 was held on 6 October 2019. The centre-left Socialist Party (PS) of incumbent Prime Minister Costa obtained the largest share of the vote, and the most seats. The XXII Constitutional Government of Portugal was sworn in on 26 October 2019 as a Socialist Party (PS) minority government led by Prime Minister António Costa. In October 2021, the budget proposed by the government was rejected by Parliament, leading President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa to call an early election for January 2022.[21]

The 2022 early elections were held on 30 January 2022. The election resulted in an absolute majority for the Socialist Party, the second in its history.[22] However, the government swearing in was postponed because of a rerun in the overseas constituency of Europe, and the XXIII Constitutitional Government, led by Prime Minister António Costa, was only sworn in on 30 March 2022.[23] António Costa resigned on 7 November 2023, following the Operation Influencer police searches into government contracts surrounding lithium and hydrogen businesses.[24] The President dissolved parliament and called early elections.[25]

Political powers

Government in Portugal is made up of three branches originally envisioned by enlightenment philosopher Baron de Montesquieu: executive, legislative, and judicial. Each branch is separate and is designed to keep checks and balances on the others. The President's powers, however, do not fall into either of the traditional three, forming instead a sort of "moderating power" over the legislature and the government.[1]

The four main organs of the national government are the presidency, the prime minister and Council of Ministers (the government), the Assembly of the Republic (the parliament), and the judiciary.

President

Belém Palace, the official residence of the President.

The President, elected to a 5-year term by direct, universal suffrage, is also commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Presidential powers include appointing the prime minister and Council of Ministers, in which the President must be guided by the assembly election results; dismissing the prime minister; dissolving the assembly to call early elections; vetoing legislation, which may be overridden by the assembly; and declaring a state of war or siege.

The Council of State, a presidential advisory body, is composed of:[26]

The president, according to the election results, names the party that shall form a government, whose leader is appointed prime minister. The prime minister names the Council of Ministers, and the ministers name their Secretaries of State. A new government is required to define the broad outline of its policy in a program and present it to the assembly for a mandatory period of debate. Failure of the assembly to reject the program by a majority of deputies confirms the government in office.

Main office-holders
Office Name Party Since
President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa Social Democratic Party 9 March 2016
Prime Minister António Costa Socialist Party 26 November 2015

Presidential elections

Main article: 2021 Portuguese presidential election

Summary of the 24 January 2021 Portuguese presidential election results
Candidates Supporting parties First round
Votes %
Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa Social Democratic Party, People's Party 2,531,692 60.66
Ana Gomes People–Animals–Nature, LIVRE 540,823 12.96
André Ventura CHEGA 497,746 11.93
João Ferreira Portuguese Communist Party, Ecologist Party "The Greens" 179,764 4.31
Marisa Matias Left Bloc, Socialist Alternative Movement 165,127 3.96
Tiago Mayan Gonçalves Liberal Initiative 134,991 3.23
Vitorino Silva React, Include, Recycle 123,031 2.95
Total valid 4,173,174 100.00
Blank ballots 47,164 1.11
[a]Invalid ballots 38,018 0.89
Total 4,258,356
Registered voters/turnout 10,847,434 39.26
Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições

Legislative branch

São Bento Palace, the meeting place of Parliament.

Legislative power is exercised by the Assembly of the Republic, which is the parliament of Portugal, although the Government also has a more limited ability to legislate on some matters (on others, Parliament has exclusive legislative competence). It is also the body which holds the Government accountable and has the means to remove it from office at any time, as described earlier, primarily through a motion of no confidence, although alternative methods exist.[2]

The Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral body composed of 230 deputies (that is, members of parliament). Elected by universal suffrage according to a system of proportional representation, deputies serve terms of office of 4 years, unless the president dissolves the assembly and calls for new elections.[2] According to the constitution, members of the assembly represent the entire country, not the constituency from which they are elected.

Political parties in legislative elections

For other political parties, see List of political parties in Portugal. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Portugal.

Main article: 2022 Portuguese legislative election

Summary of the 30 January 2022 Assembly of the Republic elections results
Parties Votes % ±pp swing MPs MPs %/
votes %
2019 2022 ± % ±
Socialist 2,302,601 41.38 Increase5.1 108 120 Increase12 52.17 Increase5.2 1.26
Social Democratic[b] 1,539,415 27.66 Increase1.3 74 72 Decrease2 31.30 Decrease0.8 1.13
CHEGA 399,659 7.18 Increase5.9 1 12 Increase11 5.22 Increase4.8 0.73
Liberal Initiative 273,687 4.92 Increase3.6 1 8 Increase7 3.48 Increase3.0 0.71
Left Bloc 244,603 4.40 Decrease5.1 19 5 Decrease14 2.17 Decrease6.2 0.49
Unitary Democratic Coalition 238,920 4.29 Decrease2.0 12 6 Decrease6 2.61 Decrease2.6 0.61
People's[b] 89,181 1.60 Decrease2.4 5 0 Decrease5 0.00 Decrease2.2 0.0
People–Animals–Nature 88,152 1.58 Decrease1.7 4 1 Decrease3 0.43 Decrease1.3 0.26
LIVRE 71,232 1.28 Increase0.2 1 1 Steady0 0.43 Steady0.0 0.33
Madeira First (PSD/CDS–PP)[c] 50,636 0.91 Decrease0.2 3 3 Steady0 1.30 Steady0.0 1.43
Democratic Alliance (PSD/CDS–PP/PPM)[d] 28,330 0.51 Decrease0.1 2 2 Steady0 0.87 Steady0.0 1.71
React, Include, Recycle 23,233 0.42 Decrease0.3 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Portuguese Workers' Communist 11,265 0.20 Decrease0.5 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
National Democratic Alternative[e] 10,874 0.20 Increase0.0 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Together for the People 10,786 0.19 Decrease0.0 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Earth 7,561 0.14 Decrease0.1 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Volt Portugal 6,240 0.11 0 0.00 0.0
Socialist Alternative Movement 6,157 0.11 Increase0.0 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Rise Up[f] 5,043 0.09 Decrease0.2 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
We, the Citizens! 3,880 0.07 Decrease0.1 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Labour 3,533 0.06 Decrease0.1 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Alliance 2,467 0.04 Decrease0.7 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
PPM[g] 260 0.00 Decrease0.2 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Total valid 5,417,715 97.36 Increase2.3 230 230 Steady0 100.00 Steady0
Blank ballots 63,103 1.13 Decrease1.4
Invalid ballots 83,721 1.50 Decrease0.9
Total 5,564,539 100.00
Registered voters/turnout 10,813,246 51.46 Increase2.9
Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições

Executive branch

São Bento Mansion, the official residence of the Prime Minister.

Executive power is exercised by the Government of Portugal. The Government is formed after the President appoints the prime minister based on election results, as described earlier – traditionally, the leader of the most voted party.

The Government can only remain in place for as long as the Parliament allows: the Parliament can remove the Government at the beginning by approving a motion of rejection to the introductory Government programme, or at any time by approving a motion of no confidence, either of which is achieved by a simple majority; the Government may also, of its own initiative, choose to present at any time a motion of confidence, which acts as the opposite of a motion of no confidence: if rejected, the Government is removed. Finally, the Government also relies on Parliament to approve the state budget, which also allows Parliament to indirectly force the Government to resign by rejecting its budget proposal. Thus, the Government, although not directly elected, is held accountable before Parliament, which is proportionally representative of the people.[2] Typically, once the Government is removed from office, the President will call a snap election (also known as an early election).

Judicial branch

Supreme Court of Justice's seat.
Administrative Supreme Court's seat.
Ratton Palace, the Constitutional Court's seat.

The national Supreme Court is the court of last appeal in civil and criminal matters, which is described by the Constitution as "the senior organ in the hierarchy of the courts of law". There is a separate system of courts for administrative and fiscal matters, for which the court of last appeal is the Supreme Administrative Court. During war time, the law provides for there being military courts. A thirteen-member Constitutional Court reviews the constitutionality of legislation. There is also a Court of Auditors.

Administrative divisions

See also: Subdivisions of Portugal

There are two autonomous regions (regiões autónomas, singular região autónoma) with limited legislative powers besides the administrative ones: Azores and Madeira. As purely administrative divisions, there are 18 districts (distritos), 308 municipalities (municípios) and 3,091 civil parishes (freguesias). The districts are Aveiro, Açores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Bragança, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Évora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa, Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarém, Setúbal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real and Viseu.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Includes votes for candidate Eduardo Baptista.
  2. ^ a b Only in mainland Portugal and overseas constituencies.
  3. ^ In Madeira, the PSD and the CDS–PP contested the elections in a coalition called Madeira First (Madeira Primeiro).
  4. ^ In Azores, the PSD, the CDS–PP, and the People's Monarchist Party (PPM) contested the elections in a coalition called Democratic Alliance (Aliança Democrática).
  5. ^ In September 2021, the Democratic Republican Party (PDR) changed its name to the National Democratic Alternative (ADN).
  6. ^ In July 2020, the National Renovator Party (PNR) changed its name to Rise Up (E).
  7. ^ PPM list only in Madeira

References

  1. ^ a b c Duties of the President – Head of State. Official Page of the Presidency of the Portuguese Republic. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d The Assembleia da República as a body that exercises sovereign power. Assembleia da República. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  3. ^ V-Dem Institute (2023). "The V-Dem Dataset". Retrieved 14 October 2023.
  4. ^ "The Constitutional Monarchy". Assembly of the Republic of Portugal. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  5. ^ a b c "The Constitutional Monarchy". Assembly of the Republic of Portugal. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  6. ^ "Mário Soares exonerado por Ramalho Eanes da liderança do II Governo Constitucional" (in Portuguese). RTP. 25 August 1977. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
  7. ^ "Programa de Governo de Nobre da Costa alvo de moção de rejeição" (in Portuguese). RTP. 23 October 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  8. ^ "Razões da demissão de Mota Pinto" (in Portuguese). RTP. 8 September 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  9. ^ "Tomada de posse do V Governo Constitucional" (in Portuguese). RTP. 1 August 1979. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  10. ^ "Sá Carneiro morre em acidente de aviação" (in Portuguese). RTP. 8 September 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2022.
  11. ^ "Tomada de posse do VII Governo Constitucional" (in Portuguese). RTP. 9 January 1981. Retrieved 8 October 2022.
  12. ^ "Demissão Pinto Balsemão" (in Portuguese). RTP. 8 September 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  13. ^ "Mário Soares (1924-2017), o homem que nunca desistiu" (in Portuguese). Público. 7 January 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  14. ^ 1987. Da moção de censura à primeira maioria de Cavaco Jornal i, 30 August 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  15. ^ 1987 – Maioria absoluta do PSD RTP, 4 July 2007. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  16. ^ A "década de betão" do cavaquismo RTP, 7 March 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  17. ^ Bloqueio da ponte. O princípio do fim do cavaquismo foi há 25 anos Diário de Notícias, 22 July 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  18. ^ Cavaco Silva: os 10 anos como primeiro-ministro Diário de Notícias, 8 March 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  19. ^ "A noite que mudou a vida de Guterres ", Expresso, 13 October 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2022.
  20. ^ "Durão Barroso apresenta demissão para ser presidente da Comissão Europeia ", RTP, 8 September 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2023.
  21. ^ As 3 razões de Marcelo para convocar eleições antecipadas Eco, 4 November 2021. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  22. ^ Resultados eleitorais das Legislativas 2022. Da maioria absoluta do PS ao desaparecimento do CDS Radio Renascença, 31 January 2022. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  23. ^ Tomada de posse do Governo vai ser a 30 de março Jornal de Negócios, 18 March 2022. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  24. ^ "António Costa demite-se: "Obviamente"". CNN Portugal (in Portuguese). Retrieved 7 November 2023.
  25. ^ Renascença (9 November 2023). "Marcelo marca eleições para 10 de março - Renascença". Rádio Renascença (in European Portuguese). Retrieved 9 November 2023.
  26. ^ Constituição da República Portuguesa