Monument to the Portuguese soldiers who died in World War I in Coimbra, Portugal
Monument to the Portuguese soldiers who died in World War I in Coimbra, Portugal

Portugal did not initially form part of the system of alliances involved in World War I and thus remained neutral at the start of the conflict in 1914. But even though Portugal and Germany remained officially at peace for over a year and a half after the outbreak of World War I, there were many hostile engagements between the two countries. Portugal wanted to comply with British requests for aid and protect its colonies in Africa, causing clashes with German troops in the south of Portuguese Angola, which bordered German South-West Africa, in 1914 and 1915 (see German campaign in Angola). Tensions between Germany and Portugal also arose as a result of German U-boat warfare, which sought to blockade the United Kingdom, at the time the most important market for Portuguese products. Ultimately, tensions resulted in the confiscation of German ships interned in Portuguese ports, to which Germany reacted by declaring war on 9 March 1916, quickly followed by Portugal's reciprocal declaration.

Approximately 12,000 Portuguese troops died during the course of World War I, including Africans who served in its armed forces on the colonial front.[1][2] Civilian deaths in Portugal exceeded 220,000: 82,000 caused by food shortages and 138,000 by the Spanish flu.[3]

1914

Portuguese troops embarking to Angola.
Portuguese troops embarking to Angola.

1915

1916

When Portugal complies with the British request to confiscate the German ships interned in Portuguese ports, Germany reacts by declaring war on Portugal, thus forcing the Portuguese officially into the war.

1917

Portuguese troops disembarking at Brest.
Portuguese troops disembarking at Brest.

1918

Portuguese troops loading the Stokes Mortar.
Portuguese troops loading the Stokes Mortar.
Portuguese prisoners-of-war in 1918.
Portuguese prisoners-of-war in 1918.

The war causes Portugal 8,145 dead, 13,751 wounded and 12,318 prisoners or missing. At sea, 96 Portuguese ships are sunk (100,193 tons) and 5 Portuguese ships damaged (7,485 tons) by German submarines.

Portuguese Military Cemetery, Richebourg, France

After the war

1919

1921

Portuguese Military Cemetery, Richebourg, France

See also

References

  1. ^ The War Office (1922). Statistics of the Military Effort of the British Empire During the Great War 1914–1920. Reprinted by Naval & Military Press. p. 237. ISBN 978-1-84734-681-0
  2. ^ US War Dept 1924 data listed in the Encyclopædia Britannica
  3. ^ Hersch, L., La mortalité causée par la guerre mondiale, Metron- The International Review of Statistics, 1927, Vol 7.Pages 61-64
  4. ^ Vincent-Smith, J.D. "The Anglo-German negotiations over the Portuguese colonies in Africa, 1911-14". The Historical Journal 17.3 (1974): 620-629.
  5. ^ Paice (2008), pp. 22–23.
  6. ^ Fernando Amado Couto. "MAZIÚA 1914: A ENTRADA DE MOÇAMBIQUE NA I GUERRA MUNDIAL". Plataforma Macau. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  7. ^ Sverrisson (2008), p. 88.
  8. ^ Paice (2008), p. 23.
  9. ^ Zollmann (2016), p. 99.
  10. ^ "Portugal enters the war". The Independent. Oct 26, 1914. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
  11. ^ Oliveira Marques, António Henrique R. de (1991). Nova história de Portugal: Portugal da Monarquia para a República. Editorial Presença. p. 343.
  12. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Dacia". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 2010-11-13.
  13. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Kanguroo". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 2010-11-13.
  14. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Surprise". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 2010-11-13.
  15. ^ "www.atlantic-cable.com". uboat.net. 2010-11-13. Archived from the original on 2016-05-27. Retrieved 2010-11-13.
  16. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: Lidia". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net.
  17. ^ First World War – Willmott, H.P. Dorling Kindersley, 2003, Page 93
  18. ^ "CHARLES'S ST. HELENA LIKELY TO BE FUNCHA.; Paris Diplomats Expect Portuguess Government to Assent toHis Internment There" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-07-12.

Works cited