National Assembly

Országgyűlés
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
Leadership
László Kövér, Fidesz
since 6 August 2010
Márta Mátrai, Fidesz
since 1 January 2013
Leader of largest
political group
Máté Kocsis, Fidesz
since 8 May 2018
Leader of 2nd largest
political group
István Simicskó, KDNP
since 2 May 2022
Structure
Seats199
Current Structure of the National Assembly of Hungary
Political groups
Government (135)
  •   Fidesz–KDNP (135)

Supported by (1)

Opposition (63)

Elections
Partially parallel, partially compensatory voting: 106 FPTP seats, 93 PR seats with 5% electoral threshold (D'Hondt method)
Last election
3 April 2022
Meeting place
The National Assembly sits in the Parliament House in Budapest
Hungarian Parliament Building
Lajos Kossuth Square 1
Budapest, H-1055
Hungary
Website
National Assembly
Autumn session – 2015
Autumn session – 2015

The National Assembly (Hungarian: Országgyűlés, lit.'Country Assembly') is the parliament of Hungary. The unicameral body consists of 199 (386 between 1990 and 2014) members elected to 4-year terms. Election of members is done using a semi-proportional representation: a mixed-member majoritarian representation with partial compensation via transfer votes and mixed single vote; involving single-member districts and one list vote; parties must win at least 5% of the popular vote in order to gain list seats assembly. The Assembly includes 25 standing committees to debate and report on introduced bills and to supervise the activities of the ministers. The Constitutional Court of Hungary has the right to challenge legislation on the grounds of constitutionality. The assembly has met in the Hungarian Parliament Building in Budapest since 1902.

The current members are the members of the National Assembly of Hungary (2022–2026).

History

The Diet of Hungary[1] (Hungarian: Országgyűlés) was a legislative institution in the medieval kingdom of Hungary from the 1290s,[2] and in its successor states, Royal Hungary and the Habsburg kingdom of Hungary throughout the Early Modern period. The name of the legislative body was originally "Parlamentum" during the Middle Ages, the "Diet" expression gained mostly in the Early Modern period.[3] It convened at regular intervals with interruptions during the period of 1527 to 1918, and again until 1946.

The articles of the 1790 diet set out that the diet should meet at least once every 3 years, but, since the diet was called by the Habsburg monarchy, this promise was not kept on several occasions thereafter. As a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise, it was reconstituted in 1867.

The Latin term Natio Hungarica ("Hungarian nation") was used to designate the political elite which had participation in the diet, consisting of the nobility, the Catholic clergy, and a few enfranchised burghers,[4][5] regardless of language or ethnicity.[6] Natio Hungarica was a geographic, institutional and juridico-political category.[7]

The democratic character of the Hungarian parliament was reestablished with the fall of the Iron Curtain and the end of the communist dictatorship in 1989. Today's parliament is still called the Országgyűlés, as in royal times, but is called the 'National Assembly' to distance itself from the historical royal diet.

Latest election

Main article: 2022 Hungarian parliamentary election

Turnout

Turnout (within Hungary only, excluding eligible voters abroad)[8]
7:00 9:00 11:00 13:00 15:00 17:00 18:30 Overall
1.82% 10.31% 25.77% 40.01% 52.75% 62.92% 67.80% 69.54%

Results by party

2022 Hungary National Assembly.svg
Party Party list Constituency Total
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Seats ±
Fidesz–KDNP 3,060,706 54.13 48 2,823,419 52.52 87 135 +2
United for Hungary 1,947,331 34.44 38 1,983,708 36.90 19 57 –8
Our Homeland Movement 332,487 5.88 6 307,064 5.71 0 6 New
Hungarian Two Tailed Dog Party 185,052 3.27 0 126,648 2.36 0 0 ±0
Solution Movement 58,929 1.04 0 64,341 1.20 0 0 New
Party of Normal Life 39,720 0.70 0 31,495 0.59 0 0 New
Leftist Alliance (ISZOMMMMP) 8,678 0.16 0 0 New
True Democratic Party 989 0.02 0 0 New
Civic Response 521 0.01 0 0 New
Our Party - IMA 326 0.01 0 0 New
Party of Greens 208 0.00 0 0 New
MSZDDSZ 177 0.00 0 0 New
Hungarian Liberal Party 152 0.00 0 0 ±0
National Self-Government of Germans 24,630 0.44 1 1 ±0
National Self-Government of Croats 1,760 0.03 0 0 ±0
National Self-Government of Slovaks 1,208 0.02 0 0 ±0
National Self-Government of Rusyns 645 0.01 0 0 ±0
National Self-Government of Romanians 526 0.01 0 0 ±0
National Self-Government of Serbs 418 0.01 0 0 ±0
National Self-Government of Ukrainians 396 0.01 0 0 ±0
National Self-Government of Poles 281 0.00 0 0 ±0
National Self-Government of Greeks 232 0.00 0 0 ±0
National Self-Government of Slovenes 219 0.00 0 0 ±0
National Self-Government of Armenians 163 0.00 0 0 ±0
National Self-Government of Bulgarians 157 0.00 0 0 ±0
Independents 0 0 –1
Total 100 93 100 106 199 0
Valid votes 5,651,057 98.84
Invalid/blank votes 66,125 1.16
Total 5,717,182 100
Registered voters/turnout 8,215,304[a] 69.59
Source: National Election Commission (100% counted)

Speakers of the National Assembly of Hungary

Main article: List of Speakers of the National Assembly of Hungary

Historical composition of the National Assembly since 1990

  MSZP
  SZDSZ
  Egy.
  LMP
  MLP
  Mom.
  DK
  Par.
  Fidesz
  KDNP
  MDF
  FKGP
  MIÉP
  Jobbik
  MHM
  Others
  Independent
1990–1994
33 93 21 1 9 21 164 44
1994–1998
209 69 1 1 20 22 38 26
1998–2002
134 24 14 1 148 17 48
2002–2006
178 20 164 24
2006–2010
190 20 1 141 23 11
2010–2014
59 16 47 1 227 36
2014–2018
29 1 3 4 1 5 23 117 16
2018–2022
15 5 1 9 8 26 1 117 16
2022–2026
10 6 15 10 5 10 1 6 1 117 18

Members (since 1990)

References

  1. ^ András Gergely, Gábor Máthé: The Hungarian state: thousand years in Europe (published in 2000)
  2. ^ Elemér Hantos: The Magna Carta Of The English And Of The Hungarian Constitution (1904)
  3. ^ Cecil Marcus Knatchbull-Hugessen Brabourne (4th Baron): The political evolution of the Hungarian nation: (Volume I. in 1908)
  4. ^ John M. Merriman, J. M. Winter, Europe 1789 to 1914: encyclopedia of the age of industry and empire, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2006, p. 140, ISBN 978-0-684-31359-7
  5. ^ Tadayuki Hayashi, Hiroshi Fukuda, Regions in Central and Eastern Europe: past and present, Slavic Research Center, Hokkaido University, 2007, p. 158, ISBN 978-4-938637-43-9
  6. ^ Katerina Zacharia, Hellenisms: culture, identity, and ethnicity from antiquity to modernity, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2008, p. 237 ISBN 978-0-7546-6525-0
  7. ^ "Transylvania - The Roots of Ethnic Conflict". Hungarianhistory.com. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  8. ^ "Nemzeti Választási Iroda - Országgyűlési Választás 2022". vtr.valasztas.hu (in Hungarian). Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  1. ^ This number consists of 7,693,695 Hungarians eligible to vote within Hungary, plus 65,480 Hungarians eligible to vote at consulates and embassies abroad, plus 456,129 people eligible to vote by mail abroad.

Coordinates: 47°30′26″N 19°02′45″E / 47.50722°N 19.04583°E / 47.50722; 19.04583