Sikkim State Council
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
History
Disbanded1975
Succeeded bySikkim Legislative Assembly
Structure
Seats32
Length of term
3 years
Elections
State Council voting system
First-past-the-post
State Council first election
1953
State Council last election
1974
Meeting place
Gangtok, Sikkim

The State Council of Sikkim was the legislative body of the erstwhile Kingdom of Sikkim, which was located in the Himalayas, between India and China.[1]

There were six elections held for the council between 1953 and 1974.[2] In 1975, after a referendum to abolish the monarchy, and the passing of the 36th amendment to the Indian constitution, the monarchy was abolished along with the State council, and its members at the time were deemed to be the Legislative Assembly of the new state of Sikkim, within India.[3]

Structure

The council was composed of some elected members and some who were nominated by the Chogyal. After the 1973 election, the composition was changed and the appointments by the Chogyal were eliminated, while at the same time the number of seats in the council were increased.[4] The Dewan of Sikkim (a Government of India appointed position) was the President of the council.

Executive Council

From among the State Council members, an Executive Council was chosen, by the Chogyal. They were given individual responsibilities within government[5] and were equivalent to a cabinet of ministers. This too was presided over by the Dewan of Sikkim.[6]

History

Chogyal Tashi Namgyal inititated proceedings for the first election to the Council, in 1953
Chogyal Tashi Namgyal inititated proceedings for the first election to the Council, in 1953

The State Council of Sikkim existed since at least the late 19th Century.[7] It was an advisory and executive body, and was presided by the Chogyal (King). After the Independence of neighbouring India in August 1947, various political bodies in Sikkim began to demand greater say in the working of the kingdom.[8] In 1952, the Chogyal conceded and announced new constituencies, for an election in 1953.[2][6]

The Chogyal agreed to have 12 (out of 18) seats on the council to be electable. The other six were appointed by the Chogyal. Under a parity formula agreed upon by the political groups, six of the electable seats were to be for the Sikkim Nepalis and the other six for the Bhutia-Lepcha (BL) people. There were four constituencies drawn up of the kingdom and elections were to be held in 1953.[6] In the 1953 election, all the Nepali-reserved seats were won by the Sikkim National Party and the BL-reserved seats were won by the Sikkim State Congress.[9][3]

Although the term of the council was set as three years, the Chogyal decided to extend the term of the first Council until 1958.[10] Due to requests from the monastery associations and other groups, the number of electable seats on the council was increased by two, one for the Sangha, to be voted on by the monks and one seat that wasn't reserved for any particular group.[1][11] In the elections of 1958, the Sikkim State Congress won one more seat than before, while the unreserved seat was won by an Independent.[2]

The second council's term was due to end in 1961, but the outbreak of the Sino-Indian war led to the extension of its term till 1967. Before the 1967 election, the constituencies were redrawn and increased to five, and four more electable seats were added to the council, one each for the Sikkim Nepalis and the Bhutia-Lepcha, one for the Tsong and one for people of the Scheduled Castes.[1][12] This setup remained for the next three elections (1967, 1970 and 1973).

After the 1973 elections, the Sikkim National Congress and Sikkim Janata Congress claimed that vote rigging took place in the South Sikkim constituency.[13] They demanded that officials involved be arrested, but these demands were not met, leading to protests.[2] The unrest led to the signing of a tripartite agreement on 8 May between the Choygal, Sikkimese political parties and the government of India. The agreement provided for the establishment of a responsible government under the supervision of a Chief Executive nominated by the Indian government.[3] The agreement led to another delimitation exercise where the Chogyal-appointed seats in the council were abolished, the State Council was renamed to the Sikkim Assembly and thirty-one new constituencies were drawn along with one constituency for the monasteries (Sangha). Keeping to the parity formula of 1952, fifteen of the constituencies were reserved for the Bhutia-Lepcha and fifteen for the Sikkim-Nepalis. The other remaining constituency was for the Scheduled Castes. The principle of "one-man one-vote" was applied.[4] In the 1974 election, the Sikkim National Congress (which was in favour of Sikkim's merger with India), won an absolute majority with thirty-one of the thirty-two seats.[14]

Final years (1974-75)

Kazi Lhendup Dorjee was the last head of the Council. On 16 May 1975, he was sworn in as the first Chief Minister of the new Legislative Assembly of Sikkim
Kazi Lhendup Dorjee was the last head of the Council. On 16 May 1975, he was sworn in as the first Chief Minister of the new Legislative Assembly of Sikkim

The new government sought an increase in civil and political liberties, but was suppressed by the Chogyal.

Palden Thondup Namgyal was the last Chogyal of Sikkim. He was deposed on 15 May 1975
Palden Thondup Namgyal was the last Chogyal of Sikkim. He was deposed on 15 May 1975

Electoral history

Election
Year
Pro-Independence Pro-Merger [a] Other/
Unknown
Total
Appointed SNP
1953 6 6 6 0 18
1958 6 7 1 20
1967 5 10 3 24
1970 8 7 3
1973 9 7 2
1974 0 1 31 0 32
  1. ^ Includes Sikkim State Congress, Sikkim Janata Congress and Sikkim National Congress into which they eventually merged

Constituencies

Year Details Constituencies Seats Elections
Nepali BL Others Appointed Total
1952 Elections announced for a new State Council with 12 (out of 18) elected members[6] 4 6 6 0 6 18 1953
1958 Seats increased to 20[11] 4 6 6 2 (Sangha, General) 6 20 1958
1966 Representation of Sikkim Subjects Regulation, 1966[12]
Constituencies increased to 5, 2 additional general seats added
5 7 7 4 (Sangha, Tsong,
SC, General
6 24 1967, 1970 and 1973
1974 The Government of Sikkim Act, 1974[4]
Multi-seat constituencies eliminated
32 15 15 2 (Sangha, SC) 0 32 1974

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c A. C. Sinha (February 2005). "Sikkim" (PDF). Sub-Regional Relations in the Eastern South Asia: With Special Focus on India's North Eastern Region. 113. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d Hamlet Bareh (2001). Encyclopaedia of North-East India. Vol. 7:Sikkim. Mittal Publications. ISBN 9788170997948.
  3. ^ a b c Pem Choden Tenzing (July 2019). Monarchy to Democracy Understanding Political Development in Sikkim, 1970-1994 (Thesis). p. 147. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
  4. ^ a b c "The Government of Sikkim Act, 1974". 6 July 1974. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
  5. ^ Tashi Namgyal (4 August 1953). "State Council and Executive Council Proclamation - Memo No. 525". pp. 25, 28. Retrieved 22 June 2021.
  6. ^ a b c d Tashi Namgyal (23 March 1953). "State Council and Executive Council Proclamation". pp. 16–21. Retrieved 1 July 2021. The Dewas shall be the president of the Executive Council ...
  7. ^ "Proceeding of the Council meeting held at Gangtok on 16th November 1892". 16 November 1892. p. 62. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
  8. ^ Sunanda K. Datta-Ray (1984). Smash And Grab - Annexation of Sikkim. Vikas Publishing House. pp. 55–60. ISBN 0706925092. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  9. ^ "Results of elections - 1953". Sikkim Darbar Gazette. 2 (12). 12 May 1953.
  10. ^ "Proclamation of Tashi Namgyal". Sikkim Darbar Gazette (1). 1956.
  11. ^ a b Tashi Namgyal (16 March 1958). "Proclamation of His Highness Sir Tashi Namgyal, KCSI, KCIE, Maharaja of Sikkim, Dated the 16th March, 1958" (PDF). p. 102. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  12. ^ a b Palden Thondup Namgyal (21 December 1966). "Representation of Sikkim Subjects Regulation, 1966". pp. 117–119. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
  13. ^ Shanker Sharma (8 May 2021). "The 8th May Agreement". Sikkim Express. Retrieved 10 July 2021. The defeated parties alleged polling in Rabong in South Sikkim was rigged in the favour of the SNP candidate
  14. ^ "Sikkim Legislative Assembly". Archived from the original on 21 September 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2022. The First Sikkim Assembly formed through the election held in 1974 with 32 members is deemed to be the First Legislative Assembly of Sikkim ... Sikkim Congress led by Kazi Lhendup Dorjee won 31 seats and one seat went in favour of Sikkim National Party.
  15. ^ Mahendra P. Lama (1994). Sikkim: Society, Polity, Economy, Environment. New Delhi: Indus Publishing Company. pp. 110–111. ISBN 8173870136.
  16. ^ a b c "Sikkim (Indien), 14. April 1975 : Abschaffung der Monarchie" [Sikkim (India), 14 April 1975: Abolition of the monarchy] (in German).
  17. ^ "Lawmakers Vote Sikkim Status of Indian State". The Spokesman-Review. 5 September 1974. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  18. ^ "Sikkim Bill Ratified". New Straits Times. 9 September 1974. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  19. ^ "Sikkim Leader Wants Appeal". The Montreal Gazette. 9 September 1974. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  20. ^ Asia Yearbook 1976
  21. ^ The World in 1975
  22. ^ Barun Roy (2012). Gorkhas and Gorkhaland. p. 250. ISBN 9789810786465.
  23. ^ "Sikkim Referendum Slated on Indian Statehood". The Lewiston Daily Sun. 11 April 1975. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  24. ^ "India Slates State Status for Sikkim". Toledo Blade. 17 April 1975. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  25. ^ "Sikkim Votes to End Monarchy, Merge With India". The New York Times. 16 April 1975. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  26. ^ "Sikkim annexation OK'd". Eugene Register-Guard. 27 April 1975. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  27. ^ "Sikkim Annexed, Now Indian State". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 16 May 1975. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  28. ^ "The Constitution (Thirty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1975". www.india.gov.in. Retrieved 5 July 2021. ... the Assembly for Sikkim formed as a result of the elections held in Sikkim in April, 1974 ... shall be deemed to be the Legislative Assembly of the State of Sikkim
  29. ^ "Sikkim Durbar Gazette notifications". p. 384. Retrieved 17 June 2021.


New institution Sikkim State Council 1953-1975 Succeeded byLegislative Assembly of Sikkim