Grand National Assembly of Turkey

Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi
28th Parliament of Turkey
Coat of arms or logo
Seal of the Turkish Parliament
Type
Type
History
Founded23 April 1920 (103 years ago) (1920-04-23)
Preceded by23 December 1876 as General Assembly
Leadership
Numan Kurtulmuş, AK Party
since 7 June 2023
Government Group Leader
Abdullah Güler [tr], AK Party
since 30 May 2023
Main Opposition Group Leader
Özgür Özel, CHP
since 3 June 2023
Structure
Seats600
1 non-voting member
Political groups
Government (264)
  •   AK Party (264)

Confidence and supply (54)

Opposition (280)

Vacant (2)

  •   Vacant (2)
Committees19 committees
Length of term
5 years
AuthorityConstitution of Turkey
Salary880,548[1]
Elections
Closed list proportional representation
(D'Hondt method with a 7% electoral threshold)
Last election
14 May 2023
Next election
No later than 2028
RedistrictingSupreme Election Council
Motto
Egemenlik kayıtsız şartsız Milletindir
Sovereignty unconditionally belongs to the Nation
Meeting place
General Assembly Hall
Grand National Assembly of Turkey
06543, Bakanlıklar
Ankara, Turkey
Website
Grand National Assembly of Türkiye
Constitution
Constitution of Turkey

The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi [tyɾcije byjyc milːet medʒlisi]), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Turkish: Meclis or Parlamento), is the unicameral Turkish legislature. It is the sole body given the legislative prerogatives by the Turkish Constitution. It was founded in Ankara on 23 April 1920 amid the National Campaign. This constitution had founded its pre-government known as 1st Executive Ministers of Turkey (Commitment Deputy Committee) in May 1920. The parliament was fundamental in the efforts of Mareşal Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, 1st President of the Republic of Turkey, and his colleagues to found a new state out of the remnants of the Ottoman Empire.

Composition

There are 600 members of parliament (deputies) who are elected for a five-year term by the D'Hondt method, a party-list proportional representation system, from 87 electoral districts which represent the 81 administrative provinces of Turkey (Istanbul and Ankara are divided into three electoral districts whereas İzmir and Bursa are divided into two each because of its large populations). To avoid a hung parliament and its excessive political fragmentation, from 1982 to 2022, a party must have won at least 10% of the national vote to qualify for representation in the parliament,[2] but in 2022 this was reduced to 7%.[3]As a result of the 10% threshold, only two parties won seats in the legislature after the 2002 elections and three in 2007. The 2002 elections saw every party represented in the previous parliament ejected from the chamber and parties representing 46.3% of the voter turnout were excluded from being represented in parliament.[2] This threshold has been criticized, but a complaint with the European Court for Human Rights was turned down.[4]

Independent candidates may also run[5] and can be elected without needing a threshold.[6]

Speaker of the parliament

The chair of the Speaker of the Parliament

A new term in the parliament began on 2 June 2023, after the June 2023 General Elections. Devlet Bahçeli from the MHP temporarily served as the speaker, as it is customary for the oldest member of the TBMM to serve as speaker during a hung parliament. Numan Kurtulmuş was elected after the snap elections on 07 June 2023.[7]

Languages

The parliament's minutes are translated into the four languages Arabic, Russian, English and French, but not in the Kurdish language which is the second most spoken native language in Turkey.[8] Though phrases in the Kurdish language can be permitted, whole speeches remain forbidden.[9]

Members (since 1999)

Parliamentary groups

Parties who have at least 20 deputies may form a parliamentary group. Currently there are six parliamentary groups at the GNAT: AKP, which has the highest number of seats, CHP, MHP, Good Party, DEM, and Felicity.[10]

Committees

Specialized committees

  1. Justice Committee (27 members)[11]
  2. Constitution Committee (26 members)[12]
  3. Committee for Harmonization with the European Union (27 members)[13]
  4. Public Works, Zoning, Transportation, and Tourism Committee (26 members)[14]
  5. Environment Committee (26 members)[15]
  6. Foreign Affairs Committee (25 members)[16]
  7. Digital Media Committee (17 members)[17]
  8. Petitions Committee (12 members)[18]
  9. Security and Intelligence Committee (17 members)[19]
  10. Internal Affairs Committee (26 members)[20]
  11. Committee for the Inspection of Human Rights (25 members)[21]
    1. Subcommittee for the Inspection of Islamophobia and Racism (10 members)[22]
    2. Subcommittee for the Inspection of the Rights of Convicts and Detainees[23]
    3. Migration and Integration Subcommittee (10 members)[24]
    4. Children's Rights Subcommittee (10 members)[25]
  12. Committee for Equal Opportunities for Women and Men (26 members)[26]
  13. State-owned Enterprises Committee (35 members)[27]
  14. National Education, Culture, Youth, and Sports committee (26 members)[28]
  15. National Defense Committee (26 members)[29]
  16. Planning and Budgeting Committee (30 members)[30]
  17. Health, Family, Employment, and Social Affairs Committee (27 members)[31]
  18. Industry, Commerce, Energy, Natural Resources, Information, and Technology Committee (26 members)[32]
  19. Agriculture, Forestry, and Rural Works Committee (26 members)[33]

Parliamentary research committees

These committees are one of auditing tools of the Parliament. The research can begin upon the demand of the Government, political party groups or min 20 MPs. The duty is assigned to a committee whose number of members, duration of work and location of work is determined by the proposal of the Parliamentary Speaker and the approval of the General Assembly.[34][35]

Parliamentary investigation committees

These committees are established if any investigation demand re the president, vice president, and ministers occur and approved by the General Assembly through hidden voting.[35]

International committees

  1. Parliamentary Assembly of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (8 members)[36]
  2. NATO Parliamentary Assembly (18 members)[37]
  3. Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (18 members)[38]
  4. Turkey — European Union Joint Parliamentary Committee (25 members)[39]
  5. Parliamentary Union of the OIC Member States (5 members)[40]
  6. Asian Parliamentary Assembly (5 members)[41]
  7. Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean (7 members)[42]
  8. Inter-parliamentary Union (9 members)[43]
  9. Parliamentary Assembly of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (9 members)[44]
  10. Parliamentary Assembly of the Mediterranean (5 members)[45]
  11. Parliamentary Assembly of Turkic States (9 members)[46]
  12. Parliamentary Assembly of the Economic Cooperation Organization (5 members)[47]
  13. Parliamentary Assembly of the Southeast European Cooperation Process (6 members)[48]
  14. Andean Parliament (observer) (3 members)[49]
  15. Latin American Parliament (observer) (3 members)[50]

MPs can attend more than one committee if not a member of Petitions Committee or Planning and Budgeting Committee. Members of those committees can not participate in any other committees. On the other hand, MPs do not have to work for a committee either. Number of members of each committee is determined by the proposal of the Advisory Council and the approval of the General Assembly.[35]

Sub committees are established according to the issue that the committee receives. Only State-owned Enterprises (SOEs) Committee has constant sub committees that are specifically responsible for a group of SOEs.[35]

Committee meetings are open to the MPs, the Ministers' Board members and the Government representatives. The MPs and the Ministers' Board members can talk in the committees but can not make amendments proposals or vote. Every MP can read the reports of the committees.[35]

NGOs can attend the committee meetings upon the invitation of the committee therefore volunteer individual or public participation is not available. Media, but not the visual media, can attend the meetings. The media representatives are usually the parliamentary staff of the media institutions. The committees can prevent the attendance of the media with a joint decision.[51]

Current composition

The 28th Parliament of Turkey took office on 2 June 2023, following the ratification of the results of the general election held on 14 May 2023. The composition of the 28th Parliament, is shown below.

Parliament Building

Damage to the Parliament Building after the failed 2016 coup

The current Parliament Building is the third to house the nation's parliament. The building which first housed the Parliament was converted from the Ankara headquarters of the Committee of Union and Progress. Designed by architect Hasip Bey,[52] it was used until 1924 and is now used as the locale of the Museum of the War of Independence, the second building which housed the Parliament was designed by architect Vedat (Tek) Bey (1873–1942) and used from 1924 to 1960.[52] It is now been converted as the Museum of the Republic. The Grand National Assembly is now housed in a modern and imposing building in the Bakanlıklar neighborhood of Ankara.[53] The monumental building's project was designed by architect and professor Clemens Holzmeister (1886–1993).[52] The building was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 50,000 lira banknotes of 1989–1999.[54] The building was hit by airstrikes three times during the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt, suffering noticeable damage. It went through a renovation in the summer of 2016.[55]

History

Turkey has had a history of parliamentary government before the establishment of the current national parliament. These include attempts at curbing absolute monarchy during the Ottoman Empire through constitutional monarchy, as well as establishments of caretaker national assemblies immediately prior to the declaration of the Republic of Turkey in 1923 but after the de facto dissolution of the Ottoman Empire earlier in the decade.

Parliamentary practice before the Republican era

Ottoman Empire

Main articles: General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire, First Constitutional Era (Ottoman Empire), and Second Constitutional Era (Ottoman Empire)

There were two periods of parliamentary governance during the Ottoman Empire. The First Constitutional Era lasted for only two years, elections being held only twice. After the first elections, there were a number of criticisms of the government due to the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–1878 by the representatives, and the assembly was dissolved and an election called on 28 June 1877. The second assembly was also dissolved by the Sultan Abdul Hamid II on 14 February 1878, the result being the return of absolute monarchy with Abdul Hamid II in power and the suspension of the Ottoman constitution of 1876, which had come with the democratic reforms resulting in the First Constitutional Era.[56]

The Second Constitutional Era began on 23 July 1908 with the Young Turk Revolution. The constitution that was written for the first parliament included control of the sultan on the public and was removed during 1909, 1912, 1914 and 1916, in a session known as the "declaration of freedom". Most of the modern parliamentary rights that were not granted in the first constitution were granted, such as the abolition of the right of the Sultan to deport citizens that were claimed to have committed harmful activities, the establishment of a free press, a ban on censorship. Freedom to hold meetings and establish political parties was recognized, and the government was held responsible to the assembly, not to the sultan.[57]

During the two constitutional eras of the Ottoman Empire, the Ottoman parliament was called the General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire and was bicameral. The upper house was the Senate of the Ottoman Empire, the members of which were selected by the sultan.[58] The role of the Grand Vizier, the centuries-old top ministerial office in the empire, transformed in line with other European states into one identical to the office of a prime minister, as well as that of the speaker of the Senate. The lower chamber of the General Assembly was the Chamber of Deputies of the Ottoman Empire, the members of which were elected by the general public.[59]

Establishment of the National Assembly

Main article: Establishment of Turkish national movement

After World War I, the victorious Allied Powers sought the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire through the Treaty of Sèvres.[60] The sovereign existence of the Turkish nation was to be eliminated under these plans, except for a small region. Nationalist Turkish sentiment rose in the Anatolian peninsula, engendering the establishment of the Turkish national movement. The political developments during this period have made a lasting impact which continues to affect the character of the Turkish nation. During the Turkish War of Independence, Mustafa Kemal put forth the notion that there would be only one way for the liberation of the Turkish people in the aftermath of World War I, namely, through the creation of an independent, sovereign Turkish state. The Sultanate was abolished by the newly founded parliament in 1922, paving the way for the formal proclamation of the republic that was to come on 29 October 1923.[61]

Transition to Ankara

Main article: Government of the Grand National Assembly

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was the first speaker of the Grand National Assembly.

Mustafa Kemal, in a speech he made on 19 March 1920 announced that "an Assembly will be gathered in Ankara that will possess extraordinary powers" and communicated how the members who would participate in the assembly would be elected and the need to realise elections, at the latest, within 15 days.[62] He also stated that the members of the dispersed Ottoman Chamber of Deputies could also participate in the assembly in Ankara, to increase the representative power of the parliament. These elections were held as planned, in the style of the elections of the preceding Chamber of Deputies, in order to select the first members of the new Turkish assembly. This Grand National Assembly, established on national sovereignty, held its inaugural session on 23 April 1920.[61] From this date until the end of the Turkish War of Independence in 1923, the provisional government of Turkey was known as the Government of the Grand National Assembly.

Republican era

1923–1945

President Atatürk and his colleagues leaving the building of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (today the Republic Museum) after a meeting for the seventh anniversary of the foundation of the Republic of Turkey (1930).

Main article: Single-party period of the Republic of Turkey

Eighteen female deputies joined the Turkish Parliament with the 1935 general elections.
The War of Independence Museum (Kurtuluş Savaşı Müzesi), housed in the first Turkish Grand National Assembly building in the Ulus district of Ankara

The first trial of multi-party politics, during the republican era, was made in 1924 by the establishment of the Terakkiperver Cumhuriyet Fırkası (Progressive Republican Party) at the request of Mustafa Kemal, which was closed after several months. Following a 6-year one-party rule, after the foundation of the Serbest Fırka (Liberal Party) by Ali Fethi Okyar, again at the request of Mustafa Kemal, in 1930, some violent disorders took place, especially in the eastern parts of the country. The Liberal Party was dissolved on 17 November 1930 and no further attempt at a multiparty democracy was made until 1945.[63]

1945–1960

Main article: Multi-party period of the Republic of Turkey

The multi-party period in Turkey was resumed by the founding of the National Development Party (Milli Kalkınma Partisi), by Nuri Demirağ, in 1945. The Democrat Party was established the following year, and won the general elections of 1950; one of its leaders, Celal Bayar, becoming President of the Republic and another, Adnan Menderes, Prime Minister.[64]

1960–1980

After the a military coup on 27 May 1960, Prime Minister Adnan Menderes, President Celal Bayar, and all the ministers and members of the Assembly were arrested.[65] The Assembly was closed. The Committee of National Unity, CNU (Milli Birlik Komitesi), assumed all the powers of the Assembly by a provisional constitution and began to run the country. Executive power was used by ministers appointed by the CNU.[66]

The members of the CNU began to work on a new and comprehensive constitution. The Constituent Assembly (Kurucu Meclis), composed of members of the CNU and the members of the House of Representatives, was established to draft a new constitution on 6 January 1961. The House of Representatives consisted of those appointed by the CNU, representatives designated by two parties of that time (CHP and Republican Villagers National Party, RVNP), and representatives of various professional associations.[64]

The constitutional text drafted by the Constituent Assembly was presented to the voters in a referendum on 9 July 1961, and was accepted by 61.17% of the voters. The 1961 Constitution, the first prepared by a Constituent Assembly and the first to be presented to the people in a referendum, included innovations in many subjects.[64]

The 1961 Constitution stipulated a typical parliamentarian system. According to the Constitution, Parliament was bicameral. The legislative power was vested in the House of Representatives and the Senate. while the executive authority was vested in the President and the Council of Ministers. The Constitution envisaged a Constitutional Court.[64]

The 1961 Constitution regulated fundamental rights and freedom, including economic and social rights, over a wide spectrum and adopted the principles of a democratic social state and the rule of law. The 1961 Constitution underwent many comprehensive changes after the military memorandum of 12 March 1971, but continued to be in force until the military coup of 1980.[67]

1980–2018

The country underwent another military coup on 12 September 1980. The Constitution was suspended and political parties were dissolved.[68] Many politicians were forbidden from entering politics again. The military power ruling the country established a "Constituent Assembly", as had been done in 1961. The Constituent Assembly was composed of the National Security Council and the Advisory Assembly. Within two years, the new constitution was drafted and was presented to the referendum on 7 November 1982. Participation in the referendum was 91.27%. As a result, the 1982 Constitution was passed with 91.37% of the votes.[69]

The greatest change brought about by the 1982 Constitution was the unicameral parliamentary system.[68] The number of MPs were 550 members. The executive was empowered and new and more definite limitations were introduced on fundamental rights and freedoms. Also, a 10% electoral threshold was introduced.[2] Except for these aspects, the 1982 Constitution greatly resembled the 1961 Constitution.

The 1982 Constitution, from the time it was accepted until the present time, has undergone many changes, especially the "integration laws", which have been introduced within the framework of the European Union membership process, and which has led to a fundamental evolution.[67]

2018–present

After the 2017 constitutional referendums, the first general election of the Assembly was under a presidential system, with an executive president who has the power to renew the elections for the Assembly and vice versa.[70] Following the referendum, the number of MPs increased from 550 to 600.[71] Furthermore, due to separation of powers, members of the cabinet can't introduce laws anymore. This task is left to the parliamentarians. In line with this change, the seats for the members of the cabinet have been removed from the parliament. These seats were originally located on the left side of the Parliament Speaker.[72]

In 2022, at the initiative of the ruling AKP and its main political ally MHP, the national electoral threshold for a party to enter parliament was lowered from 10 to 7 percent.[73]

Changes since 2023

Main article: 2023 Turkish parliamentary election

# Party Leader Position Group chairperson Start Current Change Status National affiliation
1 AK PARTİ
Justice and Development Party
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Right-wing
Conservatism
Abdullah Güler [tr]
268 / 600
264 / 600
Decrease 4 Government People's Alliance
2 CHP
Republican People's Party
Özgür Özel Centre-left
Kemalism
Özgür Özel
169 / 600
129 / 600
Decrease 40 Main opposition
3 DEM PARTİ
Peoples' Equality and Democracy Party
Tulay Hatımoğulları Oruç & Tuncer Bakırhan Green politics
Regionalism
Sırrı Süreyya Önder
61 / 600
57 / 600
Decrease 4 Opposition Labour and Freedom Alliance
4 MHP
National Movement Party
Devlet Bahçeli Far-right
Ultranationalism
Devlet Bahçeli
50 / 600
49 / 600
Decrease 1 Confidence and supply People's Alliance
5 İYİ PARTİ
Good Party
Meral Akşener Centre-right
Turkish nationalism
Koray Aydın
44 / 600
38 / 600
Decrease 6 Opposition
6 SAADET
Felicity Party
Temel Karamollaoğlu Far-right
Millî Görüş
Selçuk Özdağ [tr]
0 / 600
20 / 600
Increase 20 Opposition Felicity and Future Alliance
Parties without parliamentary groups[c]
7 DEVA PARTİSİ
Democracy and Progress Party
Ali Babacan Centre
Liberal democracy
0 / 600
15 / 600
Increase 15 Opposition
8 YENİDEN REFAH
New Welfare Party
Fatih Erbakan Far-right
Millî Görüş
5 / 600
5 / 600
Steady 0 Opposition
9 TİP
Workers' Party of Turkey
Erkan Baş Far-left
Socialism
4 / 600
3 / 600
Decrease 1 Opposition Labour and Freedom Alliance
10 HÜDA PAR
Free Cause Party
Zekeriya Yapıcıoğlu Far-right
Kurdish-Islamic synthesis
0 / 600
4 / 600
Increase 4 Confidence and supply
11 DP
Democrat Party
Gültekin Uysal Centre-right
Liberal conservatism
0 / 600
3 / 600
Increase 3 Opposition
12 DBP
Democratic Regions Party
Salihe Aydeniz & Keskin Bayındır [tr] Left-wing
Regionalism
0 / 600
2 / 600
Increase 2 Opposition Labour and Freedom Alliance
13 EMEP
Labour Party
Selma Gürkan Far-left
Hoxhaism
0 / 600
2 / 600
Increase 2 Opposition Labour and Freedom Alliance
14 DSP
Democratic Left Party
Önder Aksakal [tr] Centre-left
Ecevitism
0 / 600
1 / 600
Increase 1 Confidence and supply
15 Independent
0 / 600
6 / 600
Increase 6
Total
600 / 600
598 / 600
Decrease 2

Historical composition

Single-party period

  ARMHC / CHP
  Ind.
1923
332 1
1927
335
1931
287 30
1935
401 27
1939
470
1943
492

Multi-party period

  CHP
  HP
  Ind.
1946
395 6 64
1950
69 1 416 1
1954
31 2 503 5
1957
178 4 424 4

After the 1960 coup

  TBP
  CHP
  Ind.
  YTP
  AP
  CGP
  CKMP / MHP
  MSP
1961
173 65 158 54
1965
14 134 1 19 240 31 11
1969
2 8 143 13 6 256 15 6 1
1973
1 185 6 45 149 13 3 48
1977
213 4 1 189 3 16 24

After the 1980 coup

  DSP
  HP / SHP / CHP
  Ind.
  DYP
  ANAP
  MDP
  MHP
  RP / FP
1983
117 211 71
1987
99 59 292
1991
7 88 178 115 62
1995
76 49 135 132 158
1999
136 3 85 86 129 111

After the 2002 election

  HDP / DEM
  CHP
  Ind.
  İYİ
  AKP
  MHP
  YRP
2002
178 9 363
2007
112 26 341 71
2011
135 35 327 53
2015.06
80 132 258 80
2015.11
59 134 317 40
2018
67 146 43 295 49
2023
4 61 169 43 268 50 5

List of foreign leaders addressing the Turkish Parliament

US president Barack Obama addressing the Turkish Parliament in 2009

The General Assembly of the Turkish Grand National Assembly hosts foreign dignitaries from time to time.[74] However, the protocol here may vary depending on the situation. For the foreign guest to make a speech a decision of the General Assembly is required.[75]

Year Country Name Title
1 15 April 1955  Iraq Abdul-Wahab Mirjan Chairman of the Iraqi Parliament
2 16 July 1956  Pakistan Iskander Mirza President of Pakistan
3 1 November 1958  Iran Serdar Fahi̇r Hi̇kmat Chairman of the Iranian Parliamentary Delegation
4 24 April 1959  Indonesia Sukarno President of Indonesia
5 1 April 1964  West Germany Eugen Gerstenmaier President of the Bundestag
6 5 January 1965  Soviet Union Nikolay Podgorny General Secretary of the Communist Party of the USSR
7 25 March 1965  Tunisia Habib Bourguiba President of Tunisia
8 5 December 1984  China Lei Jieqiong Member of National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China
9 23 April 1985  Japan Susumu Kobayashi [jp] Member of the House of Representatives of Japan
10 23 April 1986  Council of Europe Oliver James Flanagan Deputy President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
11 23 April 1987  Luxembourg Astrid Lulling Member of Chamber of Deputies of Luxembourg
12 23 April 1988  Malaysia Mohamed Zahir Ismail Speaker of the Dewan Rakyat
13 23 April 1989   Switzerland Hubert Reymond [de] President of the Swiss Council of States
14 23 April 1990  Malaysia Ahmad Urai Abang Muhideen [ms] President of the Senate of Malaysia
15 23 April 1991  Hungary Kelemen András [hu] Hungarian Deputy Minister of Social Security
16 12 May 1992  Bosnia and Herzegovina Muhamed Čengić Deputy Prime Minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina
17 26 June 1992  Azerbaijan Abulfaz Elchibey President of Azerbaijan
18 23 April 1992  Kyrgyzstan Serikbolsyn Abdildin Chairman of the Supreme Council of Kazakhstan
19 10 June 1993  Northern Cyprus Rauf Denktaş President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
20 9 February 1994  Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev President of Azerbaijan
21 23 April 1994  Northern Cyprus Ayhan Halit Acarkan [tr] Speakers of the Assembly of the Republic
22 13 October 1994  Kyrgyzstan Askar Akayev President of Kyrgyzstan
23 23 April 1995  Croatia Katica Ivanišević Speaker of the Chamber of Counties of Croatia
24 4 April 1996  Georgia Eduard Shevardnadze President of Georgia
25 21 January 1997  Northern Cyprus Rauf Denktaş President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
26 29 April 1997  Romania Emil Constantinescu President of Romania
27 6 May 1997  Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev President of Azerbaijan
28 29 July 1997  Bulgaria Petar Stoyanov President of Bulgaria
29 12 February 1998  Albania Rexhep Meidani President of Albania
30 23 April 1998  Northern Cyprus Rauf Denktaş President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
31 30 June 1998  India Ganti Mohana Chandra Balayogi Speaker of the Parliament of India
32 15 July 1999  Northern Cyprus Rauf Denktaş President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
33 15 November 1999  United States of America Bill Clinton President of the United States of America
34 7 March 2000  Jordan Abdullah II King of Jordan
35 14 April 2000  Poland Aleksander Kwasniewski President of Poland
36 23 April 2000  Turkmenistan Sahat Muradow Speaker of the Parliament of Turkmenistan
37 23 November 2000  Ukraine Leonid Kuchma President of Ukraine
38 13 March 2001  Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev President of Azerbaijan
39 6 March 2003  Northern Cyprus Rauf Denktaş President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
40 15 January 2004  European Union Romano Prodi President of the European Commission
41 20 January 2004  Pakistan Pervez Musharraf President of Pakistan
42 2 March 2004  European Union Pat Cox President of the European Parliament
43 14 April 2004  Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev President of Azerbaijan
44 15 April 2004  Northern Cyprus Rauf Denktaş President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
45 3 December 2004  European Union Josep Borrell Fontelles President of the European Parliament
46 9 November 2005  Council of Europe René van der Linden President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
47 13 November 2007  Palestine Mahmud Abbas President of the Palestinian National Authority
48 13 November 2007  Israel Shimon Peres President of Israel
49 10 April 2008  European Union Jose Manuel Barroso President of the European Commission
50 6 November 2008  Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev President of Azerbaijan
51 6 April 2009  United States of America Barack Hussein Obama President of the United States of America
52 12 May 2009  Portugal Anibal Cavaco Silva President of Portugal
53 22 October 2009  Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev President of Kazakhstan
54 29 June 2010  Indonesia Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono President of Indonesia
55 19 October 2010  Germany Christian Wulff President of Germany
56 7 December 2010  Pakistan Yusuf Raza Gilani Prime Minister of Pakistan
57 24 November 2011  European Union Jerzy Buzek President of the European Parliament
58 10 January 2012  Council of Europe Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
59 12 January 2012  Kyrgyzstan Almazbek Atambayev President of the Kyrgyz Republic
60 10 December 2012  Palestine Mahmud Abbas President of Palestine
61 30 May 2013  Tunisia Moncef Marzouki President of Tunisia

Picture gallery

See also

Notes

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^ Parties need at least 20 members to form parliamentary groups.

References

Citations

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  2. ^ a b c "Crossing the threshold – the Turkish election". electoral-reform.org.uk. Archived from the original on 12 December 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  3. ^ "Turkey: Parliament Passes Law Amending Election Laws and Lowering Electoral Threshold". Retrieved 15 December 2023.
  4. ^ hlsjrnldev. "ECHR Upholds Turkey's 10% Threshold in Elections". Archived from the original on 17 February 2020. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  5. ^ Turkish Directorate General of Press and Information (24 August 2004). "Political Structure of Turkey". Turkish Prime Minister's Office. Archived from the original on 5 October 2006. Retrieved 14 December 2006.
  6. ^ e.g. Istanbul in 2011 has a successful candidate at 3.2% Archived 15 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "Son Dakika: TBMM'nin yeni başkanı Numan Kurtulmuş oldu". Haberler. 8 June 2023. Archived from the original on 7 June 2023. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
  8. ^ "Turkish parliament offers simultaneous translation into four languages, excludes Kurdish". Gazete Duvar (in Turkish). 10 May 2021. Archived from the original on 16 December 2022. Retrieved 16 December 2022.
  9. ^ "HDP MP not allowed to speak Kurdish in parliament". Gazete Duvar (in Turkish). 12 July 2022. Archived from the original on 16 December 2022. Retrieved 16 December 2022.
  10. ^ "IPU PARLINE database: TURKEY (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi (T.B.M.M)), Full text". archive.ipu.org. Archived from the original on 3 October 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  11. ^ "Adalet Komisyonu". GNAT. Retrieved 23 October 2023.
  12. ^ "Anayasa Komisyonu". GNAT. Retrieved 23 October 2023.
  13. ^ "Avrupa Birliği Uyum Komisyonu". GNAT. Retrieved 23 October 2023.
  14. ^ "Bayındırlık, İmar, Ulaştırma ve Turizm Komisyonu". GNAT. Retrieved 23 October 2023.
  15. ^ "Çevre Komisyonu". GNAT. Retrieved 23 October 2023.
  16. ^ "Dışişleri Komisyonu". GNAT. Retrieved 23 October 2023.
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Sources

39°54′42″N 32°51′04″E / 39.91167°N 32.85111°E / 39.91167; 32.85111