A Hoxhaist propaganda poster, featuring Enver Hoxha alongside theorists Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin.
Translated works by Albanian leader Enver Hoxha

Hoxhaism (/ˈhɒə.ɪzəm/ HOJ-ə-iz-əm) is a variant of anti-revisionist Marxism–Leninism that developed in the late 1970s due to a split in the anti-revisionist movement, appearing after the ideological dispute between the Chinese Communist Party and the Party of Labour of Albania in 1978.[1] The ideology is named after Enver Hoxha, First Secretary of the Party of Labour from 1941 to 1985 and leader of Albania from 1944 to 1985.


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Hoxhaism demarcates itself by a strict defense of the legacy of Joseph Stalin, the organization of the Soviet Union under Stalinism,[2] and fierce criticism of virtually all other communist groupings as revisionist—it defines currents such as Eurocommunism as anti-communist movements.[3]

Critical of the United States, the Soviet Union, China, and Yugoslavia, Enver Hoxha labeled the latter three "social imperialist" and condemned the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, before withdrawing Albania from the Warsaw Pact in response.[4] Hoxhaism asserts the right of nations to pursue socialism by different paths, dictated by the conditions in those countries,[5] although Hoxha personally held the view that Titoism was "anti-Marxist" in overall practice.[6][7]

The Albanians succeeded in ideologically winning over a large share of anti-revisionists, mainly in Latin America (such as the Popular Liberation Army and the Marxist–Leninist Communist Party of Ecuador as well as the Revolutionary Communist Party of Brazil), but they also had a significant international following in general.[citation needed] Today there's still a strong Hoxhaist presence in several Latin American countries, notably Ecuador where the PCMLE has significant support through its electoral front the Popular Unity Movement and influence within Ecuadorian trade unions.[8][9][10]

Following the fall of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania in 1991, many Hoxhaist parties grouped themselves around an international conference founded in 1994 and the publication Unity and Struggle.[11]

The term Hoxhaism is rarely employed by the organizations which are associated with this trend, with Hoxhaists viewing Hoxha's theoretical contributions to Marxism as strictly an augmentation of anti-revisionism rather than a distinct ideology. Hoxhaists typically identify themselves with Marxism–Leninism or Stalinism.[12]

List of Hoxhaist parties

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See also


  1. ^ Communism for Know-It-Alls. Filiquarian Publishing, LLC. 2008. p. 23.
  2. ^ Pridham, Geoffrey (2000). The Dynamics of Democratization: A Comparative Approach. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 70. ISBN 9780826450388.
  3. ^ Hoxha, Enver (August 1979). "The Marxist-Leninist Movement and the World Crisis of Capitalism". Institute of Marxist-Leninist Studies at the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania.
  4. ^ Hoxha, Enver (1978). "I: The strategy of imperialism and modern revisionism". Imperialism and the Revolution. Tirana, Albnaia.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  5. ^ "A Brief Guide to Hoxhaism". The Red Star Vanguard. 11 June 2011. Archived from the original on 25 May 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  6. ^ Hoxha, Enver. "Enver Hoxha: Eurocommunism is Anticommunism". Archived from the original on 23 May 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  7. ^ Hoxha, Enver (1960). "Reject the Revisionist Theses of the XX Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Anti-Marxist Stand of Krushchev's Group! Uphold Marxism-Leninism!". Naim Frasheri Publishing House.
  8. ^ "¿"Sí" o "No"? ¿Qué se necesita para que gane una de estas opciones en el referendo el 5 de febrero en Ecuador?". CNN (in Spanish). 2023-01-19. Retrieved 2023-01-24.
  9. ^ Narváez, Erik Mozo (2015-05-28). "Un punto de inflexión en la historia de la Federación Nacional de Estudiantes Universitarios (Públicos) del Ecuador – FEUE Nacional –". Erik Mozo Narváez. Retrieved 2023-01-24.
  10. ^ Marcha, PCMLE, Semanario En (2011-10-25). "Formación de la FESE". Semanario En Marcha - PCMLE (in Spanish). Retrieved 2023-01-24.((cite web)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ "Communist Declaration to the Workers of the World". www.revolutionarydemocracy.org. Retrieved 2023-01-24.
  12. ^ "Revolutionary Spirit: The Marxist-Leninist Guide to Leftist Factions". Revolutionary Spirit. 2010-02-27. Retrieved 2023-01-08.