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While the Cold War itself never escalated into direct confrontation, there were a number of conflicts and revolutions related to the Cold War around the globe, spanning the entirety of the period usually prescribed to it (March 12, 1947 to December 26, 1991, a total of 44 years, 9 months, and 2 weeks).[1][2]

Since 1944

Conflict Start date End date Western Bloc related Eastern Bloc related Non-Aligned Region
Dekemvriana December 3, 1944 January 11, 1945 Kingdom of Greece
United Kingdom
EAM Southern Europe
Anti-Communist resistance in Poland 1944 1947 (1963) Cursed soldiers  Polish People's Republic
Soviet Union
Central Europe
Insurgency in the Baltic States 1944 1953  Estonian partisans
Latvian partisans
Lithuanian partisans
Soviet Union Northeastern Europe
Indonesian National Revolution August 17, 1945 December 27, 1949  Dutch East Indies
 United Kingdom
Indonesia Indonesia
Supported by:
 United States
 India
Japan
Soviet Union Soviet Union
Southeast Asia
End of the World War II
War in Vietnam (1945–46) September 13, 1945 March 30, 1946 French Indochina
 United Kingdom

Japan

Viet Minh Southeast Asia
Iran crisis of 1946 November 15, 1945 December 15, 1946 Iran Azerbaijan People's Government
Republic of Mahabad
Tudeh Military Network
Supported by:
 Soviet Union
Southern Asia
Greek Civil War March 30, 1946 October 16, 1949 Kingdom of Greece
 United Kingdom
 United States
Communist Party of Greece
Greece Provisional Democratic Government
Southern Europe
Corfu Channel incident May 15, 1946 November 13, 1946  United Kingdom Albania Southern Europe
Chinese Civil War (post-WWII) March 31, 1946 May 1, 1950

Republic of China
Kuomintang

Chinese Communist Party
Inner Mongolian People's Republic (1945–1945)
 Soviet Union
Eastern Asia
Hukbalahap Rebellion July 4, 1946 May 17, 1954  Philippines
 United States
Hukbalahap Southeast Asia
First Indochina War December 19, 1946 August 1, 1954 France
State of Vietnam
Kingdom of Laos
Kingdom of Cambodia
Viet Minh
Khmer Issarak
Pathet Lao
Japanese holdout
Southeast Asia
Paraguayan Civil War March 7, 1947 August 20, 1947 Paraguayan government
Colorado Party
Liberal Party
Febrerista Revolutionary Concentration
PCP paraguay.jpg
Paraguayan Communist Party
South America
Romanian anti-communist resistance movement 1947 1962 Anti-communist groups Romania Central Europe
1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état February 20, 1948 February 25, 1948
Flag of the President of Czechoslovakia (1918-1939, 1945-1960).svg
President
KSČ Central Europe
Costa Rican Civil War March 12, 1948 April 24, 1948 National Liberation Army

Ulatista Forces

Costa Rican government
Calderon forces
People's Vanguard Party
Nicaraguan National Guard
Central America
Communist insurgency in Burma April 2, 1948 April 16, 1989  Union of Burma Communist Party of Burma (1948–1989)
Communist Party (Burma) (1948–1978)
Shan State Communist Party (1956–1958)
Southeast Asia
Jeju uprising April 3, 1948 May, 1949  South Korea
 United States
Workers' Party of South Korea Eastern Asia
Arab–Israeli conflict (from 1948–1991) May 15, 1948 1982/Present  Israel
Lebanese Front
Army of Free Lebanon
South Lebanon Army
France
 United Kingdom
 United States
 Palestine, All-Palestine, PLO
 Lebanon
 Syria
 Sudan
 Egypt (before 1978)
 Iraq
Western Asia
Malayan Emergency June 16, 1948 July 12, 1960 Federation of Malaya
 United Kingdom
 Australia
 New Zealand
Malayan Communist Party Southeast Asia
Berlin Blockade June 24, 1948 May 12, 1949  United States
 United Kingdom
 France
 Canada
 Australia
 New Zealand
 Union of South Africa
 Soviet Union Western Europe

Since 1950s

Conflict Start date End date Western Bloc related Eastern Bloc related Non-Aligned Region
Cazin Rebellion May 5, 1950 May 6, 1950 Civilians led by Ale Čović and Milan Božić  Yugoslavia Southeast Europe
Albanian–Yugoslav conflict 1950 1957  Yugoslavia
Supported by:
  • CIA (until 1954)
Albania Albania
Southeast Europe
Korean War June 25, 1950 July 27, 1953  South Korea
 United Nations
 United States
 North Korea
 China
 Soviet Union
Eastern Asia
Egyptian Revolution of 1952 July 22, 1952 July 26, 1952 Kingdom of Egypt Egypt Free Officers Movement North Africa
Plzeň uprising of 1953 May 31, 1952 June 2, 1952 Demonstrators  Czechoslovakia Central Europe
Uprising of 1953 in East Germany June 16, 1953 June 17, 1953 Demonstrators East Germany
Soviet Union
Eastern Europe
Cuban Revolution July 26, 1953 January 1, 1959  Cuban Government
Supported by
 United States
26th of July Movement
Student Revolutionary Directorate
Second National Front of Escambray
Popular Socialist Party
Caribbean
1953 Iranian coup d'état August 15, 1953 August 20, 1953 House of Pahlavi
 United States

 United Kingdom

Government of Iran Southern Asia
Laotian Civil War November 9, 1953 December 2, 1975  Kingdom of Laos
 United States
 South Vietnam
 Thailand
Pathet Lao
 North Vietnam
Southeast Asia
1954 Guatemalan coup d'état June 18, 1954 June 27, 1954 Guatemala Guatemalan rebel exiles
 United States
Guatemala Guatemalan Government Central America
First Taiwan Strait Crisis September 3, 1954 May 1, 1955 Taiwan Republic of China
United States United States
China People's Republic of China Eastern Asia
Algerian War November 1, 1954 March 19, 1962  France

FAF
OAS

Variant flag of the GPRA (1958-1962).svg
FLN
Variant flag of the GPRA (1958-1962).svg
MNA
Flag of Algerian Communist Party.svg
PCA
North Africa
Vietnam War November 1, 1955 April 30, 1975  South Vietnam
 United States
 South Korea
 Australia
 New Zealand
 Laos
Cambodia
Khmer Republic
 Thailand
 Philippines
 North Vietnam

Viet Cong and PRG
Pathet Lao
Khmer Rouge
 China
 Soviet Union
 North Korea

Southeast Asia
Poznań 1956 protests June 28, 1956 June 30, 1956 Protesters Polish People’s Republic
 Soviet Union
Central Europe
Hungarian Revolution of 1956 October 23, 1956 November 10, 1956 Hungary Hungarian People’s Republic (Kádár)
 Soviet Union
Central Europe
Suez Crisis October 29, 1956 November 7, 1956 Israel Israel
United Kingdom United Kingdom
French Fourth Republic France
Egypt North Africa
Ifni War October 23, 1957 June 30, 1958  Spanish State
French Fourth Republic France
 Morocco North Africa
First Albanian air force incident against US air force December 23, 1957 December 23, 1957  United States People's Socialist Republic of Albania Albania Southeast Europe
14 July Revolution July 14, 1958 July 14, 1958 Arab Federation Iraq Free Officers Western Asia
Second Taiwan Strait Crisis August 23, 1958 October 6, 1958 Taiwan Republic of China
 United States
China People's Republic of China Eastern Asia
1959 Mosul uprising March 7, 1959 March 11, 1959 Iraq Arab nationalists

Supported by:
 Egypt

Iraq Iraqi Government Western Asia
1959 Tibetan uprising March 10, 1959 March 21, 1959  Tibetan and Khampa protesters and militants
Chushi Gangdruk
 People's Republic of China Central Asia

Since 1960s

Conflict Start date End date Western Bloc related Eastern Bloc related Non-Aligned Region
The attack on the Soviet naval presence 1961 1968 Soviet Union Soviet Union
Supported by:
Warsaw Pact Logo.svg
Warsaw Pact:
 Bulgaria
 Czechoslovakia
 East Germany
 Hungary
 Poland
People's Socialist Republic of Albania Albania Southeast Europe
1960 U-2 incident May 1, 1960 May 1, 1960 United States Soviet Union Eastern Europe
Congo Crisis June 30, 1960 November 25, 1965 Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo
 United States

 Belgium
 Katanga
 South Kasai

Democratic Republic of the Congo Free Republic of the Congo
Kwilu and Simba rebels
Central Africa
Guatemalan Civil War November 13, 1960 December 19, 1996 Government of Guatemala
Mano Blanca
 United States
PGT
FAR
URNG
Central America
Portuguese Colonial War February 4, 1961 April 25, 1974 Portugal Portugal MPLA
FNLA
UNITA
FLEC
PAIGC
Mozambique FRELIMO
Western/Southern Africa
Angolan War of Independence February 4, 1961 January 15, 1975 Portugal Portugal
 South Africa
MPLA
FNLA
UNITA
FLEC
RDL
Southern Africa
Bay of Pigs Invasion April 17, 1961 April 19, 1961  United States
Cuban DRF
 Cuba Caribbean
Berlin Crisis of 1961 June 4, 1961 November 9, 1961  West Germany
 United States
 United Kingdom
France
East Germany
 Soviet Union
Western Europe
Nicaraguan Revolution July 23, 1961 April 25, 1990 Nicaragua Somoza regime
Nicaragua Contras
 United States
FSLN
 Panama (1978-1979)
Central America
Eritrean War of Independence September 1, 1961 May 29, 1991 Before 1974:
Ethiopian Empire

After 1974:
ELF


EPLF
TPLF

Before 1974:
ELF

EPLF

After 1974:
PDR Ethiopia
 Soviet Union
 Cuba

Eastern Africa
Operation Trikora December 19, 1961 August 15, 1962  Netherlands
Dutch New Guinea
 Indonesia
 Soviet Union
Southeast Asia
North Yemen Civil War September 26, 1962 December 1, 1970 Kingdom of Yemen
 Saudi Arabia
Supported by:
 Jordan (until 1963)
 United Kingdom
Iran
 Israel
 Yemen Arab Republic
Egypt
Supported by:
 Soviet Union
Western Asia
Cuban Missile Crisis October 14, 1962 October 28, 1962  United States
 Italy
 Turkey
 Soviet Union
 Cuba
Caribbean
Sino-Indian War October 20, 1962 November 21, 1962  China  India Southern Asia
Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation January 20, 1963 August 11, 1966  Malaysia
 United Kingdom
 Brunei
 Australia
 New Zealand
 Indonesia
NKCP
PRB
Southeast Asia
Guinea-Bissau War of Independence January 23, 1963 September 11, 1974 Portugal Portugal PAIGC
 Guinea (1970 only)
 Cuba
Western Africa
Ar-Rashid revolt July 3, 1963 July 3, 1963 Iraqi Republic Iraqi Army
Iraqi Communist Party
Western Asia
1964 Brazilian coup d'état March 31, 1964 April 1, 1964 Brazilian Armed Forces

Supported by:
 United States

Fourth Brazilian Republic South America
Rhodesian Bush War March 31, 1964 December 12, 1979  Southern Rhodesia
(1964–1965)
 Rhodesia
(1965–1979)
 Zimbabwe Rhodesia
(1979)
 South Africa
ZANU (ZANLA)
Mozambique FRELIMO

ZAPU (ZIPRA)
ANC (MK)

Southern Africa
Mexican Dirty War December 1, 1964 December 1, 1982  Mexico

Supported by:
 United States

Left-wing groups North America
Mozambican War of Independence September 25, 1964 September 8, 1974 Portugal FRELIMO Eastern Africa
Colombian conflict May 27, 1964 Present Colombia Far-Left Guerrillas
FARC
ELN
EPL
M-19
MOEC
MAQL

AUC


Medellín Cartel

South America
Communist insurgency in Thailand January 1, 1965 April 26, 1983 Thailand
Republic of China (until 1967)
 Malaysia
 United States
Communist Party of Thailand
Pathet Lao
Khmer Rouge (until 1978)
Malayan Communist Party
Southeast Asia
Dominican Civil War April 24, 1965 September 3, 1965 Dominican Republic (Loyalist military government)
 United States
IAPF
Dominican Republic (Constitutionalist) Caribbean
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 August 15, 1965 September 23, 1965 Pakistan India Indian subcontinent
30 September Movement September 30, 1965 October 1, 1965 Suharto-backed Armed Forces

Supported by:
 United States

Sukarno government

Communist Party of Indonesia
China

Southeast Asia
Indonesian killings of 1965–66 October 1, 1965 March 1966 Indonesia PKI
Gerwani
Abangan
atheists and Kafir
ethnic Chinese
Southeast Asia
Cultural Revolution May 16, 1966 October 6, 1976 Liu Shaoqi government Mao Zedong government
Red Guards
Eastern Asia
South African Border War August 26, 1966 March 21, 1990 South Africa

 Portugal (until 1975)
UNITA (from 1975)
FNLA

SWAPO (PLAN)
MPLA (FAPLA)
 Cuba
SWANU
ANC (MK)
 Zambia
Southern Africa
Ñancahuazú Guerrilla November 3, 1966 October 9, 1967  Bolivia
 United States
National Liberation Army of Bolivia South America
Araguaia Guerrilla War 1966 1975 Brazil Communist Party of Brazil South America
Cambodian Civil War March 11, 1967 April 17, 1975 Kingdom of Cambodia (1968–1970)
Khmer Republic (1970–1975)
 United States
 South Vietnam
Khmer Rouge
GRUNK (1970–1975)
FUNK
Khmer Rumdo
 North Vietnam
Viet Cong
Southeast Asia
Six-Day War June 5, 1967 June 10, 1967  Israel Egypt
Flag of Syria (1963–1972).svg
Syria
 Jordan
Iraq
 Saudi Arabia
Western Asia
War of Attrition July 1, 1967 August 7, 1970  Israel  Egypt
 Soviet Union
PLO
 Jordan
Flag of Syria (1963–1972).svg
Syria
 Cuba
 Kuwait
Western Asia
Communist Insurgency in Malaysia June 17, 1968 December 2, 1989 Malaysia
 Singapore
 Thailand
Malayan Communist Party
Malayan National Liberation Army
North Kalimantan Communist Party
Communist Party of Thailand (until 1983)
Southeast Asia
Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia August 20, 1968 August 21, 1968 Czechoslovakia
Warsaw Pact Logo.svg
Warsaw Pact:
Eastern Europe
Sino-Soviet border conflict March 2, 1969 September 11, 1969 China Soviet Union Eastern Asia
1969 Sudanese coup d'état May 25, 1969 May 25, 1969 Sudan SAF Free Officers Movement North Africa
Football War July 14, 1969 July 18, 1969 El Salvador Honduras Central America
1969 Libyan coup d'état September 1, 1969 September 1, 1969 Kingdom of Libya
  • Cyrenaican Defence Force
Free Officers Movement North Africa
1969 Somali coup d'état October 21, 1969 October 21, 1969 Somalia Somali Republic Somalia Supreme Revolutionary Council Eastern Africa

Since 1970s

Conflict Start date End date Western Bloc related Eastern Bloc related Region
Black September in Jordan September 1, 1970 July 1971 Jordan
 Pakistan
State of Palestine PLO
Flag of Syria (1963–1972).svg
Syria
Iranian guerillas:
Western Asia
First Quarter Storm January 1970 March 1970 Government of Philippines Moderate Opposition

Communist Party of the Philippines
Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas-1930

Southeast Asia
Bangladesh Liberation War March 26, 1971 December 16, 1971 Pakistan Provisional Government of Bangladesh

India

Supported by:

 Soviet Union

South Asia
1971 JVP insurrection April 5, 1971 June 1971  Ceylon JVP South Asia
1970s operation in Balochistan February 1973 December 1978  Pakistan

Supported by:
Iran
 United States

Baloch separatists

Supported by:
 Republic of Afghanistan
 India
Iraq
 Soviet Union (from 1974)

South Asia
1973 Chilean coup d'état September 11, 1973 September 11, 1973 Chilean Armed Forces

Supported by:
 United States

Chile Chilean Government

Flag of the MIR - Chile.svg MIR

South America
Armed resistance in Chile (1973–90) September 11, 1973 March 11, 1990 Military dictatorship of Chile


 United States

Guerrillas: South America
Yom Kippur War October 6, 1973 October 25, 1973  Israel
Supported by:
 United States
Egypt
 Syria
Expeditionary forces:
 Saudi Arabia
 Algeria
 Jordan
 Sudan
Iraq
Libya
 Kuwait
 Tunisia
 Morocco
 Cuba
Supported by:
 Soviet Union
 East Germany
 North Korea
 Pakistan
 Lebanon
Western Asia
Ethiopian Civil War November 28, 1974 May 21, 1991 EPRDF

Logo of the Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Party.svg EPRP
MEISON (from 1977)
EDU
OLF
WSLF
ALF
ONLF
Eritrean separatists:

Supported by:
Libya
Somalia
 Syria
Iraq
 Saudi Arabia

Derg (1974–1987)
PDR Ethiopia (1987–1991)
MEISON (until 1977)
Supported by:
 Soviet Union (1974–1990)
 Cuba (1974–1990)
 South Yemen (1974–1990)
 North Korea
 Israel (from 1990)
Eastern Africa
Operation Independence February 5, 1975 September 28, 1977 Argentina ERP
Montoneros
South America
Lebanese Civil War April 13, 1975 October 13, 1990  Israel
Lebanese Front
Army of Free Lebanon
South Lebanon Army
Tigers Militia

Lebanese Armed Forces
UNIFIL

Lebanon Lebanese National Movement
Jammoul
Lebanese Communist Party
Syrian Social Nationalist Party in Lebanon
PLO

Syria (1976, 1983–1991)
Amal Movement
PNSF
Arab Deterrent Force

Near East
Angolan Civil War November 11, 1975 April 4, 2002 UNITA
FNLA
 South Africa
 Zaire

FLEC

MPLA
 Cuba
 Brazil
SWAPO
ANC
Executive Outcomes
FLNC
 Namibia
Southern Africa
Indonesian invasion of East Timor December 7, 1975 July 17, 1976  Indonesia East Timor Southeast Asia
Operation Entebbe July 4, 1976 July 4, 1976  Israel
Supported by:
 Kenya
PFLP-GC Flag.svg
PFLP-EO
Revolutionary Cells
Uganda
Western Africa
1976 Argentine coup d'état March 24, 1976 March 24, 1976 Armed Forces

Supported by:
 United States

Argentina Government South America
Insurgency in Aceh December 4, 1976 August 15, 2005  Indonesia
Supported by:
 United States
Free Aceh Movement
Supported by:
 Libya
Southeast Asia
Shaba I March 8, 1977 May 26, 1977  Zaire
 Morocco
Egypt
 France
 Belgium
State of Katanga Front for the National Liberation of the Congo Central Africa
Mozambican Civil War May 30, 1977 October 15, 1992 RENAMO
PRM (merged with RENAMO in 1982)
FUMO
 Rhodesia
 South Africa
Mozambique Mozambique (People's Republic until 1990)

Flag of ZANU-PF.svg ZANU
 Zimbabwe
 Tanzania
 Malawi

Southern Africa
1977 Seychelles coup d'état June 4, 1977 June 5, 1977 SDP Government SPUP Insurgents East Africa
Operation Fair Play July 5, 1977 July 5, 1977 Pakistan Army Government South Asia
Ogaden War July 13, 1977 March 15, 1978 Somalia Somalia
WSLF
Ethiopia
 Cuba
 Soviet Union
 South Yemen
Supported by:
Eastern Africa
Egyptian–Libyan War July 21, 1977 July 24, 1977 Egypt Libya North Africa
Shaba II May 11, 1978 June 1978  Zaire
 France
 Belgium
 Morocco
 United States
State of Katanga Front for the National Liberation of the Congo Central Africa
Korean Air Lines Flight 902 April 20, 1978 April 20, 1978 South Korea Soviet Union Northern Europe
Cambodian–Vietnamese War December 21, 1978 September 26, 1989 Democratic Kampuchea
 CGDK/NGC (1982–1990)


 China
Thailand

 Vietnam
People's Republic of Kampuchea FUNSK
 People's Republic of Kampuchea
 State of Cambodia
Southeast Asia
Iranian Revolution January 16, 1979 February 1979 Imperial State of Iran Revolution Council
Interim Government
Southern Asia
Sino-Vietnamese War February 17, 1979 March 16, 1979  China  Vietnam
Supported by:
 Soviet Union
Southeast Asia
Salvadoran Civil War May 9, 1979 January 16, 1992 Salvadoran government
 United States
FMLN (CRM) Central America
Soviet–Afghan War December 24, 1979 February 15, 1989 Sunni Mujahideen

Shia Mujahideen, Marxist-Leninist-Maoist rebels

Afghanistan
 Soviet Union
Central Asia

Since 1980s

Conflict Start date End date Western Bloc related Eastern Bloc related Region
Internal conflict in Peru May 17, 1980 1999/Present Peru Shining Path
Militarized Communist Party of Peru
Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement
South America
Gwangju Uprising May 18, 1980 May 27, 1980 South Korea Demonstrators Eastern Asia
Iran–Iraq War September 22, 1980 August 20, 1988  Iraq  Iran Persian Gulf
Falklands War April 2, 1982 June 14, 1982  United Kingdom  Argentina South America
1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War June 23, 1982 August 3, 1982 Somalia Somalia Ethiopia
SSDF
Eastern Africa
Korean Air Lines Flight 007 September 1, 1983 September 1, 1983 South Korea Soviet Union Eastern Asia
Invasion of Grenada October 25, 1983 December 15, 1983 United States
Caribbean Peace Force
Grenada Caribbean
People Power Revolution February 22, 1986 February 25, 1986 Government Opposition Southeast Asia
1986 United States bombing of Libya April 15, 1986 April 15, 1986  United States Libya North Africa
1987–1989 JVP insurrection April 15, 1987 December 29, 1989

Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna South Asia
Brașov rebellion November 15, 1987 November 15, 1987 Worker rebellion Romania Central Europe
8888 Uprising March 12, 1988 September 21, 1988 Pro-democracy Opposition Government Southeast Asia
Afghan Civil War February 15, 1989 April 27, 1992 Mujahideen Afghanistan Central Asia
Revolutions of 1989 March 9, 1989 April 27, 1992 Democratic Movement Eastern Bloc and Dictatorship Central/Eastern Europe
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 April 15, 1989 June 4, 1989 Beijing Students' Autonomous Federation
Beijing Workers' Autonomous Federation
Pro-democracy protesters
Other opposition
Government of China Eastern Asia
Velvet Revolution November 17, 1989 December 29, 1989 Opposition Government Central Europe
Mongolian Revolution of 1990 December 10, 1989 March 9, 1990 Protesters  Mongolian People's Republic Central Asia
United States invasion of Panama December 20, 1989 January 31, 1990  United States
Panamanian opposition
 Panama Central America
Romanian Revolution December 16, 1989 December 25, 1989 Revolutionaries Romania Government Central Europe

Since 1990s

Conflict Start date End date Western Bloc related Eastern Bloc related Region
Gulf War August 2, 1990 February 28, 1991  Kuwait
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Saudi Arabia
 Egypt
 France
Iraq Western Asia
Yugoslav Wars March 31, 1991 November 12, 2001  Slovenia
 Croatia
 Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia
 Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
 NATO
Coat of arms of the Kosovo Liberation Army.svg
KLA
UCPMB logo.svg
UÇPMB
 SFR Yugoslavia
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia FR Yugoslavia
 Republic of Serbian Krajina
Republika Srpska
Flag of the Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia (1993–1995).svg
AP Western Bosnia
Eastern Europe
1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt August 19, 1991 August 21, 1991 Soviet Union All-Union Government of the USSR

Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

Soviet Union State Committee on the State of Emergency Eastern Europe

See also

References

  1. ^ The Fifty-Year War: Conflict and Strategy in the Cold War, Norman Friedman (1999) ISBN 978-1557502643
  2. ^ The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Times, Odd Arne Westad (2005) ISBN 978-0521853644
  3. ^ Farrel 2014.