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Republic of South Vietnam
Cộng hòa miền Nam Việt Nam (Vietnamese)
Flag of Viet Cong
Motto: Độc lập – Dân chủ – Hòa bình – Trung lập[1]
"Independence – Democracy – Peace – Neutrality"
Anthem: Giải phóng miền Nam
"Liberate the South"
Republic of South Vietnam (dark green) after the Fall of Saigon.
Republic of South Vietnam (dark green) after the Fall of Saigon.
StatusUnderground government in opposition to the Republic of Vietnam (1969–1975)
Client state of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (1975–1976)
CapitalTây Ninh (1969–1972)
Lộc Ninh (1972–1973)
Cam Lộ (1973–1975)
SaigonGia Dinh (1975–1976)
Common languagesVietnamese
Vietnamese folk religion
Demonym(s)South Vietnamese
GovernmentUnitary Marxist–Leninist transitional government
Chairman of the Consultative Council 
• 1969–1976
Nguyễn Hữu Thọ
Chairman of government 
• 1969–1976
Huỳnh Tấn Phát
LegislaturePeople's Assembly
Historical era
• Government formed
8 June 1969
30 April 1975
2 July 1976
1975173,809 km2 (67,108 sq mi)
CurrencyLiberation dong
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Republic of Vietnam
Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Today part ofVietnam

The Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam (PRG, Vietnamese: Chính phủ Cách mạng Lâm thời Cộng hòa miền Nam Việt Nam), was formed on June 8, 1969, by North Vietnam as an underground government opposing the government of South Vietnam (Republic of Vietnam) under President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu. Delegates of the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (Viet Cong), as well as several smaller groups, participated in its creation.

The PRG was recognized as the government of South Vietnam by most socialist states and Malta.[2] It signed the 1973 Paris Peace Treaty as an independent entity, separate from both South Vietnam and North Vietnam. After the Fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975, the PRG formally replaced the Republic of Vietnam to become the nominal and representative government of South Vietnam under the official name Republic of South Vietnam (Vietnamese: Cộng hòa miền Nam Việt Nam), inheriting all properties, rights, obligations and sovereignty representation of the Republic of Vietnam. On 2 July 1976, the Republic of South Vietnam and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) constitutionally merged to form the current Socialist Republic of Vietnam.


The Provisional Revolutionary Government was preceded by the Vietnam Alliance of National, Democratic, and Peaceful Forces (VANDPF)[3][failed verificationsee discussion] made up of anti-government forces and headed by Trinh Dinh Thao.[4] The Alliance was a collection of individuals who wanted a new South Vietnamese government but disagreed with the ever-present Northern Communist presence.[citation needed]

There had been talk of setting up an Alliance as early as 1966, but this was halted when South Vietnamese intelligence operatives arrested an influential anti-government organizer, Ba Tra. Ba Tra gave the South Vietnamese government extensive information on anti-government forces working in the city.[5] This setback was compounded by his identification of one of the key cadre in the financial division.[5]

Under torture, Ba Tra identified more figures in the underground, who were then arrested. By 1967, the entire Saigon organization had been sent further underground.[6] The Tet Offensive during 1968 triggered a wave of oppression, forcing many people into the forests and mountains. These people – businessmen, middle class, doctors and other professionals – started The Alliance.

The then-new American president, Richard Nixon, started a process of Vietnamization to allow the American Armed Forces to withdraw from Vietnam. One of the tenets of Vietnamization was responsible government in South Vietnam. To prevent the Americans from installing their own government, a conference was held on June 6–8, 1969, off Route 22 in Cambodia's Fishhook region.[7]


The Alliance as well as other groups[which?] met and formed the Provisional Revolutionary Government on June 8, 1969. According to Justice Minister Trương Như Tảng, the new group's main purpose was to help the Vietcong "acquire a new international stature."[8]

There were delegates from the Vietcong, the VANDPF, the People's Revolutionary Party (the South Vietnamese communist party) and "the usual assortment of mass organizations, ethnic groups, and geopolitical regions."[7] Banners displayed prominently at the convention proclaimed that "South Vietnam is independent, democratic, peaceful, and neutral".[7]

The PRG reflected a number of nationalist, anti-imperialist and communist political viewpoints[citation needed], including those of the Vietnam Workers Party (the North Vietnamese communist party).[citation needed] Following the military and political results of the 1968 Tet Offensive and related military offensives in the South by Saigon and America, in which the Vietcong suffered serious military losses, the PRG was envisioned as a political counter-force that could influence international public opinion in support of reunification and in opposition to the United States and South Vietnam.[8]

The declared purpose of the PRG was to provide a formal governmental structure to the Vietcong and enhance its claim of representing "the Southern people".[9] Included in this strategy was the pursuit of a negotiated settlement to the war leading to reunification, organized during the initial phase of Vietnamization.

During the period 1969–70, most of the PRG's cabinet ministries operated near the Cambodian border. Starting on March 29 to late April 1970, the US and South Vietnamese offensives forced the PRG to flee deeper into Cambodia. The stressful escape caused many of the PRG officials (such as Trương Như Tạng) to need extensive medical furloughs. After Trương Như Tạng returned, he noticed that new cadres from the north were causing problems for the non-communist members of the PRG.[10] One member in particular, Ba Cap, harshly denounced most of the PRG as bourgeois.[11] Tạng complained to the higher members of the North Vietnamese government, but was rebuffed. Tạng later saw this as the point when the PRG turned from being an independent South Vietnam-based alternative government to being a mouthpiece for Northern Vietnamese communists.[12]

The central bodies of the PRG functioned as a provisional government. The PRG maintained diplomatic relations with many countries of the Non-Aligned Movement, such as Algeria and SFR Yugoslavia[13] as well as with the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China.


After the Fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975, the PRG assumed power in South Vietnam and subsequently participated in the reunification of Vietnam.

According to professor Long Vinh Ngo (University of Maine), mid-July 1975, the delegates of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Nguyễn Văn Lưu) and the Republic of South Vietnam (Đinh Bá Thi) applied to join the United Nations as two independent member states. On 11 August 1975, the United Nations Security Council introduced a referendum on reunification, which passed. North Vietnam and South Vietnam eventually reunited on 2 July 1976.



The national anthem of the Government was Liberate the South (Vietnamese: Giải phóng miền Nam). The song was written in 1961 by Lưu Hữu Phước (1921–1989) and adopted at that time as the anthem of the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (Viet Cong).

In 1966, Lưu Hữu Phước wrote a military song March on Saigon [vi] (Tiến về Sài Gòn) as a propaganda to encourage the soldiers going to attack in Saigon in the Tet Offensive. The song was spread again during the fall of Saigon.



Post Name Took office Left office Party
Chairman of Consultative Council (Head of State) Nguyễn Hữu Thọ 6 June 1969 2 July 1976 People's Revolutionary Party and Democratic Party of Vietnam
Chairman of Government (Prime Minister and de facto leader) Huỳnh Tấn Phát 8 June 1969 2 July 1976 People's Revolutionary Party and Democratic Party of Vietnam
Vice-chairman Phung Van Cung 8 June 1969 1976 Democratic Party of Vietnam
Vice-chairman Nguyễn Văn Kiệt 8 June 1969 1976
Vice-chairman Nguyen Doa 8 June 1969 1976
Minister of Presidential Palace of Government Tran Buu Kiem 8 June 1969 1976 People's Revolutionary Party and Democratic Party of Vietnam
Minister of Defense Trần Nam Trung 8 June 1969 1976 People's Revolutionary Party
Minister of Foreign Affairs Nguyễn Thị Bình 8 June 1969 1976 People's Revolutionary Party
Minister of the Interior Phung Van Cung 8 June 1969 1976
Minister of Justice Trương Như Tảng 8 June 1969 1976
Minister of Economy and Finance Cao Van Bon
Duong Ky Hiep (acting from 1975)
8 June 1969 died 1971
Minister of Information and Culture Lưu Hữu Phước 8 June 1969 1976
Minister of Education and Youth Nguyễn Văn Kiệt 8 June 1969 1976
Minister of Health, Social Action and Disabled Soldiers Dương Quỳnh Hoa 8 June 1969 1976 People's Revolutionary Party

See also




  1. ^ "giấy công tác đặc biệt" [Special Working Paper]. độc lập – dân chủ – hòa bình – trung lập
  2. ^ "Mintoff shows off his 'non-aligned manhood' and threatens to break relations with Israel". 2010-04-18. Retrieved 2023-11-10.
  3. ^ Florian Grotz; Dieter Nohlen; Christof Hartmann, eds. (2001). Elections in Asia and the Pacific : A Data Handbook | Volume II: South East Asia, East Asia, and the South Pacific. OUP Oxford. pp. 333, 334, 337. ISBN 978-0-19-924959-6.
  4. ^ Porter 1993, pp. 27–29
  5. ^ a b Tảng 1985, p. 131
  6. ^ Tảng 1985, p. 132
  7. ^ a b c Tảng 1985, p. 147
  8. ^ a b Tảng 1985, p. 146
  9. ^ Tảng 1985, pp. 146–147
  10. ^ Tảng 1985, p. 186
  11. ^ Tảng 1985, p. 188
  12. ^ Tảng 1985, pp. 188–189
  13. ^ Milutin Tomanović, ed. (1972). Hronika međunarodnih događaja 1971 [The Chronicle of International Events in 1971] (in Serbo-Croatian). Belgrade: Institute of International Politics and Economics. p. 2664.


Preceded byRepublic of Việt Nam Provisional Revolutionary Government 1975–1976 Succeeded bySocialist Republic of Vietnam

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