Army of the Republic of Vietnam
Lục quân Việt Nam Cộng Hòa
Flag of the South Vietnamese army
FoundedDecember 30, 1955
DisbandedApril 30, 1975
CountrySouth Vietnam
TypeArmy
SizeRegular Forces: 410,000
Territorial Militias: 532,000 Total: 942,000 in 1972[1]
Part of Republic of Vietnam Military Forces
Garrison/HQSaigon, South Vietnam
Nickname(s)LQVNCH (ARVN in English)
Motto(s)Quyết chiến — Quyết thắng
(Determined to fight — Determined to win)
MarchLục quân Việt Nam hành khúc
AnniversariesArmy Day (December 30, 1955)
EngagementsVietnam War
Cambodian Civil War
Laotian Civil War
Battle of the Paracel Islands
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Dương Văn Minh
Cao Văn Viên
Ngô Quang Trưởng

The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN; Vietnamese: Lục quân Việt Nam Cộng hòa; French: Armée de la république du Viêt Nam) were the ground forces of the South Vietnamese military from its inception in 1955 to the Fall of Saigon in April 1975.[2] It is estimated to have suffered 1,394,000 casualties (killed and wounded) during the Vietnam War.[3]

The ARVN began as a postcolonial army that was trained by and closely affiliated with the United States and had engaged in conflict since its inception. Several changes occurred throughout its lifetime, initially from a 'blocking-force' to a more modern conventional force using helicopter deployment in combat. During the American intervention, the ARVN was reduced to playing a defensive role with an incomplete modernisation,[4] and transformed again following Vietnamization, it was upgeared, expanded, and reconstructed to fulfill the role of the departing American forces. By 1974, it had become much more effective with foremost counterinsurgency expert and Nixon adviser Robert Thompson noting that Regular Forces were very well-trained and second only to the American and Israeli forces in the Free World[5] and with General Creighton Abrams remarking that 70% of units were on par with the US Army.[6] However, the withdrawal of American forces by Vietnamization meant the armed forces could not effectively fulfill all of the aims of the program and had become completely dependent on U.S. equipment since it was meant to fulfill the departing role of the United States.[7]

At the ARVN's peak, an estimated 1 in 9 citizens of South Vietnam were enlisted, and it had become the fourth-largest army in the world composed of Regular Forces and the more voluntary Regional and Village-level militias.[4]

Unique in serving a dual military-civilian administrative purpose, in direct competition with the Viet Cong,[8] the ARVN had also become a component of political power and suffered from continual issues of political loyalty appointments, corruption in leadership, factional infighting, and occasional open internal conflict.[9]

After the fall of Saigon to North Vietnam's People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), the ARVN was dissolved. While some high-ranking officers had fled the country to the United States or elsewhere, thousands of former ARVN officers were sent to re-education camps by the communist government of the unified Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Five ARVN generals committed suicide to avoid capture by the PAVN/VC.

History

Vietnamese National Army (VNA) 1949–55

The TDND 5 airborne unit fought several battles including Dien Bien Phu.
The TDND 5 airborne unit fought several battles including Dien Bien Phu.

Main article: Vietnamese National Army

On 8 March 1949, after the Élysée Accords, the State of Vietnam was recognized by France as an independent country ruled by the Vietnamese Emperor Bảo Đại, and the Vietnamese National Army (VNA) was soon created. The VNA fought in joint operations with the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps against the Viet Minh forces led by Ho Chi Minh. The VNA fought in a wide range of campaigns including the Battle of Nà Sản (1952), Operation Atlas (1953) and the Battle of Dien Bien Phu (1954).[10]

Benefiting from French assistance, the VNA quickly became a modern army modeled after the Expeditionary Corps. It included infantry, artillery, signals, armored cavalry, airborne, airforce, navy and a national military academy. By 1953 troopers as well as officers were all Vietnamese, the latter having been trained in Ecoles des Cadres such as Da Lat, including Chief of Staff General Nguyễn Văn Hinh who was a French Union airforce veteran.

After the 1954 Geneva agreements, French Indochina ceased to exist and by 1956 all French Union troops had withdrawn from Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. In 1955, by the order of Prime Minister Diệm, the VNA crushed the armed forces of the Bình Xuyên.[11][12]

Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) 1955–75

See also: Battle for Saigon, 1960 South Vietnamese coup attempt, 1962 South Vietnamese Independence Palace bombing, Buddhist crisis, Huế Vesak shootings, Xá Lợi Pagoda raids, 1963 South Vietnamese coup, Arrest and assassination of Ngô Đình Diệm, and January 1964 South Vietnamese coup

Early unmodified ARVN M113 during the Vietnam War
Early unmodified ARVN M113 during the Vietnam War

On 26 October 1955, the military was reorganized by the administration of President Ngô Đình Diệm who then formally established the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) on 30 December 1955. The air force was established as a separate service known as the Republic of Vietnam Air Force (RVNAF). Early on, the focus of the army was the guerrilla fighters of the Viet Cong (VC), formed to oppose the Diệm administration. The United States, under President John F. Kennedy sent advisors and a great deal of financial support to aid the ARVN in combating the insurgents. A major campaign, developed by Ngô Đình Nhu and later resurrected under another name was the "Strategic Hamlet Program" which was regarded as unsuccessful by Western media because it was "inhumane" to move villagers from the countryside to fortified villages. ARVN leaders and President Diệm were criticized by the foreign press when the troops were used to crush armed anti-government religious groups like the Cao Đài and Hòa Hảo as well as to raid Buddhist temples, which according to Diệm, were harboring VC guerrillas. The most notorious of these attacks occurred on the night of August 21, 1963, during the Xá Lợi Pagoda raids conducted by the Special Forces, which caused a death toll estimated to range into the hundreds.

In 1963 Diệm was killed in a coup d'état carried out by ARVN officers and encouraged by American officials such as Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. In the confusion that followed, General Dương Văn Minh took control, but he was only the first in a succession of ARVN generals to assume the presidency of South Vietnam. During these years, the United States began taking more control of the war against the VC and the role of the ARVN became less and less significant. They were also plagued by continuing problems of severe corruption amongst the officer corps. Although the US was highly critical of the ARVN, it continued to be entirely US-armed and funded.

Although the American news media has often portrayed the Vietnam War as a primarily American and North Vietnamese conflict, the ARVN carried the brunt of the fight before and after large-scale American involvement, and participated in many major operations with American troops. ARVN troops pioneered the use of the M113 armored personnel carrier as an infantry fighting vehicle by fighting mounted rather than as a "battle taxi" as originally designed, and the armored cavalry (ACAV) modifications were adopted based on ARVN experience. One notable ARVN unit equipped with M113s, the 3d Armored Cavalry Squadron, used the new tactic so proficiently and with such extraordinary heroism against hostile forces that they earned the United States Presidential Unit Citation.[13][14] The ARVN suffered 254,256 recorded deaths between 1960 and 1974, with the highest number of recorded deaths being in 1972, with 39,587 combat deaths,[15] while approximately 58,000 U.S. troops died during the war.[3]

United States experience with the ARVN generated a catalog of complaints about its performance, with various officials saying ‘it did not pull its weight,’[16] ‘content to let the Americans do the fighting and dying,’[17] and ‘weak in dedication, direction, and discipline.’[18] The President remained prone to issue instructions directly to field units, cutting across the entire chain of command. Major shortcomings identified by U.S. officers included a general lack of motivation, indicated, for example, by officers having an inclination for rear area jobs rather than combat command, and a continuing desertion problem.

Final campaigns

Starting in 1969 President Richard Nixon started the process of "Vietnamization", pulling out American forces and rendering the ARVN capable of fighting an effective war against the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and VC. Slowly, the ARVN began to expand from its counter-insurgency role to become the primary ground defense against the PAVN/VC. From 1969 to 1971 there were about 22,000 ARVN combat deaths per year. Starting in 1968, South Vietnam began calling up every available man for service in the ARVN, reaching a strength of one million soldiers by 1972. In 1970 they performed well in the Cambodian Incursion and were executing three times as many operations as they had during the American-led war period. However, the ARVN equipment continued to be of lower standards than their American and other allies, even as the U.S. tried to upgrade ARVN technology. The officer corps was still the biggest problem. Leaders were too often inept, being poorly trained, corrupt and lacking morale.[citation needed] Still, Sir Robert Thompson, a British military officer widely regarded as the worlds foremost expert in counterinsurgency warfare during the Vietnam War, thought that by 1972, the ARVN had developed into one of the best fighting forces in the world, comparing them favorably with the Israeli Defence Forces.[19] Forced to carry the burden left by the Americans, the ARVN started to perform well, though with continued American air support.

In 1972, the PAVN launched the Easter Offensive, an all-out attack against South Vietnam across the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone and from its sanctuaries in Laos and Cambodia. The assault combined infantry wave assaults, artillery and the first massive use of armored forces by the PAVN. Although the T-54 tanks proved vulnerable to LAW rockets, the ARVN took heavy losses. The PAVN forces took Quảng Trị Province and some areas along the Laos and Cambodian borders.

M41 Walker Bulldog was used by the ARVN
M41 Walker Bulldog was used by the ARVN

President Nixon dispatched bombers in Operation Linebacker to provide air support for the ARVN when it seemed that South Vietnam was about to be lost. In desperation, President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu fired the incompetent General Hoàng Xuân Lãm and replaced him with General Ngô Quang Trưởng. He gave the order that all deserters would be executed and pulled enough forces together in order to prevent the PAVN from taking Huế. Finally, with considerable US air and naval support, as well as hard fighting by the ARVN soldiers, the Easter Offensive was halted. ARVN forces counter-attacked and succeeded in driving some of the PAVN out of South Vietnam, though they did retain control of northern Quảng Trị Province near the DMZ.

At the end of 1972, Operation Linebacker II helped achieve a negotiated end to the war between the U.S. and the Hanoi government. By March 1973, in accordance with the Paris Peace Accords the United States had completely pulled its troops out of Vietnam. The ARVN was left to fight alone, but with all the weapons and technologies that their allies left behind. With massive technological support they had roughly four times as many heavy weapons as their enemies. The U.S. left the ARVN with over one thousand aircraft, making the RVNAF the fourth largest air force in the world.[20] These figures are deceptive, however, as the U.S. began to curtail military aid. The same situation happened to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, since their allies, the Soviet Union, and China has also cut down military support, forcing them to use obsolete T-34 tanks and SU-100 tank destroyers in battle.[citation needed]

In the summer of 1974, Nixon resigned under the pressure of the Watergate scandal and was succeeded by Gerald Ford. With the war growing incredibly unpopular at home, combined with a severe economic recession and mounting budget deficits, Congress cut funding to South Vietnam for the upcoming fiscal year from 1 billion to 700 million dollars. Historians have attributed the fall of Saigon in 1975 to the cessation of American aid along with the growing disenchantment of the South Vietnamese people and the rampant corruption and incompetence of South Vietnam political leaders and ARVN general staff.

Without the necessary funds and facing a collapse in South Vietnamese troop and civilian morale, it was becoming increasingly difficult for the ARVN to achieve a victory against the PAVN. Moreover, the withdrawal of U.S. aid encouraged North Vietnam to begin a new military offensive against South Vietnam. This resolve was strengthened when the new American administration did not think itself bound to this promise Nixon made to Thieu of a "severe retaliation" if Hanoi broke the 1973 Paris Peace Accords.

The fall of Huế to PAVN forces on 26 March 1975 began an organized rout of the ARVN that culminated in the complete disintegration of the South Vietnamese government. Withdrawing ARVN forces found the roads choked with refugees making troop movement almost impossible. North Vietnamese forces took advantage of the growing instability, and with the abandoned equipment of the routing ARVN, they mounted heavy attacks on all fronts. With collapse all but inevitable, many ARVN generals abandoned their troops to fend for themselves and ARVN soldiers deserted en masse. The 18th Division held out at Xuân Lộc from 9 to 21 April before being forced to withdraw. President Thiệu resigned his office on 21 April and left the country.[21] At Bien Hoa, ARVN soldiers made a strong resistance against PAVN forces, however, ARVN defenses at Cu Chi and Hoc Mon start to collapse under the overwhelming PAVN attacks. In the Mekong Delta and Phu Quoc Island, many of ARVN soldiers were aggressive and intact to prevent VC taking over any provincial capitals. Less than a month after Huế, Saigon fell and South Vietnam ceased to exist as a political entity. The sudden and complete destruction of the ARVN shocked the world. Even their opponents were surprised at how quickly South Vietnam collapsed.

There were hundreds of soldiers, officers, and colonels who committed suicide, making a decision not to live under communism. Five ARVN generals committed suicide during late April to avoid capture by the PAVN/VC and potential reeducation camps. General Le Nguyen Vy committed suicide in Lai Khe shortly after hearing Duong Van Minh surrender from the radio. Both ARVN generals in Can Tho, Le Van Hung and Nguyen Khoa Nam, committed suicide after deciding not to prolong resistance against outnumbered PAVN/VC soldiers in Mekong Region. Brigadier General Tran Van Hai committed suicide by poison at Dong Tam Base Camp. General Pham Van Phu committed suicide at a hospital in Saigon.[citation needed]

The U.S. had provided the ARVN with 793,994 M1 carbines,[22] 220,300 M1 Garands and 520 M1C/M1D rifles,[23] 640,000 M-16 rifles, 34,000 M79 grenade launchers, 40,000 radios, 20,000 quarter-ton trucks, 214 M41 Walker Bulldog light tanks, 77 M577 Command tracks (command version of the M113 APC), 930 M113 (APC/ACAVs), 120 V-100s (wheeled armored cars), and 190 M48 tanks. Operations Enhance and Enhance Plus an American effort in November 1972 managed to transfer 59 more M48A3 Patton tanks, 100 additional M-113A1 ACAVs (Armored Cavalry Assault Vehicles), and over 500 extra aircraft to South Vietnam.[24] Despite such impressive figures, the Vietnamese were not as well equipped as the American infantrymen they replaced. The 1972 offensive had been driven back only with a massive American bombing campaign against North Vietnam.

The Case–Church Amendment had effectively nullified the Paris Peace Accords, and as a result the United States had cut aid to South Vietnam drastically in 1974, just months before the final enemy offensive, allowing North Vietnam to invade South Vietnam without fear of U.S. military action. As a result, only a little fuel and ammunition were being sent to South Vietnam. South Vietnamese air and ground vehicles were immobilized by lack of spare parts. Troops went into battle without batteries for their radios, and their medics lacked basic supplies. South Vietnamese rifles and artillery pieces were rationed to three rounds of ammunition per day in the last months of the war.[25] Without enough supplies and ammunition, ARVN forces were quickly thrown into chaos and defeated by the well-supplied PAVN, no longer having to worry about U.S. bombing.

The victorious Communists sent over 250,000 ARVN soldiers to prison camps wherein they were routinely tortured and murdered some for a period of eleven consecutive years. The communists called these prison camps "reeducation camps". The Americans and South Vietnamese had laid large minefields during the war, and former ARVN soldiers were made to clear them. Thousands died from sickness and starvation and were buried in unmarked graves. The South Vietnamese national military cemetery was vandalized and abandoned, and a mass grave of ARVN soldiers was made nearby. The charity "The Returning Casualty" in the early 2000s attempted to excavate and identify remains from some camp graves and restore the cemetery.[26] Reporter Morley Safer who returned in 1989 and saw the poverty of a former soldier described the ARVN as "that wretched army that was damned by the victors, abandoned by its allies, and royally and continuously screwed by its commanders".[21]

Formations and units

The 1956 army structure of four conventional infantry divisions (8,100 each) and six light divisions (5,800 each) were reorganised according to American advice as seven full infantry divisions (10,450 each) and three corps headquarters by September 1959. The three armed services together numbered around 137,000 in 1960. In face of the communist threat, the army was expanded to 192,000 with four corps, nine divisions, one airborne brigade, one SF group, three separate regiments, one territorial regiment, 86 ranger companies, and 19 separate battalions, as well as support units in 1963, and a force strength of 355,135 in 1970.[27] Meanwhile, the supporting militia forces grew from a combined initial size of 116,000 in 1956, declined to 86,000 in 1959, and then were pushed up to 218,687 RF & 179,015 PF in 1970.[27] The effect of expanding the total land force from about 220,000 in 1960 to around 750,000 in 1970 can be imagined, along with the troop quality issues that resulted.

High Command

Main article: Joint General Staff

Corps

Divisions

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Elite forces

ARVN Rangers fighting in Saigon during the Tet Offensive, 1968.
ARVN Rangers fighting in Saigon during the Tet Offensive, 1968.

Armored forces

Generals

Ranks and insignia

Main article: South Vietnamese military ranks and insignia

Equipment

The ARVN inherited the mix of French and American weaponry of the VNA, but was progressively reequipped firstly with American World War II/Korean War era weapons and then from the mid-1960s with a range of more up to date American weaponry.

Hand combat weapons

Pistols and revolvers

Infantry rifles

ARVN Special Forces equipped with M1 Carbines
ARVN Special Forces equipped with M1 Carbines

Submachine guns

Shotguns

Ithaca 37

Machine guns

Grenades and mines

Claymore anti-personnel mine in use in Vietnam
Claymore anti-personnel mine in use in Vietnam

Grenade and Rocket Launchers

M18 and Mk 20 grenade launchers
M18 and Mk 20 grenade launchers

Infantry support weapons

Artillery

V-100 and M107 at the Huế military museum
V-100 and M107 at the Huế military museum

Combat vehicles

Tanks

ARVN M48s in April 1972
ARVN M48s in April 1972

Other armored vehicles

M8 Greyhound at Zone 5 Military Museum, Danang.

Other vehicles

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Pike, John. "Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces [RVNAF] Strength". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  2. ^ History of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam Archived 2007-03-13 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ a b Casualties – US vs NVA/VC
  4. ^ a b Pilger, John (2001). Heroes. South End Press. ISBN 9780896086661.
  5. ^ Joes, Anthony (2007-04-20). Urban Guerrilla Warfare. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0813172231.
  6. ^ Asprey, Robert (2002). War in the Shadows: The Guerrilla in History, Volume 2. https://books.google.ca/books?id=cd9Usn-NWkAC&pg=PA1022&lpg=PA1022: Doubleday & Co. pp. 1021–1022. ((cite book)): External link in |location= (help)CS1 maint: location (link)
  7. ^ Hess, Gary R. (2015-03-25). Vietnam: Explaining America's Lost War. John Wiley & Sons. p. 195. ISBN 9781118949016.
  8. ^ "A Brief Overview of the Vietnam National Army and the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces (1952–1975)" (PDF). Viet-Nam Bulletin. 1969. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 18, 2009. Retrieved October 10, 2009.
  9. ^ "Vietnam's Forgotten Army: Heroism and Betrayal in the ARVN". doi:10.1163/2468-1733_shafr_sim170070021. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  10. ^ Vietnamese National Army gallery (May 1951 – June 1954) French Defense Ministry archives ECPAD Archived March 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ *Pierre Darcourt (1977). Bay Vien, le maitre de Cholon [Bay Vien, Cholon's Master] (in French). Hachette. ISBN 978-2-01-003449-7.
  12. ^ *Alfred W. McCoy (2003). The Politics of Heroin. Lawrence Hill Books. ISBN 978-1-55652-483-7.
  13. ^ "Photo: U.S. advisor confers with ARVN 3rd Cav commander in front of a South Vietnamese M113". Archived from the original on 14 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-11.
  14. ^ "3d Armored Cavalry Squadron (ARVN) earned Presidential Unit Citation (United States) for extraordinary heroism" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2010-06-11.
  15. ^ Clarke, Jeffrey J. (1988), United States Army in Vietnam: Advice and Support: The Final Years, 1965–1973, Washington, D.C: Center of Military History, United States Army, p. 275
  16. ^ Memorandum from George Carver of the Vietnamese Affairs Staff, CIA, to DCI Helms, July 7, 1966, FRUS Vietnam 1964-68, Vol. 4, p.486, cited in Robert K. Brigham, ARVN: Life and Death in the South Vietnamese Army, University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, 2006, p.x
  17. ^ Letter from John Sylvester, Jr, Province Senior Advisor, Binh Long Province, to Charles Whitehouse, Deputy for CORDS II FFV/III CTZ, Sept. 19, 1969, The Francis N. Dawson Papers: US Policy Toward Indochina 1940-53, Reports for Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, US Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, Penn, cited in Brigham, 2006, p.x
  18. ^ Memo from Secretary of Defense McNamara to President Johnson, March 26, 1964, Foreign Relations of the United States Vietnam 1964-68, Vol. 4, Washington DC, Govt. Printing Office, 1994, p.732, cited in Brigham p.x.
  19. ^ Make For the Hills: The Autobiography of the World's Leading Counter Insurgency Expert. Leo Cooper (1989): page 114.
  20. ^ "VNAF, '51–'75". vnaf.net. Archived from the original on 15 December 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  21. ^ a b "Flashbacks", Morley Safer, Random House / St Martins Press, 1991, p 322
  22. ^ "Foreign Military Assistance". www.bavarianm1carbines.com. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  23. ^ Walter, John (2006). Rifles of the World (3rd ed.). Iola, WI: Krause Publications. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-89689-241-5.
  24. ^ Starry/Dunstan
  25. ^ "Heroic Allies". vnafmamn.com. Archived from the original on 8 August 2018. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  26. ^ Excavations of Burial Sites at Vietnamese Re-Education Camps by The Returning Casualty, Julie Martin, MSc in Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology candidate, Cranfield University UK, from southeastasianarchaeology.com
  27. ^ a b Collins, James L. (1975) [Preface dated 15 April 74]. The Development and Training of the South Vietnamese Army, 1950-72 (PDF). Washington DC: Department of the Army. pp. 31, 86.
  28. ^ Gordon L. Rottman, "Army of the Republic of Vietnam 1955-75," Osprey, 2012.
  29. ^ The Organization of the Ranger Groups is highly tentative, as the battalions were rather frequently switched between different groups. As an example, the much decorated 34th Battalion served in different periods with the 3rd, 5th and 6th Groups.
  30. ^ Formed 1966. Attached to I Corps.
  31. ^ Formed 1966. Attached to II Corps.
  32. ^ Formed 1966. Attached to III Corps.
  33. ^ Formed 1968.Attached to IV Corps.
  34. ^ a b Formed 1970. Attached to III Corps.
  35. ^ Formed 1973. Attached to the Airborne Division.
  36. ^ Formed in 1974. (Possibly never fully operational)
  37. ^ Formed in 1975. (Possibly never fully operational)
  38. ^ Actually just one single overstrength battalion. While included in the Ranger Command, it had strong links with the LLDB special forces, and used the LLDB green berrets.
  39. ^ a b c Rottman, Gordon (2017). Vietnam War US & Allied Combat Equipments. Elite 216. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781472819055.
  40. ^ "Montagnard Crossbow, Vietnam". awm.gov.au. Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Rottman, Gordon (2010). Army of the Republic of Vietnam 1955–75. Men at Arms 458. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781849081818.
  42. ^ a b c d e Rottman, Gordon (2002). Green Beret in Vietnam 1957–73. Warrior 28. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781855325685.
  43. ^ a b c d e f g Ezell, Edward (1988). Personal firepower. The Illustrated history of the Vietnam War 15. Bantam Books.
  44. ^ Cosmas, Graham (2009). The Joint Chiefs of Staff and The War in Vietnam 1960–1968 Part 3 (PDF). Office of Joint History Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. p. 187. ISBN 978-1482378696.Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h Dockery, Kevin (2004). Weapons of the Navy SEALs. Berkley Publishing Group. p. 382. ISBN 0-425-19834-0.
  46. ^ a b c Smith, Joseph (1969). Small Arms of the World (11 ed.). The Stackpole Company. p. 720.
  47. ^ Dye, Dale; Laemlein, Tom (2015). Small Arms of the Vietnam War: A Photographic Study. Warriors Publishing Group. ISBN 9780986195518.
  48. ^ a b Rottman, Gordon (2011). US MACV-SOG Reconnaissance Team in Vietnam. Warrior 159. Osprey Publishing. p. 38. ISBN 9781849085137.
  49. ^ Canfield, Bruce N. (March 2002). "Combat Shotguns of the Vietnam War". American Rifleman. pp. 44–47&92–95.
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Rottman, Gordon (2017). Vietnam War US & Allied Combat Equipments. Elite 216. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781472819055.
  51. ^ a b Rottman, Gordon (2006). Viet Cong and NVA Tunnels and Fortifications of the Vietnam War. Fortress 48. Osprey Publishing. p. 45. ISBN 9781846030031.
  52. ^ a b c d e f g h Tucker, Spencer (2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History (2nd ed.). ISBN 978-1-85109-960-3.
  53. ^ Sherwood, John (2015). War in the Shallows: U.S. Navy and Coastal and Riverine Warfare in Vietnam 1965-8. Naval History and Heritage Command. p. 176. ISBN 9780945274773.Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  54. ^ Rottman, Gordon (2012). The Bazooka. Osprey Publishing. pp. 69–70, 75–6. ISBN 978-1849088015.
  55. ^ XM191 Multishot Portable Flame Weapon (PDF) (Report). Army Concept Team in Vietnam. 1970. pp. 2–3.
  56. ^ Starry, Donn (1978). Mounted Combat in Vietnam. Vietnam Studies. Department of the Army.
  57. ^ a b c Grandolini, Albert (1998). Armor of the Vietnam War (2) Asian Forces. Armor at War 7017. Concord Publications. p. 7. ISBN 9789623616225.
  58. ^ a b c Dunstan, Simon (1985). Armour of the Vietnam Wars. Vanguard 84. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9780850455854.
  59. ^ Green, Michael (1996). Armor of the Vietnam war (1) Allied forces. Armor at War 7007. Concord Publications. pp. 19–21. ISBN 9789623616119.
  60. ^ a b Mesko, Jim (1982). Armor in Vietnam, A Pictorial History. In Action Series 6033. Squadron/Signal Publications. ISBN 9780897471268.
  61. ^ a b c d Rottman, Gordon (2011). Vietnam Gun Trucks. New Vanguard 184. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781849083553.

References

Further reading