Prior to the abdication of Bảo Đại on 30 August 1945 in the aftermath of the August Revolution, Vietnam was ruled by a series of dynasties of either local or Chinese origin. The following is a list of major dynasties in the history of Vietnam.


Naming convention

In Vietnamese historiography, dynasties are generally known to historians by the family name of the monarchs. For example, the Đinh dynasty (Nhà Đinh; 茹丁) is known as such because the ruling clan bore the family name Đinh ().

Similar to Chinese dynasties, Vietnamese dynasties would adopt a quốc hiệu (國號; "name of the state") upon the establishment of the realm. However, as it was common for several dynasties to share the same official name, referring to regimes by their official name in historiography would be potentially confusing. For instance, the quốc hiệu "Đại Việt" (大越) was used by the Lý dynasty (since the reign of Lý Thánh Tông), the Trần dynasty, the Later Trần dynasty, the Later Lê dynasty, the Mạc dynasty, and the Tây Sơn dynasty.

In the Vietnamese language, the word for "dynasty" may be written as either nhà () or triều () depending on the context. The former is generally used to denote the ruling family whereas the latter refers to the dynastic regime. For instance, the Mạc dynasty can be rendered as "Nhà Mạc" (茹莫) or "Mạc triều" (莫朝).

Origin of dynasties

Apart from over one millennium of direct Chinese rule, Vietnam was ruled by a series of "local" dynasties, although some of which could have their origins traced to China.

The founder of the legendary Hồng Bàng dynasty, Lộc Tục, was recorded as a descendant of the mythical Chinese ruler Shennong.[1]

According to two historical Vietnamese texts, the Complete Annals of Đại Việt and the Imperially-commissioned Annotated Text Reflecting the Complete History of Việt, Thục Phán of the Thục dynasty was from Sichuan, China, which was previously under the rule of the ancient Chinese State of Shu.[2][3]

The Triệu dynasty, established by Zhao Tuo from the Chinese Qin dynasty,[4][5] was considered an orthodox local regime by traditional Vietnamese historiography. However, modern Vietnamese historians generally regard the Triệu dynasty to be a foreign regime that ruled Vietnam.[6]

The founder of the Early Lý dynasty, Lý Bôn, was descended from Chinese refugees who fled Wang Mang's seizure of power in the final years of the Western Han in China.[7][8][9][10][11][12][13]

The first emperor of the Lý dynasty, Lý Công Uẩn, could have his paternal bloodline traced to modern-day Fujian, China.[14][15][16][17][18] Lý Công Uẩn's father, Lý Thuần An, escaped to Quanzhou from Hebei after Lý Công Uẩn's grandfather, Li Song, was wrongly accused of treason and executed by the Emperor Yin of Later Han.[19][20]

The origin of the Trần dynasty was traced to modern Fujian, where the ancestor of the Trần imperial clan, Trần Kính, migrated from in the 11th century CE.[21][22] The Later Trần dynasty was ruled by the same imperial clan as the earlier Trần dynasty.

The Hồ dynasty was ruled by the Hồ family which migrated from present-day Zhejiang, China to Vietnam under the leadership of Hồ Hưng Dật during the 10th century CE.[20] The Hồ dynasty claimed descent from the Duke Hu of Chen, the founder of the ancient Chinese State of Chen.[23][24] The Duke Hu of Chen was in turn descended from the legendary Emperor Shun, who was recognized by Hồ Quý Ly as the progenitor of the Hồ imperial family.[25][26] Accordingly, the Hồ dynasty adopted the official quốc hiệu "Đại Ngu" (大虞; "Great Ngu"); "Ngu" () was derived from the Emperor Shun's lineage name, Youyu (有虞). Rulers of the Tây Sơn dynasty, initially surnamed Hồ, were descended from the same line as the Hồ dynasty.[27]

Familial relations among dynasties

Several Vietnamese dynasties were related:


See also: King of Champa

Champa (Chăm Pa; 占婆) existed as an independent polity until its annexation by the Nguyễn dynasty in 1832 CE, thereby laying the foundation for the territories of the modern Vietnamese state. Most of the rulers of Champa were of Cham descent, an Austronesian ethnic group distinct from the majority Kinh ethnicity of Vietnam.

There were 15 dynasties in the history of Champa. According to Chinese historical sources, Champa officially used the quốc hiệu "Lâm Ấp" (林邑) from the 1st to 4th dynasties, "Hoàn Vương" (環王) during the 5th dynasty, and "Chiêm Thành" (占城) from the 6th to 15th dynasties.

List of dynasties in Vietnamese history

This list includes the various dynasties in the history of Vietnam, of both local and Chinese origins. Dynasties of China that ruled Vietnam are highlighted in orange. The Triệu dynasty is highlighted in light orange due to its disputed status.

Dynasty Period of rule Status[a] Rulers
Historiographical name
(English / Chữ Quốc ngữ / Hán Nôm)
Official name[b]
(Chữ Quốc ngữ / Hán Nôm)
From To Term Surname First to rule[c][d] Last to rule[d] List
Hồng Bàng dynasty
Hồng Bàng thị
2879–2524 BCE:
Xích Quỷ
2524–258 BCE:
Văn Lang
2879 BCE 258 BCE 2621 years Royal Kinh Dương Vương Hùng Duệ Vương (list)
Thục dynasty
Thục triều / Nhà Thục
蜀朝 / 茹蜀
Âu Lạc
257 BCE 207 BCE[e] 50 years[e] Royal Khai Minh
An Dương Vương (list)
Triệu dynasty[f]
Triệu triều / Nhà Triệu
趙朝 / 茹趙
Nam Việt
204 BCE 111 BCE 93 years 204–180 BCE; 125–111 BCE:
180–125 BCE:
Wu of Nanyue Zhao Jiande (list)
Western Han[h][i]
Tây Hán
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 111 BCE 9 CE 120 years Imperial Liu
Wu of Han Liu Ying[k] (list)
Xin dynasty[i]
Tân triều / Nhà Tân
新朝 / 茹新
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 9 CE 23 CE 14 years Imperial Wang
Wang Mang (list)
Eastern Han[h][i][l]
Đông Hán
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 25 CE 220 CE 192 years[m] Imperial Liu
Guangwu of Han Xian of Han (list)
Eastern Wu[l]
Đông Ngô
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 229 CE 280 CE 45 years[n] Imperial Sun
Da of Eastern Wu Sun Hao (list)
Western Jin[o][l]
Tây Tấn
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 266 CE 316 CE 41 years[p] Imperial Sima
Wu of Jin Min of Jin (list)
Eastern Jin[o][l]
Đông Tấn
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 317 CE 420 CE 103 years Imperial Sima
Yuan of Jin Gong of Jin (list)
Liu Song[l]
Lưu Tống
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 420 CE 479 CE 59 years Imperial Liu
Wu of Liu Song Shun of Liu Song (list)
Southern Qi[l]
Nam Tề
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 479 CE 502 CE 23 years Imperial Xiao
Gao of Southern Qi He of Southern Qi (list)
Liang dynasty[l]
Lương triều / Nhà Lương
梁朝 / 茹梁
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 502 CE 544 CE 42 years Imperial Xiao
Wu of Liang (list)
Early Lý dynasty
Tiền Lý triều / Nhà Tiền Lý
前李朝 / 茹前李
Vạn Xuân[q]
544 CE 602 CE 58 years Imperial [r]
Lý Bôn Lý Phật Tử (list)
Sui dynasty[s]
Tùy triều / Nhà Tùy
隋朝 / 茹隋
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 602 CE 618 CE 16 years Imperial Yang
Wen of Sui Yang of Sui (list)
Tang dynasty[s]
Đường triều / Nhà Đường
唐朝 / 茹唐
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 621 CE 907 CE 271 years[t] Imperial Li
Gaozu of Tang Ai of Tang (list)
Wu Zhou[s]
Võ Chu
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 690 CE 705 CE 15 years Imperial Wu
Shengshen of Wu Zhou (list)
Southern Han[s]
Nam Hán
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 930 CE 938 CE 8 years Imperial Liu
Gaozu of Southern Han (list)
Ngô dynasty
Ngô triều / Nhà Ngô
吳朝 / 茹吳
Tĩnh Hải quân
939 CE 965 CE 26 years Royal Ngô[u]
Ngô Quyền Nam Tấn Vương
Thiên Sách Vương
Đinh dynasty
Đinh triều / Nhà Đinh
丁朝 / 茹丁
Đại Cồ Việt
968 CE 980 CE 12 years Imperial[v] Đinh
Đinh Bộ Lĩnh Đinh Toàn (list)
Early Lê dynasty
Tiền Lê triều / Nhà Tiền Lê
前黎朝 / 茹前黎
Đại Cồ Việt
980 CE 1009 CE 29 years Imperial[v]
Lê Hoàn Lê Long Đĩnh (list)
Lý dynasty
Lý triều / Nhà Lý
李朝 / 茹李
1009–1054 CE:
Đại Cồ Việt
1054–1225 CE:
Đại Việt
1009 CE 1225 CE 216 years Imperial[v]
Lý Thái Tổ Lý Chiêu Hoàng (list)
Trần dynasty
Trần triều / Nhà Trần
陳朝 / 茹陳
Đại Việt
1225 CE 1400 CE 175 years Imperial[v] Trần[w]
Trần Thái Tông Trần An (list)
Hồ dynasty
Hồ triều / Nhà Hồ
胡朝 / 茹胡
Đại Ngu
1400 CE 1407 CE 7 years Imperial[v] Hồ[x]
Hồ Quý Ly Hồ Hán Thương (list)
Ming dynasty[y]
Minh triều / Nhà Minh
明朝 / 茹明
No independent Vietnamese dynastic title[j] 1407 CE 1427 CE 20 years Imperial Zhu
Yongle Xuande (list)
Later Trần dynasty
Hậu Trần triều / Nhà Hậu Trần
後陳朝 / 茹後陳
Đại Việt
1407 CE 1413 CE 6 years Imperial[v] Trần
Giản Định Đế Trùng Quang Đế (list)
Primitive Lê dynasty[z]
Lê sơ triều / Nhà Lê sơ
黎初朝 / 茹黎初
Đại Việt
1428 CE 1527 CE 99 years Imperial[v]
Lê Thái Tổ Lê Cung Hoàng (list)
Mạc dynasty[aa]
Mạc triều / Nhà Mạc
莫朝 / 茹莫
Đại Việt
1527 CE 1677 CE 150 years Imperial[v] Mạc
Mạc Thái Tổ Mạc Kính Vũ (list)
Revival Lê dynasty[z][aa]
Lê trung hưng triều / Nhà Lê trung hưng
黎中興朝 / 茹黎中興
Đại Việt
1533 CE 1789 CE 256 years Imperial[v]
Lê Trang Tông Lê Mẫn Đế (list)
Tây Sơn dynasty
Tây Sơn triều / Nhà Tây Sơn
西山朝 / 茹西山
Đại Việt
1778 CE 1802 CE 24 years Imperial[v] Nguyễn[ab]
Thái Đức Đế Cảnh Thịnh Đế (list)
Nguyễn dynasty[ac]
Nguyễn triều / Nhà Nguyễn
阮朝 / 茹阮
1802–1804 CE:
Nam Việt
1804–1839 CE:
Việt Nam[ad]
1839–1945 CE:
Đại Nam
1945 CE:
Đế quốc Việt Nam
1802 CE 1945 CE[29] 143 years Imperial[v] Nguyễn Phúc[ae]
Gia Long Đế Bảo Đại Đế (list)

Timeline of dynasties in Vietnamese history

Nguyễn dynastyTây Sơn dynastyLê dynastyMạc dynastyLê dynastyLater Trần dynastyMing dynastyHồ dynastyTrần dynastyLý dynastyEarly Lê dynastyĐinh dynastyNgô dynastySouthern HanTang dynastyZhou dynasty (690–705)Tang dynastySui dynastyEarly Lý dynastyLiang dynastySouthern QiLiu Song dynastyJin dynasty (266–420)#Eastern JinJin dynasty (266–420)Eastern WuJin dynasty (266–420)Eastern WuHan dynasty#Eastern HanHan dynasty#Eastern HanXin dynastyHan dynasty#Western HanTriệu dynastyThục dynastyHồng Bàng dynasty


See also


  1. ^ The status of a dynasty was dependent upon the supreme title bore by its monarch at any given time. For instance, since all monarchs of the Ngô dynasty held the title of king during their reign, the Ngô dynasty was of royal status.
  2. ^ The official dynastic name, or quốc hiệu (derived from the Chinese equivalent guóhào), functioned as the formal name of the state during the respective period.
  3. ^ In the case of Vietnamese dynasties, the monarchs listed were the de facto founders of dynasties. However, it was common for Vietnamese monarchs to posthumously honor earlier members of the family as monarchs. For instance, while the Trần dynasty was officially established by Trần Thái Tông, four earlier members of the ruling house were posthumously accorded imperial titles, the most senior of which was Trần Kinh who was conferred the temple name Mục Tổ (穆祖) and the posthumous name Ý Hoàng Đế (懿皇帝).
  4. ^ a b In the case of Chinese dynasties that ruled over Vietnam, the first and last monarch to rule Vietnam could be different from the founder and the final monarch of the particular dynasty. For instance, while the first and last monarch of the Ming dynasty to rule over Vietnam was the Yongle Emperor and Xuande Emperor respectively, the actual founder of the Ming dynasty was the Hongwu Emperor and the actual final Ming monarch was the Chongzhen Emperor.
  5. ^ a b Alternative sources identify the rule of the Thục dynasty as having ended in 179 BCE, for a length of 78 years.
  6. ^ The Triệu dynasty was founded by Zhao Tuo, an ethnic Chinese from the Qin dynasty.[4][5] The dynasty was considered a local regime by traditional Vietnamese historiography, while modern historians usually view the regime as foreign.[6] In Chinese historiography, the dynasty is typically regarded as a regional regime in southern China.
  7. ^ While the Emperor Wu of Nanyue and the Emperor Wen of Nanyue claimed imperial title domestically, they adopted royal title when dealing with the Western Han.
  8. ^ a b The Western Han (Tây Hán; 西漢) and the Eastern Han (Đông Hán; 東漢) are collectively known as the Han dynasty (Hán triều / Nhà Hán; 漢朝 / 茹漢).
  9. ^ a b c China's rule over Vietnam under the Western Han, the Xin dynasty, and the Eastern Han (until 40 CE) constitute the First Chinese domination of Vietnam in Vietnamese historiography.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n During periods of direct Chinese rule, Vietnam naturally did not possess an independent quốc hiệu of its own. Instead, the formal name of the realm would be the respective guóhào adopted by the Chinese dynasty that governed Vietnam at that time.
  11. ^ Liu Ying was not officially enthroned and maintained the title huáng tàizǐ (皇太子; "crown prince") during the regency of Wang Mang.[28] The last officially enthroned Western Han monarch who ruled over Vietnam was the Emperor Ping of Han.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g China's rule over Vietnam under the Eastern Han (since 43 CE), the Eastern Wu, the Western Jin, the Eastern Jin, the Liu Song, the Southern Qi, and the Liang dynasty constitute the Second Chinese domination of Vietnam in Vietnamese historiography.
  13. ^ The rule of the Eastern Han over Vietnam was interrupted by the rule of the Trưng Sisters between 40 CE and 43 CE.
  14. ^ The rule of the Eastern Wu over Vietnam was interrupted by the rule of the Western Jin between 266 CE and 271 CE.
  15. ^ a b The Western Jin (Tây Tấn; 西晉) and the Eastern Jin (Đông Tấn; 東晉) are collectively known as the Jin dynasty (Tấn triều / Nhà Tấn; 晉朝 / 茹晉).
  16. ^ The rule of the Western Jin over Vietnam was interrupted by the rule of the Eastern Wu between 271 CE and 280 CE.
  17. ^ Dã Năng (野能) was the quốc hiệu adopted by the realm of Đào Lang Vương.
  18. ^ As Triệu Quang Phục, surnamed Triệu (), was not a member of the () clan by birth, his enthronement was not a typical dynastic succession.
  19. ^ a b c d China's rule over Vietnam under the Sui dynasty, the Tang dynasty, the Wu Zhou, and the Southern Han constitute the Third Chinese domination of Vietnam in Vietnamese historiography.
  20. ^ The rule of the Tang dynasty over Vietnam was interrupted by the rule of the Wu Zhou between 690 CE and 705 CE.
  21. ^ As Dương Tam Kha, surnamed Dương (), was not a member of the Ngô () clan by birth, his enthronement was not a typical dynastic succession.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k While Vietnamese rulers used the imperial title of hoàng đế (皇帝; "emperor") domestically, they adopted the royal title of vương (; "king") or quốc vương (國王; "king of state") when dealing with China—a policy historians have termed "emperor at home, king abroad".
  23. ^ Dương Nhật Lễ, surnamed Dương (), was an adopted member of the Trần () clan. His enthronement was therefore not a typical dynastic succession.
  24. ^ The ruling house of the Hồ dynasty initially bore the surname Hồ (). Hồ Liêm later adopted () as the surname. Hồ Quý Ly subsequently restored the surname Hồ after the establishment of the Hồ dynasty.
  25. ^ China's rule over Vietnam under the Ming dynasty constitutes the Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam in Vietnamese historiography.
  26. ^ a b The Primitive Lê dynasty (Lê sơ triều / Nhà Lê sơ; 黎初朝 / 茹黎初) and the Revival Lê dynasty (Lê trung hưng triều / Nhà Lê trung hưng; 黎中興朝 / 茹黎中興) are collectively known as the Later Lê dynasty (Hậu Lê triều / Nhà Hậu Lê; 後黎朝 / 茹後黎).
  27. ^ a b The period from 1533 CE to 1592 CE is known in historiography as the Northern and Southern dynasties (Nam-Bắc triều; 南北朝). The period began with the establishment of the Revival Lê dynasty and ended with the defeat of the Mạc dynasty, resulting in the Mạc retreat to Cao Bằng where it continued to rule until 1677 CE.
  28. ^ The ruling house of the Tây Sơn dynasty initially bore the surname Hồ (). Nguyễn () was subsequently adopted as the surname by Thái Đức Đế prior to the establishment of the Tây Sơn dynasty.
  29. ^ From 1883 CE to 1945 CE, Nguyễn monarchs nominally ruled over the French protectorates of Annam and Tonkin. In 1945 CE, the last Nguyễn monarch, Bảo Đại Đế, served as the nominal ruler of the Japanese-dominated Empire of Vietnam.
  30. ^ While Việt Nam (越南) was the quốc hiệu bestowed on the Nguyễn dynasty by the Jiaqing Emperor of the Qing dynasty, the Nguyễn dynasty used the name Đại Việt Nam (大越南) when it conducted foreign relations with states other than China.
  31. ^ The ruling house of the Nguyễn dynasty initially bore the surname Nguyễn (). Nguyễn Phúc (阮福) was subsequently adopted as the surname by Nguyễn Thái Tổ prior to the establishment of the Nguyễn dynasty.


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    Dream Pool Essays volume 25

    Classical Chinese :桓死、安南大亂、久無酋長。其後國人共立閩人李公蘊為主。

    夢溪筆談 卷25 Chinese Wikisource has original text related to this article: 夢溪筆談/卷25

  16. ^ (in Chinese) 千年前泉州人李公蕴越南当皇帝 越南史上重要人物之一
  17. ^ (in Chinese) 两安海人曾是安南皇帝 有关专家考证李公蕴、陈日煚籍属晋江安海
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