Foreign ministry in Hanoi

As of April 2022, Vietnam (officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam) maintains diplomatic relationships with 189 UN member states, State of Palestine and Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.[1] In 2011 the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam, at the 11th National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam, released an official statement about Vietnam's foreign policy and a section of the statement stated: "Vietnam is a friend and reliable partner of all countries in the international community, actively taking part in international and regional cooperation processes. Deepen, stabilize and sustain established international relations. Develop relations with countries and territories in the world, as well as international organizations, while showing: respect for each other's independence; sovereignty and territorial integrity; non-interference in each other's international affairs; non-use or threat of force; settlement of disagreements and disputes by means of peaceful negotiations; mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit."[2]

Major steps have been taken by Vietnam to restore diplomatic ties with key countries. Full diplomatic relations were restored with New Zealand who opened its embassy in Hanoi in 1995, while Vietnam established an embassy in Wellington in 2003. Pakistan reopened its embassy in Hanoi in October 2000. Vietnam also reopened its embassy in Islamabad in December 2005 and trade office in Karachi in November 2005. United States–Vietnam relations improved in August 1995, when both nations upgraded their liaison offices opened during January 1995 to embassy status, with the United States later opening a consulate general in Ho Chi Minh City, and Vietnam opening a consulate in San Francisco.[3]

History

Feudal Vietnam

Vietnam has a history stretching back more than 4,000 years. In its early history, Vietnam tried to maintain good relations with its neighbours. From the Hồng Bàng dynasty to many feudal dynasties like the Ngô, Đinh, Early Lê, , Trần, Later Lê, Tây Sơn and Nguyễn, Vietnam's main diplomatic relationships were with neighboring Imperial China, Kingdom of Champa, Khmer Empire, Lan Xang kingdom and Siam. Later trading relationship were established with European Countries (such as through Dutch East India company) and Japan.

Post-World War II

+ Period 1945-1946: After the surrender of Japan, Both British and Chinese Kuomintang armies came into Vietnam territory to take the Japanese imperial army out of Indochina. The government of Democratic Republic of Vietnam decided to have the peace agreement with Chiang Kai-shek of Kuomintang that stationed in the north Vietnam to let them pay attention to fight the French in the south. After that, Vietnam signed the peace treaty with France in 6/3/1946.
+ Period 1947-1954 : Vietnam started to expand their foreign relation with the other countries in the world. In January, 1950, the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union were the first two countries to recognize the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.[4] Later, alliances were formed with Cambodia and Laos to make anti-French campaigns, building the friendship with the anti-colonial countries such as Thailand, Myanmar, Indonesia and India.

Cold War Era

Vietnam War

During the Vietnam War (1959–75), North Vietnam balanced relations with its two major allies, the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China.

In 1964, Zhou Enlai, worried about the escalation of U.S. forces in South Vietnam, made an informal agreement with the North. The agreement stipulated that if U.S. and South Vietnamese forces invaded North Vietnam, the Chinese would respond by loaning pilots to the North. During the invasion, Mao Zedong failed to send as many trained pilots as he promised. As a result, the North became more reliant on the Soviet Union for its defense.[4]

President Vladimir Putin attending a traditional get-together of Vietnamese graduates of Soviet and Russian universities and colleges, March 2001

By 1975, tension began to grow as Beijing increasingly viewed Vietnam as a potential Soviet instrument to encircle China. Meanwhile, Beijing's increasing support for Cambodia's Khmer Rouge sparked Vietnamese suspicions of China's motives.

Vietnamese-Chinese relations deteriorated significantly after Hanoi instituted a ban in March 1978 on private trade, a move that particularly affected the Sino-Vietnamese sector of the population. Following Vietnam's December 1978 invasion of Cambodia, China launched a retaliatory invasion of Vietnam's northern border region. Faced with severance of Chinese aid and strained international relations, Vietnam established even closer ties with the Soviet Union and its allies in the Comecon member states. Throughout the 1980s, Vietnam received nearly US$3 billion a year in economic and military aid from the Soviet Union and conducted most of its trade with the U.S.S.R. and Comecon countries. Soviet and Eastern bloc economic aid, however, ceased after the breakup of the Soviet Union.

Đổi mới (Reform)

Vietnam didn't begin to emerge from international isolation until it withdrew its troops from Cambodia in 1989. Within months of the 1991 Paris Agreements, Vietnam established diplomatic and economic relations with Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states and also with most countries of Western Europe and Asia's Far East. China re-established full diplomatic ties with Vietnam in 1991. The two nations concluded a land border demarcation agreement in 1999. In 1995, the US and Vietnam re-established diplomatic ties.[3]

In the past decade, Vietnam has recognized the importance of growing global economic interdependence and has made concerted efforts to adjust its foreign relations to reflect the evolving international economic and political situation in Southeast Asia. The country has begun to integrate itself into the regional and global economy by joining international organizations. Vietnam has stepped up its efforts to attract foreign capital from the West and regularize relations with the world financial system. In the 1990s, following the lifting of the US veto on multilateral loans to the country, Vietnam became a member of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the Asian Development Bank. The country has expanded trade with its East Asian neighbors as well as with countries in Western Europe and North America. Of particular significance was Vietnam's acceptance into ASEAN in July 1995. Vietnam joined the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC) in November 1998 and also hosted the ASEAN summit the following month. In 2005, Vietnam attended the inaugural East Asia Summit. Vietnam became a member of the World Trade Organization in November 2006.

Current issues

Vietnamese troops on Spratly Island

While Vietnam has remained relatively conflict-free since its Cambodia days, tensions have arisen in the past between Vietnam and its neighbors, especially in the case of China since both nations assert claims to the Spratly and Paracel Islands - the two archipelagos in a potentially oil-rich area of the South China Sea. Conflicting claims have produced over the years small scale armed altercations in the area. In 1988, more than 70 Vietnamese troops were killed during a confrontation with Chinese forces, when China occupied several islands under Vietnamese control in the Spratly Islands. China's assertion of control over the Spratly Islands and the entire South China Sea has elicited concern from Vietnam and its Southeast Asia neighbors. The territorial border between the two countries is being definitively mapped pursuant to a Land Border Agreement signed in December 1999, and an Agreement on Borders in the Gulf of Tonkin signed in December 2000. Vietnam and Russia declared a strategic partnership in March 2001 during the first visit ever to Hanoi of a Russian head of state, largely as an attempt to counterbalance China's growing profile in Southeast Asia.

Disputes – international: maritime boundary with Cambodia not defined; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly - Paracel Islands with the People's Republic of China (PRC), Malaysia, Philippines, and possibly Brunei; maritime boundary with Thailand resolved in August 1997; maritime boundary dispute with the PRC in the Gulf of Tonkin resolved in 2000; Paracel Islands occupied by the PRC since 1974; offshore islands and sections of boundary with Cambodia are in dispute; agreement on land border with the People's Republic of China was signed in December 1999.

Illicit drugs: minor producer of opium poppy with 21 km2 cultivated in 1999, capable of producing 11 metric tons of opium; probably minor transit point for Southeast Asian heroin destined for the US and Europe; growing opium/heroin addiction; possible small-scale heroin production

Diplomatic relations

List of countries which Vietnam maintains diplomatic relations with:

# Country[5][6][7][8][9][10] Date
1  China 18 January 1950
2  Russia 30 January 1950
3  North Korea 31 January 1950
4  Romania 3 February 1950
5  Hungary 3 February 1950
6  Czech Republic 3 February 1950
7  Poland 4 February 1950
8  Bulgaria 7 February 1950
9  Albania 11 February 1950
10  Mongolia 17 November 1954
11  Indonesia 30 December 1955
12  Serbia 10 March 1957
13  Guinea 9 October 1958
14  Mali 30 October 1960
15  Cuba 2 December 1960
16  Morocco 27 March 1961
17  Democratic Republic of the Congo 13 April 1961
18  Laos 5 September 1962
19  Algeria 28 October 1962
20  Egypt 1 September 1963
21  Yemen 16 October 1963
22  Republic of the Congo 16 July 1964
23  Tanzania 14 February 1965
24  Mauritania 15 March 1965
25  Ghana 25 March 1965
26  Syria 21 July 1966
27  Cambodia 24 June 1967
28  Iraq 10 July 1968
29  Sweden 11 January 1969
30  Sudan 26 August 1969
31  Senegal 29 December 1969
32  Somalia 7 June 1970
33  Sri Lanka 21 July 1970
34  Chile 25 March 1971
35   Switzerland 11 October 1971
36  Denmark 25 November 1971
37  Norway 25 November 1971
38  India 7 January 1972
39  Cameroon 30 August 1972
40  Equatorial Guinea 1 September 1972
41  Zambia 15 September 1972
42  Pakistan 8 November 1972
43  Austria 1 December 1972
44  Tunisia 15 December 1972
45  Madagascar 19 December 1972
46  Finland 25 January 1973
47  Uganda 9 February 1973
48  Bangladesh 11 February 1973
49  Australia 26 February 1973
50  Benin 14 March 1973
51  Belgium 22 March 1973
52  Italy 23 March 1973
53  Malaysia 30 March 1973
54  Netherlands 9 April 1973
55  France 12 April 1973
56  Singapore 1 August 1973
57  Iceland 3 August 1973
58  Iran 4 August 1973
59  Canada 21 August 1973
60  United Kingdom 11 September 1973
61  Japan 21 September 1973
62  Guinea-Bissau 30 September 1973
63  Argentina 25 October 1973
64  Gambia 30 October 1973
65  Luxembourg 15 November 1973
66  Burkina Faso 16 November 1973
67  Malta 14 January 1974
68  Afghanistan 16 September 1974
69  Gabon 9 January 1975
70  Togo 8 February 1975
71  Niger 7 March 1975
72  Libya 15 March 1975
73  Greece 15 April 1975
74  Burundi 16 April 1975
75  Guyana 19 April 1975
76    Nepal 15 May 1975
77  Mexico 19 May 1975
78  Myanmar 28 May 1975
79  Maldives 8 June 1975
80  New Zealand 19 June 1975
81  Mozambique 25 June 1975
82  Portugal 1 July 1975
83  Cape Verde 8 July 1975
84  Panama 28 August 1975
85  Germany 23 September 1975
86  Rwanda 30 September 1975
87  Ivory Coast 6 October 1975
88  Angola 12 November 1975
89  Cyprus 29 November 1975
90  Jamaica 5 January 1976
91  Kuwait 10 January 1976
92  Ethiopia 23 February 1976
93  Costa Rica 24 April 1976
94  Nigeria 25 May 1976
95  Philippines 12 July 1976
96  Thailand 6 August 1976
97  São Tomé and Príncipe 6 November 1976
98  Spain 23 May 1977
99  Turkey 7 June 1978
100  Sierra Leone 24 June 1978
101  Colombia 1 January 1979
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic 2 March 1979
102  Grenada 15 July 1979
103  Seychelles 16 August 1979
104  Nicaragua 3 September 1979
105  Ecuador 1 January 1980
106  Jordan 19 August 1980
107  Lebanon 12 February 1981
108  Zimbabwe 24 July 1981
109  Chad 5 October 1981
110  Vanuatu 3 March 1982
111  Bolivia 10 February 1987
 State of Palestine 19 November 1988
112  Brazil 8 May 1989
113  Papua New Guinea 3 November 1989
114  Venezuela 8 December 1989
115  Namibia 21 March 1990
116  Djibouti 30 April 1991
117  Uzbekistan 17 January 1992
118  Ukraine 23 January 1992
119  Belarus 24 January 1992
120  Latvia 12 February 1992
121  Estonia 20 February 1992
122  Brunei 29 February 1992
123  Lithuania 18 March 1992
124  Kyrgyzstan 4 June 1992
125  Oman 9 June 1992
126  Moldova 11 June 1992
127  Kazakhstan 29 June 1992
128  Georgia 30 June 1992
129  Marshall Islands 1 July 1992
130  Armenia 14 July 1992
131  Tajikistan 14 July 1992
132  Turkmenistan 29 July 1992
133  Azerbaijan 23 September 1992
134  South Korea 22 December 1992
135  Slovakia 1 January 1993[11]
136  Guatemala 7 January 1993
137  Qatar 8 February 1993
138  Fiji 14 May 1993
139  Israel 12 July 1993
140  Eritrea 20 July 1993
141  United Arab Emirates 1 August 1993
142  Uruguay 11 August 1993
143  South Africa 22 December 1993
144  Samoa 9 March 1994
145  Mauritius 4 May 1994
146  Slovenia 7 June 1994
147  North Macedonia 10 June 1994
148  Croatia 1 July 1994
149  Peru 14 November 1994
150  Belize 4 January 1995
151  Bahrain 31 March 1995
152  Paraguay 30 May 1995
153  Federated States of Micronesia 22 June 1995
154  United States 12 July 1995
155  Barbados 25 August 1995
156  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 18 December 1995
157  Kenya 21 December 1995
158  Bosnia and Herzegovina 26 January 1996
159  Ireland 5 April 1996
160  Solomon Islands 30 October 1996
161  Haiti 26 September 1997
162  Suriname 19 December 1997
163  Lesotho 6 January 1998
164  Saudi Arabia 21 October 1999
165  East Timor 28 July 2002
166  Honduras 17 May 2005
167  Nauru 21 June 2006
168  Montenegro 4 August 2006
169  Andorra 12 June 2007
170  San Marino 6 July 2007
171  Dominican Republic 7 July 2007
172  Monaco 29 November 2007
173  Liechtenstein 2 July 2008
174  Palau 18 August 2008
175  Central African Republic 10 November 2008
176  Botswana 11 February 2009
177  El Salvador 16 January 2010[12]
178  Bhutan 19 January 2012
179  Eswatini 21 May 2013
180  Dominica 1 November 2013
181  Saint Kitts and Nevis 1 November 2013
182  Antigua and Barbuda 8 November 2013
183  Kiribati 15 September 2014
184  Comoros 24 September 2015
185  Liberia 28 June 2016[13]
186  Saint Lucia 26 June 2018
187  South Sudan 21 February 2019
 Cook Islands 26 April 2022[14]
188  Bahamas 6 January 2023
189  Trinidad and Tobago 1 February 2023[15]
190  Tonga 21 September 2023[16]

Bilateral relations

Africa

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Algeria See Algeria–Vietnam relations
  • Algeria has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Algiers.
 Angola See Angola–Vietnam relations
  • Angola has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Luanda.
 Burkina Faso
 Burundi 1975-04-16
 Cape Verde 1975-08-07

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 July 1975.[18]

 Central African Republic 2008-11-10

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 November 2008.[18]

 Comoros

Both countries are full members of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie.

 Djibouti 1991
 Egypt 01 September 1963
  • Egypt has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Cairo.
 Guinea-Bissau 1973
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 30 September 1973.[18]
  • Guinea-Bissau is accredited to Vietnam from its embassy in Beijing, China.
 Kenya 21 December 1995 See Kenya–Vietnam relations
  • As of 1998, this was the last African country with which Vietnam established bilateral diplomatic links.[19]
  • Kenya is accredited to Vietnam through its embassy in Bangkok, Thailand.[20]
  • Vietnam's embassy in Tanzania is accredited to Kenya.[21]
 Libya 1975-03-15 See Libya–Vietnam relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 March 1975.
  • Libya has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam is accredited to Libya from its embassy in Cairo, Egypt.
 Madagascar 1972-12-19
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 December 1972.
  • Madagascar is accredited to Vietnam from its embassy in Beijing, China.
  • Vietnam is accredited to Madagascar from its embassy in Maputo, Mozambique and has an honorary consulate in Antananarivo.
 Sierra Leone 1978-06-24
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 June 1978.[18]
  • Vietnam is accredited to Sierra Leone from its embassy in Abuja, Nigeria.
 Tanzania 1965-02-14[22] See Tanzania–Vietnam relations

Americas

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Argentina 1973-10-25
  • Since December 1996, Argentina has an embassy in Hanoi.[23]
  • Since January 1995, Vietnam has an embassy in Buenos Aires.
  • Argentine Ministry of Foreign Relations: list of bilateral treaties with Vietnam (in Spanish only)[24]
  • Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Argentina[25]
 Brazil 1989-05-08
  • Brazil has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Brasília.
 Canada 1973-08-21 See Canada–Vietnam relations
  • Canada maintains an embassy in Hanoi and a consulate general in Ho Chi Minh City.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate general in Vancouver.
 Chile See Chile–Vietnam relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Santiago.
 Cuba 1960-12-02 See Cuba–Vietnam relations
  • Cuba has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Havana.
 Dominican Republic July 7, 2005
  • Dominican Republic will open an embassy in Hanoi.[26]
  • Vietnam is accredited to the Dominican Republic from its embassy in Havana, Cuba.
 Guyana 19 April 1975
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 April 1975.[18]
  • Economic and commercial relations are very limited.[27]
 Mexico 1975-07-15 See Mexico–Vietnam relations
 Panama 28 August 1975
  • Panama has an embassy in Hanoi and a Consulate-general in Ho Chi Minh City[30]
  • Vietnam is accredited to Panama from its embassy in Mexico City, Mexico.
 Paraguay 30 May 1995
  • Paraguay is accredited to Vietnam from embassy in Tokyo, Japan.[31]
  • Vietnam is accredited to Paraguay from its embassy in Buenos Aíres, Argentina.
 Peru See Peru–Vietnam relations
  • Peru has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
 United States 1995-07-11 See United States–Vietnam relations
 Uruguay See Uruguay–Vietnam relations
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam is accredited to Uruguay from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
 Venezuela 1989-12-18 See Venezuela–Vietnam relations

Vietnam has an embassy in Caracas and Venezuela an embassy in Hanoi. Though bilateral trade was $11.7 million in 2007[32] relations show "great potential".[33] Over the past ten years, the two countries have witnessed new developments in various fields, including politics, economics, culture and society, particularly in the oil and gas industry.[34]

Vietnamese President Nguyễn Minh Triết arrived in Caracas on 18 November for a two-day official visit on an invitation from Hugo Chávez.[35] Triet hailed Vietnam's friendship with Venezuela as he sought to focus on tying up oil and gas deals, including a joint development fund. He said that "We (Vietnamese) are grateful for the support and solidarity that they (Venezuelans) have offered us until now." Triết said.

Since Hugo Chávez's visit to Vietnam in 2006, his government stepped up bilateral relations with the country, which also included a visit by the Communist Party general secretary, Nông Đức Mạnh in 2007. Petróleos de Venezuela and Petrovietnam also announced a number of joint projects since the 2006 visit, including Petrovietnam's was given a concession in the Orinoco basin and an agreement to transport Venezuelan oil to Vietnam, where the two would together build an oil refinery that Vietnam lacks. On the 2006 visit, Chávez praised Vietnam's revolutionary history as he attacked the United States for its "imperialist" crimes in the Vietnam War. On the 2008 visit Triết returned similar comments as he lauded a group of Venezuelans who captured a US soldier during the Vietnam war in an unsuccessful bid to prevent the execution of a Vietnamese revolutionary.[32] The two leaders also signed a deal for a $200 million joint fund and 15 cooperation projects.[36]

In March 2008 an agreement was signed to cooperate in tourism between Vietnam and Venezuela. President Nguyễn Minh Triết received the PDVSA's Vice President Asdrubal Chavez and stated that oil and gas cooperation would become a typical example of their multi-faceted cooperation.[37] In 2009 the Venezuelan government approved $46.5 million for an agricultural development project with Vietnam.[38]

Asia

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Afghanistan 16 September 1974 *Vietnam had an embassy in Kabul from 1978 to 1992.[39]
 Armenia 14 July 1992
  • Diplomatic relations between Armenia and Vietnam were established on 14 July 1992.[40]
  • Vietnam is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow, Russia.[41]
  • Armenia has an embassy in Hanoi.
 Bangladesh 2 November 1973 See Bangladesh–Vietnam relations
 Brunei 29 February 1992 See Brunei–Vietnam relations

Brunei has an embassy in Hanoi, and Vietnam has an embassy in Bandar Seri Begawan.[42]

 Cambodia 24 June 1967 See Cambodia–Vietnam relations

Since the 1990s, relations between these nations have been improving. Both countries are members of multilateral regional organizations ASEAN and the Mekong–Ganga Cooperation. Both have opened and developed cross-border trade and sought to relax visa regulations to that end.[43] Both governments have set official targets of increasing bilateral trade by 27% to US$2.3 billion by 2010 and to $6.5 billion by 2015.[43][44] Vietnam exported US$1.2 billion worth of goods to Cambodia in 2007. While Cambodia is only the 16th largest importer of Vietnamese goods, Vietnam is Cambodia's third-largest export market.[43]

  • Cambodia has an embassy in Hanoi and a consulate-general in Ho Chi Minh City.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Phnom Penh and consulates-general in Battambang and Sihanoukville.
 China 960 (Song)
18 January 1950 (PRC)
See China–Vietnam relations
Countries which signed cooperation documents related to the Belt and Road Initiative

After both sides resumed trade links in 1991, growth in bilateral trade has increased from US$32 million in 1991 to almost $7.2 billion by 2004.[45] Both governments have set the target of increasing trade volume to US$10 billion by 2010.[45] Vietnam's exports to China include crude oil, coal, coffee and food, while China exports pharmaceuticals, machinery, petroleum, fertilizers and automobile parts to Vietnam. China has become Vietnam's second-largest trading partner and the largest source of imports.[45][46] Both nations are working to establish an "economic corridor" from China's Yunnan to Vietnam's northern provinces and cities, and similar economic zones in the Gulf of Tonkin and connecting the Nanning of Guangxi province, Lang Son province, Hanoi, Haiphong and Quang Ninh province of Vietnam.[45] Air and sea transport as well as railway have been opened between the two countries, so have the 7 pairs of national-level ports in the frontier provinces and regions of the two countries.[46] Both sides have also launched joint ventures such as the Thai Nguyen Steel Complex, which produces hundreds of thousands of tonnes of steel products.[45]

 India 7/1/1972 See India–Vietnam relations

India and Vietnam are members of the Mekong–Ganga Cooperation, created to develop to enhance close ties between India and nations of Southeast Asia. Vietnam has supported India's bid to become a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council and join the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).[47] In the 2003 joint declaration, India and Vietnam envisaged creating an "Arc of Advantage and Prosperity" in Southeast Asia;[48] to this end, Vietnam has backed a more important relationship and role between India and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and its negotiation of an Indo-ASEAN free trade agreement.[48][49] India and Vietnam have also built strategic partnerships, including extensive cooperation on developing nuclear power, enhancing regional security and fighting terrorism, transnational crime and drug trafficking.[48][50][51]

 Indonesia 30 December 1955 See Indonesia–Vietnam relations
  • Vietnam and Indonesia are both members of (ASEAN), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
  • President Megawati Sukarnoputri of Indonesia visited Vietnam in June 2003. At this time the two countries signed a "Declaration on the Framework of Friendly and Comprehensive Cooperation Entering the 21st Century".
  • In May 2005 President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono of Indonesia visited Vietnam. In the December of the same year festivities were organized in the respective capital cities to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties.[52] Due to the ongoing South China Sea disputes, both Vietnam and Indonesia has supported a restraint in militarizing the issue. China claims the EEZ of the Natuna Island of Indonesia, while it also claims most of the South China Sea including the Vietnam-claimed Paracel and Spratly islands.
 Iran 4 August 1973 See Iran–Vietnam relations
 Iraq 10 July 1968

See Iraq–Vietnam relations

  • Since December 1969, Iraq has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam is accredited to Iraq from its embassy in Tehran, Iran.
 Israel 12 July 1993 See Israel–Vietnam relations
 Japan 1605 (Tokugawa shogunate)
21 September 1973
See Japan-Vietnam relations
  • Lord Nguyễn Hoàng started to send national letter to Tokugawa Ieyasu to invite Japanese merchant to come to Hội An in 1605
  • Prince Cường Để exiled in Japan in 1905
  • Việt Nam Duy Tân Hội (Vietnam Modernization Association) created in 1904 by Phan Bội Châu, The Vietnamese nationalist who wished to bring his people to Japan to study through Đông Du Movement
  • Empire of Japan invaded French Indochina in 1940
  • Surrender of Japan in 1945
  • Both nation established relation on 21 September 1973
  • Following 23 October 1991 Final Act of the International Paris Conference on Cambodia among the Cambodian parties, Indonesia (as co-chair with France), and the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, Japan promptly established diplomatic relations and ended economic restrictions with Cambodia and Vietnam. In November 1992, Tokyo offered Vietnam US$370 million in aid. Japan also took a leading role in peacekeeping activities in Cambodia. Japan's Akashi Yasushi, UN Undersecretary General for Disarmament, was head of the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia, and Japan pledged US$3 million and even sent approximately 2,000 personnel, including members of the SDF, to participate directly in maintaining the peace. Despite the loss of a Japanese peacekeeper killed in an ambush, the force remained in Cambodia until the Cambodians were able to elect and install a government.

Japan is the single biggest country donor to Vietnam. It has pledged $US 890 million in aid for the country this year, or 6.5 percent higher than the 2006 level of $US 835.6 million.[55]

 Kazakhstan 26 September 1992
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Astana.
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Hanoi.
 Laos 5/9/1962 See Laos-Vietnam relations

Although Vietnam's historical record of leadership in the revolution and its military power and proximity will not cease to exist, Laos struck out ahead of Vietnam with its New Economic Mechanism to introduce market mechanisms into its economy. In so doing, Laos has opened the door to rapprochement with Thailand and China at some expense to its special dependence on Vietnam. Laos might have reached the same point of normalization in following Vietnam's economic and diplomatic change, but by moving ahead resolutely and responding to Thai and Chinese gestures, Laos has broadened its range of donors, trading partners, and investors independent of Vietnam's attempts to accomplish the same goal. Thus, Vietnam remains in the shadows as a mentor and emergency ally, and the tutelage of Laos has shifted dramatically to development banks and international entrepreneurs.[56]

 Malaysia 30 March 1973 See Malaysia-Vietnam relations
 Mongolia 1280 (Yuan dynasty)
17 November 1954[57]
See Mongolia–Vietnam relations

The countries signed a Friendship and Cooperation Treaty in 1961, renewed it in 1979, and signed a new one in 1995.[57] On 13 January 2003, the countries signed an 8-point cooperative document committing to cooperation between the two governments and their legislative bodies, replacing an earlier document signed in 1998.[58]

There have been 13 sessions of the Vietnam-Mongolia inter-governmental committee on cooperation in trade, economics and sci-tech, with the next to be held in Ulaanbaatar in 2010.[59] On 25 May 2004 in Ulaanbaatar, the countries signed agreements on railway transport and scientific and technological cooperation.[60] Other agreements have covered areas such as plant protection and quarantine regulations, customs, health and education.[59]

 Myanmar 28 May 1975 See Myanmar-Vietnam relations
  • Myanmar has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Yangon.
 North Korea 1226 (Goryeo)
31 January 1950
See North Korea–Vietnam relations
  • Prince Lý Long Tường of the Lý dynasty fled and exiled in Kingdom of Goryeo in 1226 to avoid the execution of the Trần dynasty
  • Both had some meetings when both of them sent envoys to pay tribute to China Empire.
  • North Korea recognised Communist ally North Vietnam on 31 January 1950
  • In July 1957, President Ho Chi Minh visited North Korea
  • North Korean leader Kim Il-sung visited North Vietnam in November–December 1958 and November 1964.
  • In February 1961, the two governments concluded an agreement on scientific and technical cooperation.
  • President Kim Il Sung sent some fighter squadron to North Vietnam to back up the North Vietnamese 921st and 923rd fighter squadrons defending Hanoi while Hanoi was bombed by The US air forces.
  • From 1950 to 1960s, students from North Vietnam began studying in North Korea as early as the 1960s.
  • Relations later declined due to investment and trade disputes in the 1990s and 2000s and emerging relationship between South Korea and Vietnam[61]
 Pakistan 8 November 1972 See Pakistan–Vietnam relations

Pakistan opened its embassy in Hanoi in 1973. However, due to economic reasons, Pakistan closed the embassy in 1980. Vietnam also opened its embassy in Islamabad in 1978 and had to close it down in 1984 due to its own economic difficulty. Bilateral relations between Pakistan and Vietnam in recent years have considerably improved. Both countries' leaders expressed their willingness to strengthen their existing relations, not only in the political sphere but also in other areas such as trade and economics, and exchange more visits from one to another's country, including both high-ranking and working visits. Pakistan reopened its embassy in Hanoi in October 2000. Vietnam also reopened its embassy in Islamabad in December 2005 and trade office in Karachi in November 2005.

 Philippines 12 July 1976 See Philippines–Vietnam relations

Ever since the end of the Cold War relations between the Philippines and Vietnam has warmed rapidly. Today the Philippines and Vietnam are economic allies and have a free trade deal with each other. Both nations are a part of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). The Philippines and Vietnam have conducted joint military exercises together in the South China Sea and are trying to find ways to turn the Spratly Islands from an area of conflict to an area of cooperation. Vietnam is also sometimes called the only communist military ally of the Philippines. The Philippines and Vietnam are also monitoring China's expansion into the South China Sea making sure that China is no threat to either Philippine or Vietnamese islands in the South China Sea. The Philippines also imports a large amount of writing material, clothes and other products from Vietnam. In May 2009, The Philippines has inked an agreement with Vietnam to cooperate in the fight against crimes and ensuring social order. In January 2010, the Philippine Stock Exchange (PSE) has signed a memorandum of understanding with the Vietnam bourse "for mutual collaboration and communication of information and experience" to facilitate the development and efficient operations of both securities markets. In 2012, Vietnam sent two military assets for a good will visit to the Philippines. Both Vietnam and the Philippines have the same stand on the South China Sea disputes, patronizing multilateral talks and international court rulings to solve the issue, tactics which China has avoided. In 2016, the Philippines strengthened its stand on the dispute through a court ruling in an international court not associated with UN and poised to create stronger relations with Vietnam for strategic defense and economic cooperation.

 Qatar 8 February 1993 See Qatar–Vietnam relations
  • Qatar has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Doha.
 Singapore 1 August 1973 See Singapore–Vietnam relations
  • Singapore has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Singapore.
 South Korea 1226 (Goryeo)
22 December 1992
See South Korea–Vietnam relations

History

  • Prince Lý Long Tường of the Lý dynasty fled and exiled in Kingdom of Goryeo in 1226 to avoid the execution of the Trần dynasty
  • Both had some meetings when both of them sent envoys to pay tribute to China Empire.
  • South Korea recognised Capitalist ally South Vietnam
  • President Park Chung Hee sent ROK troops to fight in Vietnam war in 1960s.

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the Republic of Korea started on 22 December 1992.

  • 1994 August Prime Minister Lee Young-deok
  • 1996 November President Kim Young-sam
  • 1998 December President Kim Dae-jung
  • 2002 April Prime Minister Lee Han-dong
  • 2004 October President Roh Moo-hyun
  • 2006 January Speaker of National Assembly Kim Won-ki
  • 2006 November President Roh Moo-hyun (APEC)
  • 2008 April Speaker of National Assembly Lim Chae-jung
  • 2009 May Presidential Envoy Lee Byung-suk
  • 2009 October President Lee Myung-bak
  • 2009 November Speaker of National Assembly Kim Hyong-o
  • 2010 October President Lee Myung-bak
  • 2013 January Speaker of National Assembly Kang Chang Hee
  • 2013 September President Park Geun-hye(G20).[62]
 Taiwan 960 (Song)
unofficial relation (Now)
see Taiwan–Vietnam relations
 Thailand 6/8/1976 See Thailand–Vietnam relations
  • Thailand has an embassy in Hanoi and a consulate-general in Ho Chi Minh City.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Bangkok and a consulate-general in Khon Kaen.
 Turkey 1978[68] See Turkey–Vietnam relations
 United Arab Emirates 1 August 1993 See United Arab Emirates–Vietnam relations
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.

Europe

Country Formal relations began Notes
 EU 1990 See Vietnam–European Union relations
 Austria 1 December 1972 See Austria–Vietnam relations
 Belarus 24 January 1992[70] See Belarus–Vietnam relations
  • Since 1997, Belarus has an embassy in Hanoi.[71]
  • Since November 2003, Vietnam has an embassy in Minsk.[72]
 Bulgaria 8 February 1950 See Bulgaria–Vietnam relations
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Hanoi.[73]
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Sofia.[74]
  • In 2006, the Bulgarian Government agreed to a healthcare cooperation plan with Vietnam. The two-year plan includes cooperation in many areas, mainly in public healthcare, inpatient and outpatient help, food security, medical education.[75]
 Czech Republic 2 February 1950 (as Czechoslovakia) See Czech Republic–Vietnam relations
  • The Czech Republic has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Prague.
 Denmark 25 November 1971 See Denmark–Vietnam relations
 France 12 April 1973 See France–Vietnam relations

France-Vietnam relations started as early as the 17th century with the mission of the Jesuit father Alexandre de Rhodes. Various traders would visit Vietnam during the 18th century, until the major involvement of French forces under Pigneau de Béhaine to help establish the Nguyễn dynasty from 1787 to 1789. France was heavily involved in Vietnam in the 19th century under the pretext of protecting the work of Catholic missionaries in the country. France progressively carved for itself a huge colony, which would form French Indochina in 1887. France continued to rule Vietnam as a colony until France's defeat in the First Indochina War and the proclamation of Vietnam's independence in 1954.

  • France has an embassy in Hanoi and a consulate-general in Ho Chi Minh City.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Paris.
 Germany 3 February 1955 (with East Germany and unified Germany)
23 September 1975 (with West Germany)
See Germany–Vietnam relations
  • Germany has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
 Greece 15 April 1975 See Greece–Vietnam relations
  • Greece has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Athens.
 Holy See No relation See Holy See–Vietnam relations

With the end of the Vietnam War, the Apostolic Delegate was forced to leave. Since an apostolic delegation, unlike an embassy, is not a bilateral institution with involvement by the State, the Apostolic Delegation for Vietnam has not been suppressed, but has remained inactive since 1975.[78] In January 2011 the Holy See appointed the first ambassador, formally "non-resident representative to Vietnam" with Archbishop Leopoldo Girelli being the first to hold the post in addition to Archbishop Girelli's other role as Apostolic Nuncio to Singapore and Apostolic Delegate to Malaysia.

Temporary missions from the Holy See to discuss with the Government matters of common interest are sent every year or two, and there has been at least one visit to the Vatican by a Vietnamese mission. Marxism and communism officially promoted atheism, causing Roman Catholics and other Christians to be associated with the anti-communist South Vietnam region. This has strained relations between the Holy See and the Hanoi Government. Leading bishops have been imprisoned for several years, in what some observers have described as a persecution of the Vietnamese Church. There is also a question of Church property confiscated by the Vietnamese government and that the Church has sought to recover.

 Hungary 3 February 1950 See Hungary–Vietnam relations
  • Hungary has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Budapest.
 Italy 23 March 1973 See Italy–Vietnam relations
  • Italy has an embassy in Hanoi and a consulate-general in Ho Chi Minh City.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Rome.
 Luxembourg 15 November 1973 See Luxembourg–Vietnam relations

Luxembourg's representation in Vietnam is through its embassy in Beijing, China.[79] Vietnam is represented through its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.[80]

 North Macedonia 10 June 1994
  • The countries established diplomatic relations on 10 June 1994.[18]
  • North Macedonia is represented in Vietnam through its embassy in Beijing, China.[81]
  • Vietnam is represented in North Macedonia through its embassy in Sofia, Bulgaria.[81]
 Poland 4 February 1950 See Poland–Vietnam relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Warsaw.
 Portugal 1 July 1975
  • In 2015 both countries are celebrating 500 years of relations, remembering 1515 when the Portuguese traveler Duarte Coelho, reached Cochinchina, Champa and Tonkin[82] starting a long period of trading relations with the Portuguese established in Macau and in Malacca.
  • Portugal is accredited to Vietnam from its embassy in Bangkok, Thailand and has honorary consulates both in Hanoi (31 Pho Duc Chinh, Truc Bach Ward, Ba Dinh District, Ha noi) and in Ho Chi Minh City (66/11 Pham Ngoc Thach, Q3, Ho Chi Minh)[83]
  • Vietnam is accredited to Portugal from its embassy in Paris, France.
 Russia 30 January 1950 (as USSR)
Russia (now)
See Russia–Vietnam relations
 Serbia 10 March 1957 (as SFR Yugoslavia)
  • Serbia is represented in Vietnam through its embassy in Jakarta (Indonesia).
  • Vietnam is represented in Serbia through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania).
  • Vietnam supports Serbia in Kosovo issue.
  • Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Vietnam[85]
  • Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Serbia[86]
 Slovakia 2/2/1950 (as Czechoslovakia) See Slovakia–Vietnam relations
  • Slovakia has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Bratislava.
 Spain 23 May 1977[87] See Spain–Vietnam relations
  • Spain has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Madrid.
 Ukraine 23 January 1992[88] See Ukraine–Vietnam relations
 United Kingdom 11 September 1973 See United Kingdom–Vietnam relations
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Hanoi.[89]
  • Vietnam has an embassy in London.

Oceania

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Australia 26 February 1973 See Australia–Vietnam relations
  • Australian Prime Ministers Paul Keating and John Howard have visited Vietnam, in 1994 and 2006 respectively.
  • In the fiscal year 2006–2007 Australia Overseas Development Aid was 81.5million A$.
  • In 2006, the volume of bilateral trade was 4.75 US$ billion.
  • Australia has an embassy in Hanoi and a consulate in Ho Chi Minh City. Vietnam has an embassy in Canberra.
  • Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs: VIETNAM – AUSTRALIA RELATIONS[90]
 New Zealand 19 June 1975[91] See New Zealand–Vietnam relations

Full diplomatic relations were restored in 1989. New Zealand opened its embassy in Hanoi in 1995, while Vietnam established an embassy in Wellington in 2003.

See also

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Works cited

Further reading