Nations with which Iran has diplomatic relations

The foreign relations of Iran are the economic and diplomatic relationships between the Iranian government and governments of other countries. Geography is an important factor in informing Iran's foreign policy.[1] Following the 1979 Iranian Revolution, the newly formed Islamic Republic, under the leadership of Ayatollah Khomeini, dramatically reversed the pro-American foreign policy of the last Shah of Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Since then the country's policies have oscillated between the two opposing tendencies of revolutionary ardour to eliminate Western and non-Muslim influences while promoting the Islamic revolution abroad, and pragmatism, which would advance economic development and normalization of relations. Iran's bilateral dealings are accordingly sometimes confused and contradictory.

According to data published by the Reputation Institute, Iran is the world's second least internationally reputable country, just ahead of Iraq, and has held that position for the three consecutive years of 2016, 2017, and 2018.[2][3] Islamism and nuclear proliferation are recurring issues with Iran's foreign relations. In a series of international polls by Pew Research in 2012, only one country (Pakistan) had the majority of its population supporting Iran's right to acquire nuclear arms; every other population polled overwhelmingly rejected a nuclear-armed Iran (90–95% opposed in the polled European, North American, and South American countries), and majorities in most of them were in favor of military action to prevent a nuclear-armed Iran from materializing. Additionally, the majority of Americans, Brazilians, Japanese, Mexicans, Egyptians, Germans, Britons, French, Italians, Spaniards, and Poles (among other national groups) had majority support for "tougher sanctions" on Iran, while majorities in China, Russia, and Turkey opposed tougher sanctions.[4]

Background

Iranians have traditionally been highly sensitive to foreign interference in their country, pointing to such events as the Russian conquest of northern parts of the country in the course of the 19th century, the tobacco concession, the British and Russian occupations of the First and Second World Wars, and the CIA plot to overthrow Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq. This suspicion manifests itself in attitudes that many foreigners might find incomprehensible, such as the "fairly common" belief that the Iranian Revolution was actually the work of a conspiracy between Iran's Shi'a clergy and the British government.[5] This may have been a result of the anti-Shah bias in BBC Radio's influential Persian broadcasts into Iran: a BBC report of 23 March 2009 explains that many in Iran saw the broadcaster and the government as one, and interpreted the bias for Khomeini as evidence of weakening British government support for the Shah. It is entirely plausible that the BBC did indeed help hasten revolutionary events.[6]

Revolutionary period under Khomeini

Darvazeh-e-Bagh-e-Melli: the main gates to Iran's Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tehran.
The newly renovated building of Iran's Ministry of Foreign Affairs uses pre-Islamic Persian architecture extensively in its facade.

Under Khomeini's government, Iran's foreign policy often emphasized the elimination of foreign influence and the spread of Islamic revolution over state-to-state relations or the furtherance of trade. In Khomeini's own words:

We shall export our revolution to the whole world. Until the cry "There is no God but Allah" resounds over the whole world, there will be struggle.[7]

The Islamic Republic's effort to spread the revolution is considered to have begun in earnest in March 1982, when 380 men from more than 25 Arab and Islamic nations met at the former Tehran Hilton Hotel for a "seminar" on the "ideal Islamic government" and, less academically, the launch of a large-scale offensive to cleanse the Islamic world of the satanic Western and Communist influences that were seen to be hindering the Islamic world's progress. The gathering of militants, primarily Shi'a but including some Sunnis, "with various religious and revolutionary credentials", was hosted by the Association of Militant Clerics and the Pasdaran Islamic Revolutionary Guards.[8] The nerve centre of the revolutionary crusade, operational since shortly after the 1979 revolution, was located in downtown Tehran and known to outsiders as the "Taleghani Centre". Here the groundwork for the gathering was prepared: the establishment of Arab cadres, recruited or imported from surrounding countries to spread the revolution, and provision of headquarters for such groups as the Islamic Front for the Liberation of Bahrain, the Iraqi Shi'a movement, and Philippine Moro, Kuwaiti, Saudi, North African and Lebanese militant clerics.

These groups came under the umbrella of the "Council for the Islamic Revolution", which was supervised by Ayatollah Hussein Ali Montazeri, the designated heir of Ayatollah Khomeini. Most of the council's members were clerics, but they also reportedly included advisors from the Syrian and Libyan intelligence agencies. The council apparently received more than $1 billion annually in contributions from the faithful in other countries and in funds allocated by the Iranian government.[9]

Its strategy was two-pronged: armed struggle against what were perceived as Western imperialism and its agents; and an internal purifying process to free Islamic territory and Muslim minds of non-Islamic cultural, intellectual and spiritual influences, by providing justice, services, resources to the mustazafin (weak) masses of the Muslim world. These attempts to spread its Islamic revolution strained the country's relations with many of its Arab neighbours, and the extrajudicial execution of Iranian dissidents in Europe unnerved European nations, particularly France and Germany. For example, the Islamic Republic expressed its opinion of Egypt's secular government by naming a street in Tehran after Egyptian President Anwar Sadat's killer, Khalid al-Istanbuli.[10] At this time Iran found itself very isolated, but this was a secondary consideration to the spread of revolutionary ideals across the Persian Gulf and confrontation with the US (or "Great Satan") in the 1979-1981 hostage crisis.

Training volunteers

Arab and other Muslim volunteers who came to Iran were trained in camps run by the Revolutionary Guards. There were three primary bases in Tehran, and others in Ahvaz, Isfahan, Qom, Shiraz, and Mashhad, and a further facility, converted in 1984, near the southern naval base at Bushire.[11]

In 1981 Iran supported an attempt to overthrow the Bahraini government, in 1983 expressed political support for Shi'ites who bombed Western embassies in Kuwait, and in 1987 Iranian pilgrims rioted at poor living conditions and treatment during the Hajj (pilgrimage) in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, and were consequently massacred. Nations with strong fundamentalist movements, such as Egypt and Algeria, also began to mistrust Iran. With the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, Iran was thought to be supporting the creation of the Hizballah organization. Furthermore, Iran went on to oppose the Arab–Israeli peace process, because it saw Israel as an illegal country.

Iran–Iraq War

See also: Iran–Iraq relations and Iran–Iraq War

Iranian relations with Iraq had never been good historically; however, they took a turn for the worse in 1980 when Iraq invaded Iran. The stated reason for Iraq's invasion was the contested sovereignty over the Shatt al-Arab waterway (Arvand Rud in Persian). Other unstated reasons were probably more significant: Iran and Iraq had a history of interference in each other's affairs by supporting separatist movements, and although this interference had ceased since the Algiers Agreement.

Iran demanded the withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Iranian territory and the return to the status quo ante for the Shatt al-Arab, as established under the Algiers Agreement. This period saw Iran become even more isolated, with virtually no allies. Exhausted by the war, Iran signed UN Security Council Resolution 598 in July 1988, after the United States and Germany began supplying Iraq with chemical weapons. The ceasefire resulting from the UN resolution was implemented on 20 August 1988. Neither nation had made any real gains in the war, which left one million dead and had a dramatic effect on the country's foreign policy. From this point on, the Islamic Republic recognized that it had no choice but to moderate its radical approach and rationalize its objectives. This was the beginning of what Anoushiravan Ehteshami calls the "reorientation phase" of Iranian foreign policy.

Pragmatism

Like other revolutionary states, practical considerations have sometimes led the Islamic Republic to inconsistency and subordination of such ideological concerns as pan-Islamic solidarity. One observer, Graham Fuller, has called the Islamic Republic "stunningly silent"

about [Muslim] Chechens in [non-Muslim] Russia, or Uyghurs in China,[12] simply because the Iranian state has important strategic ties with both China and Russia that need to be preserved in the state interest. Iran has astonishingly even supported Christian Armenia in the First Nagorno-Karabakh War against Shi'ite Azerbaijan and has been careful not to lend too much support to Islamic Tajiks in Tajikistan, where the language is basically a dialect of Persian.

In this regard the Islamic Republic resembles another revolutionary state, the old Soviet Union. The USSR was ideologically committed not to Islam but to world proletarian revolution, led by Communist parties under its leadership, but "frequently abandoned support to foreign communist parties when it served Soviet national interests to cooperate with the governments that were oppressing them."[13]

Post-War period (1988–present)

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
President Khatami (in office: 1997–2005) played a key role in repairing Iran's foreign relations with Europe.

Since the end of the Iran–Iraq War, Iran's new foreign policy has had a dramatic effect on its global standing. Relations with the European Union have dramatically improved, to the point where Iran is a major oil exporter and a trading partner with such countries as Italy, France, and Germany. China and India have also emerged as friends of Iran; these three countries face similar challenges in the global economy as they industrialize, and consequently find themselves aligned on a number of issues.

Iran maintains regular diplomatic and commercial relations with Russia and the former Soviet Republics. Both Iran and Russia believe they have important national interests at stake in developments in Central Asia and the Transcaucasus, particularly concerning energy resources from the Caspian Sea.

Significant historical treaties

Current policies

See also: History of the Islamic Republic of Iran

Ali Khamenei with Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Löfven, 11 February 2017

The Islamic Republic of Iran accords priority to its relations with the other states in the region and with the rest of the Islamic world. This includes a strong commitment to the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) and the Non-Aligned Movement. Relations with the states of the Arab Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), especially with Saudi Arabia, are characterized by rivalry and hostility. An unresolved territorial dispute with the United Arab Emirates concerning three islands in the Persian Gulf continues to mar its relations with these states. Iran has close relations with Kuwait.

Iran seeks new allies around the world due to its increasing political and economic isolation in the international community.[14][15] This isolation is evident in the various economic sanctions and the EU oil embargo that have been implemented in response to questions that have been raised over the Iranian nuclear program.[16]

Tehran supports the Interim Governing Council in Iraq, but it strongly advocates a prompt and full transfer of state authority to the Iraqi people. Iran hopes for stabilization in Afghanistan and supports the reconstruction effort so that the Afghan refugees in Iran (which number approximately 2.5 million.[17]) can return to their homeland and the flow of drugs from Afghanistan can be stemmed. Iran is also pursuing a policy of stabilization and cooperation with the countries of the Caucasus and Central Asia, whereby it is seeking to capitalise on its central location to establish itself as the political and economic hub of the region.

On the international scene, it has been argued by some that Iran has become, or will become in the near future, a superpower due to its ability to influence international events. Others, such as Robert Baer, have argued that Iran is already an energy superpower and is on its way to becoming an empire. Flynt Leverett calls Iran a rising power that might well become a nuclear power in coming years—if the US does not prevent Iran from acquiring nuclear technology, as part of a grand bargain under which Iran would cease its nuclear activities in exchange for a guarantee of its borders by the US.[18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]

Current territorial disputes

See also: Territorial disputes in the Persian Gulf

Southern Caspian Energy Prospects (portion of Iran). Country Profile 2004.

Foreign policy strategies

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iran is selected by the President of Iran. This post has been held by Hossein Amir-Abdollahian since 25 August 2021.

Foreign relations by country

Africa

In 2010, Foreign Minister Manouchehr Mottaki said it was a principle of the government to boost ties with African states.[citation needed] However, there are some signs of disillusionment beginning to emerge in Africa in that twenty African nations threatened to close their embassies in Tehran following what they termed Ahmadinejad's failure to live up to the promises he made during his trips to Africa.[30] However, the Iranian government does not seem deterred by the misadventures, and seems to keep considering African countries strategically necessary to enable it to receive international support for its much criticized nuclear program.

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Algeria See Algeria–Iran relations

Algeria is one of the few Arab and Sunni nations that has been friendly towards Iran. Iran is also one of the only states in the Middle East to voice support for the Polisario Front, a rebel movement backed by Algeria. Both countries also support the Syrian government of Bashar al-Assad.[31]

 Angola 8 January 1986 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 January 1986.[32]
 Burkina Faso 1 November 1984 See Burkina Faso–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 November 1984.[33]

 Burundi 31 March 1985 See Burundi–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 31 March 1985.[34]

 Cameroon 10 March 1975 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 March 1975.[35]
 Central African Republic 18 March 1975 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 March 1975.[36]
 Chad 19 July 1972 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 July 1972[37]
 Comoros Diplomatic relations severed in January 2016

Comoros severed the diplomatic relations with Iran in January 2016.[38]

 Democratic Republic of Congo 11 February 1973 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 February 1973 and Embassy of Iran in Kinshasa open in November 1973[39]
 Republic of the Congo
 Cote d'Ivoire 2 October 1975 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 2 October 1975[40]
 Djibouti 4 April 1978 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 April 1978.[41]
 Egypt Diplomatic relations severed 30 April 1979[42] See Egypt–Iran relations
  • Egypt has an interest section in Tehran.
 Eritrea 31 May 2007 See Eritrea–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 31 May 2007[43][44]

 Gabon 26 November 1974 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 26 November 1974.[45]
 Gambia Diplomatic relations severed in November 2010

In November 2010, Gambia broke off diplomatic relations with Iran in reaction to a weapons shipment. The Gambian government allowed 48 hours to Iranians to leave the country.[46]

 Ghana

Iran and Ghana maintain a historic special relationship and Iran has an embassy in Ghana and Ghana has an embassy in Tehran.[47][48]

 Guinea-Bissau 22 August 1990

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 August 1990[49]

Both countries cooperate in various fields (education, mining, health, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, development and energy).[50][51]

 Kenya 3 October 1971 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 October 1971.[52]
 Lesotho 15 December 1971 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 December 1971.[52]
 Liberia 2 June 1975 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 2 June 1975.[53] In 2023, an Iranian drone struck the Liberian flagged chemical tanker Chem Pluto.[54][55]
 Libya 30 December 1967 See Iran-Libya relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 30 December 1967.[56]

The relations between two countries began in 1967 when both countries were governed by monarchs.[57] However, the relations became strained when Muammar Gaddafi seized the power on 1 September 1969 due to his alliance with other Arab leaders such as Gamal Nasser against Shah Mohammad Reza.[57]

Libya broke ranks with most of the Arab states when it came out in support of Iran during the Iran–Iraq War.[citation needed] There is a Libyan embassy in Tehran and an Iranian embassy in Tripoli.[citation needed]

 Malawi 5 April 1971 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 April 1971.[58] But diplomatic relations were severed on 11 February 1979 and re-established on 18 February 1996.[59]
 Mali 12 April 1975 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 April 1975[60]
 Mauritania 25 October 1973 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 October 1973[61]
 Mauritius 25 September 1971 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 September 1971.[62]
 Morocco Diplomatic relations severed in March 2009 See Iran–Morocco relations

There have been several instances in which Iran and Morocco have mostly or completely severed diplomatic relations. Iran cut off diplomatic ties with Morocco in 1981 after King Hassan II gave asylum to the exiled Shah. It took almost a decade for relations to thaw; Prime Minister Abderrahmane Youssoufi of Morocco led the first Moroccan delegation to the Islamic Republic of Iran.[63] Economic ties increased greatly in 2009.[64]

On 6 March 2009, Morocco severed diplomatic ties with Iran, offering several reasons. Morocco's Foreign Ministry said it was a result of Iran's spreading the Shi'ite variety of Islam in Sunni Morocco constituted interference in domestic affairs.[64][65]

On 1 May 2018, Morocco severed diplomatic ties with Iran over Tehran's support for the Polisario Front, a Western Sahara independence movement. Morocco Foreign Minister Nasser Bourita told reporters Morocco would close its embassy in Tehran and would expel the Iranian ambassador in Rabat.[66]

 Namibia 21 March 1990 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 March 1990.[67]
 Niger 11 June 1975 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 June 1975[68]
 Nigeria 5 May 1972 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 May 1972[69]
 Senegal 13 May 1971 See Iran–Senegal relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 May 1971.[70]

Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and his Senegalese counterpart Abdoulaye Wade pledged to expand bilateral ties in the fields of economics, tourism and politics in addition to increased efforts to empower OIC.[71] Iran Khodro established[72] an assembly line to produce Iranian cars in Senegal for African markets. The company had the capacity to produce 10,000 Samand cars annually.[73]

In February 2011, Senegal severed diplomatic relations with Iran as it accused Iran of supplying weapons to rebels in the Casamance region.[74]

 Seychelles July 1976 both countries established diplomatic relations in July 1976.[75]
 Sierra Leone 12 March 1983 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 March 1983.[76]
 South Africa 10 May 1994 See Iran – South Africa relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 May 1994.[77]

South Africa and Iran share historical bilateral relations and the latter supported the South African liberation movements. It severed official relations with South Africa in 1979 and imposed a trade boycott in protest against the country's Apartheid policies. However, in January 1994 Iran lifted all trade and economic sanctions against South Africa and diplomatic relations were reestablished on 10 May 1994.[78]

 Sudan 22 August 1972 See Iran–Sudan relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 August 1972[79]

Owing to various cultural and historical compatibilities,[clarification needed] Iran and Sudan have generally sought a very cordial and friendly relationship. The two nations share membership in the OIC and the Group of 77. Although they differ in ethnic identity (Iran is predominantly Persian, while Sudan is Afro-Arab) and denomination (the two nations are Muslim, but the former is mainly Shi'a, while the latter is Sunni), Iran and Sudan have a common strategic bond with both the People's Republic of China and Russia, and a common animosity towards the United States. Relations between Tehran and Khartoum have continued to grow, especially since April 2006, when then President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad voiced his opposition to the deployment in the Darfur region of Western peacekeepers from the United Nations. Sudan ardently supports Iran's nuclear program. Both countries are also firmly against Israel.

On 4 January 2016 Sudan cut off all diplomatic relations with Iran due to tensions between Saudi Arabia and Iran.[80]

On 6 July 2023, Iran and Sudan agreed to restore diplomatic relations.[81]

 Tanzania 13 October 1982 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 October 1982.[82]
 Uganda 12 October 1974 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 October 1974.[83]
 Zambia 7 July 1973 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 July 1973.[84]
 Zimbabwe 11 February 1983 See Iran–Zimbabwe relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 February 1983.[85]

There are growing economic, social and cultural ties between Iran and Zimbabwe. Relations between Iran and Zimbabwe started in 1979 when the late Vice President Simon Muzenda visited Tehran to meet leaders of the Islamic Revolution of Iran.[86] Zimbabwe opened an embassy in Tehran in 2003.[87]

In 2005 President Mugabe confirmed the formal engagement of Iran in bilateral relations during the State visit to Zimbabwe by Iranian President Mohammad Khatami. In 2009 President Mugabe in a state TV address confirmed his support for the Iranian nuclear program and the shared struggle against "demagogues and international dictators".[88]

In 2022, Dr Auxillia Mnangagwa, First Lady of Zimbabwe, visited Iran, focusing on philanthropic work: she spoke of the shared experience of the two countries: "I appreciate the cordial relations that exist between the two countries, Zimbabwe and Iran. We are both victims of illegal sanctions [sic] therefore, we should learn from each other's experiences".[89]

Americas

Trade between Iran and Brazil quadrupled between 2002 and 2007, and it will further increase as much as fivefold, from $2 billion to $10 billion annually. In addition to Brazil, Iran has signed dozens of economic agreements with Bolivia, Cuba, Ecuador and Nicaragua. In Nicaragua, Iran and Venezuela have agreed to invest $350 million in building a deepwater seaport off the Caribbean coast, in addition to a cross-country system of pipelines, rails and highways.[90] Iranian firms are also planning to build two cement factories in Bolivia. Other developments include the agreement reached with Ecuador to build a cement factory as well as several other industrial cooperation MoUs (2008).[91] In the four years after Ahmadinejad ascended to the Iranian presidency in 2005, Iran opened six new embassies in Latin America. The new embassies are located in Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Nicaragua and Uruguay - in addition to the five already in operation in Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Mexico and Venezuela.[92]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda 1 October 2015 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 October 2015.[93]
 Argentina 27 July 1902 See Argentina–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 July 1902.[94]

  • Argentina has an embassy in Tehran.
  • Iran has an embassy in Buenos Aires.
 Barbados 1 March 1978 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 March 1978.[95]
 Belize 24 November 1992

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 November 1992.[96]

 Bolivia 8 September 2007 See Iran–Bolivia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 September 2007.[97]

 Brazil See Iran–Brazil relations

Brazil and Iran have enjoyed increasingly close political relations over the years, growing with the volume of bilateral trade and economic cooperation.[98][99] The election of Dilma Rousseff as president of Brazil has brought a change to Brazilian policy towards Iran. Rousseff harshly criticized the human rights situation in Iran. During her electoral campaign she said that women stoning in Iran is "Medieval behavior."[100] and after coming into office Brazil supported a resolution for nominating a U.N. special rapporteur for human rights in Iran, whose eventual report condemned Iranian rights abuses.[101] in response Iranian President Ahmadinejad's media adviser, Ali Akbar Javanfekr, was quoted as stating that Rousseff had "destroyed years of good relations" between them[102] Ahmadinejad did not go to Brazil while touring South America in January 2012.

 Canada Diplomatic relations severed on 7 September 2012 See Canada–Iran relations

Canadian–Iranian relations date back to 1955, up to which point Canadian consular and commercial affairs in Iran were handled by the British Embassy. A Canadian diplomatic mission was constructed in Tehran in 1959 and raised to Embassy status in 1961. Due to rocky relations after the Iranian Revolution, Iran did not establish an embassy in Canada until 1991 when its staff, which had been living in a building on Roosevelt Avenue in Ottawa's west end, moved into 245 Metcalfe Street in the Centretown neighbourhood of Ottawa and the mission was upgraded to embassy status.

On 7 September 2012, Canada broke off diplomatic relations with Iran, saying "It is among the world's worst violators of human rights; and it shelters and materially supports terrorist groups." In a statement, Canadian foreign minister John Baird said "the Iranian regime has shown blatant disregard for the Vienna Convention and its guarantee of protection for diplomatic personnel. Under the circumstances, Canada can no longer maintain a diplomatic presence in Iran. Our diplomats serve Canada as civilians, and their safety is our number one priority."[103] The announcement of embassy closure happened on the same day that the movie Argo, about the Canadian Caper, was released at the Toronto International Film Festival.

Following the election of Justin Trudeau in October 2015, the new Canadian government is looking to repair diplomatic relations with Iran and lifted most of its economic sanctions, following a historic Iranian nuclear deal in July 2015. Canada engaged in sanctions against the Guidance Patrol.

 Chile
  • Chile has an embassy in Tehran.
  • Iran has an embassy in Santiago.
 Colombia 28 April 1975 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 April 1975.[104]
 Cuba 10 February 1975 See Cuba–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 February 1975.[105]

Iran has a productive trade balance with Cuba and both also have good and friendly relations. The two governments signed a document to bolster cooperation in Havana in January 2006.[106] Former President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad called relations "firm and progressive" over the past three decades.[107]

 Ecuador 19 July 1973 See Ecuador–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 July 1973.[108]

In early 2010, Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa alleged his country was being sanctioned because of ties to Iran. After an attempted coup against Correa in 2010, the two countries signalled intentions to deepen ties.

 Guatemala 25 January 1993 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 January 1993.[109]
 Guyana 6 September 1986 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 September 1986.[110]
 Haiti 16 April 1974 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 April 1974.[108]
 Jamaica 18 February 1975 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 February 1975.[111]
 Mexico 15 October 1964 See Iran–Mexico relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 October 1964.[112]

The first diplomatic contacts between Mexico and Iran took place in 1889.The first agreement of friendly relationship, established the lines of cooperation and interchange between two friend nations was signed on 24 March in 1937.[113] Mexico and Iran have enjoyed increasingly close political and economic relations over the years, growing with the volume of bilateral trade and economic cooperation. The two countries aim to expand cooperation in several sectors, sharing science and technology, particularly in the oil industry. Both countries have also shared successful experiences in cultural cooperation and exchange. In 2008, an agreement to form a Mexico-Iran parliamentary friendship group was made at the Mexican parliament.

 Panama 7 January 1975 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 January 1975.[116]
 Paraguay 19 February 1993 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 February 1993.[117]
 Peru 20 November 1973 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 November 1973[108]
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 30 July 2008 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 30 July 2008.[118]
 Suriname 11 December 1997 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 December 1997.[119]
 United States Diplomatic relations severed on 7 April 1980 See Iran–United States relations
Former US Secretary of State, John Kerry with Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif in Switzerland, 2015.

Political relations between Iran and the United States began in the mid-to-late 19th century, but had slight importance and aroused little controversy until the post-World War II era of the Cold War and the rise of petroleum exports from the Persian Gulf. An era of close alliance between Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's regime and the American government was followed by a dramatic reversal and hostility between the two countries after the 1979 Iranian Revolution. Currently, Iranian interests in the United States are handled through the Pakistani embassy.[120]

Opinions differ over what has caused the decades of poor relations. Explanations offered include everything from the "natural and unavoidable" conflict between the Islamic Revolution on the one hand, and American arrogance[121] and desire for global dictatorship and hegemony on the other,[122] to the regime's need for an "external bogeyman" to "furnish a pretext for domestic repression" against pro-democratic forces, and bind the regime to its "small but loyal and heavily armed constituency".[123]

 Uruguay See Iran–Uruguay relations
  • Iran has an embassy in Montevideo.
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Tehran.
 Venezuela 9 August 1950 See Iran–Venezuela relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 August 1950.[124]

Venezuela's former president, Hugo Chávez and Iran's former president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad have both described themselves on the world stage as opposed to US imperialism. Citing this commonality of opinion, they regard each other as allies, and they have embarked on a number of initiatives together. For example, on 6 January 2007 the two announced that they would use some money from a previously announced $2 billion joint fund to invest in other countries that were "attempting to liberate themselves from the imperialist yoke", in Chávez's words.[125] The two presidents declared an "axis of unity" against "US imperialism".[126]

Asia

See also: Iran–Arab relations

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Afghanistan 2 May 1920 See Afghanistan–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 2 May 1920 when has been accredited first Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Afghanistan to Persia Sardar Abdol Aziz Khan.[127]

Afghanistan's relations with Iran have fluctuated in modern times, due to the Taliban's control of the country in the 1990s, the thousands of illegal Afghan immigrants and refugees in Iran, and with occasional disputes about water rights over the Helmand River. Also, Iran has been accused of supporting the Taliban many times from legitimizing it by entertaining the Taliban's delegates to supplying them with arms and even training them.[128][129][130] Afghan migrants and refugees have been systematically harassed, abused, and killed by the Iranian government.[131][132]

Iran is situated along one of the main trafficking routes for cannabis, heroin, opium and morphine produced in Afghanistan, and 'designer drugs' have also found their way into the local market in recent years. Iran's police said in April 2009 that 7,700 tonnes of opium were produced in Afghanistan in 2008, of which 3000 tonnes entered Iran, adding that the force had managed to seize 1000 tonnes of the smuggled opium.[133]

 Armenia 9 February 1992 See Armenia–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 February 1992.[134]

Despite religious and ideological differences, relations between Armenia and the Islamic Republic of Iran remain cordial and both Armenia and Iran are strategic partners in the region.

The two neighbouring countries share to a great extent similar history and culture, and have had relations for thousands of years, starting with the Median Empire. Both countries have Indo-European national languages, and Armenian and Persian have influenced each other. Iran only lost the territory that nowadays comprises Armenia in the course of the 19th century, by the Russo-Persian Wars, irrevocably to neighbouring Imperial Russia.[135] There are no border disputes between the two countries and the Christian Armenian minority in Iran, amongst the largest and oldest communities in the world,[136] and the largest in the Middle East, enjoys official recognition. Of special importance is the cooperation in the field of energy security which lowers Armenia's dependence on Russia and can in the future also supply Iranian gas to Europe through Georgia and the Black Sea.

 Azerbaijan 12 March 1992 See Azerbaijan–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 March 1992.[137]

The peoples of Azerbaijan and Iran share a long and complex relationship, resulting in deep historical, religious and cultural ties. The largest population of ethnic Azerbaijanis live in Iran and until 1813/1828, the soil of the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan was Iranian territory, prior to being forcefully ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Gulistan of 1813 and the Treaty of Turkmenchay of 1828.[138][139][140][141][142][143] Both nations are the only officially majority-Shia nations in the world as well, and have the highest and second highest Shia populations in the world by percentage.[144] Azerbaijan has an embassy in Tehran. and a consulate-general in Tabriz. Iran has an embassy in Baku. and a consulate-general in Nakhchivan. Both countries are full members of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).

 Bahrain 29 August 1971 See Bahrain–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 29 August 1971.[145]

Bahrain severed diplomatic ties on 4 January 2016 after the attack on the Saudi diplomatic missions in Iran.

 Bangladesh 21 June 1974 See Bangladesh–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 June 1974 when Bangladesh embassy was established in Iran and on 24 January 1975 Iran embassy was also established in Bangladesh.[146]

Bangladesh and Iran signed a preferential trade accord in July 2006 which removed non-tariff barriers, with a view to eventually establishing a free-trade agreement.[147] Before the signing of the accord, bilateral trade between the countries amounted to US$100 million annually.

In mid-2007, the Bangladeshi government requested Iran's help with the construction of a nuclear power plant, in order to offset the decline in the availability of gas for power generation. The Bangladeshi Minister of Power, Energy and Natural Resources also requested Iranian assistance for the construction of new oil refineries in Bangladesh.[148]

 Brunei Darussalam 1 May 1990 See Brunei–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 May 1990.[149]

 China 16 August 1971 See China–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 August 1971.[150]

Countries which signed cooperation documents related to the Belt and Road Initiative.

Iran continues to align itself politically with the People's Republic of China as the European Union and United States push forward with policies to isolate Iran both politically and economically. Iran has observer status at the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and aspires to membership in this body, in which China plays a leading role.

In July 2004, Iranian parliamentary speaker Gholam Ali Haddad-Adel stressed China's support for Iran's nuclear programs.[151] China's Foreign Minister Li Zhaoxing also said that his country opposes Iran being referred to the United Nations Security Council over its nuclear program, and claimed that the 7 April 1980 government[clarify] had a very positive attitude in its cooperation with the IAEA.[152]

China and Iran have developed a friendly economic and strategic partnership. China is believed to have helped Iran militarily in the following areas: conduct training of high-level officials on advanced systems, provide technical support, supply specialty steel for missile construction, provide control technology for missile development, build a missile factory and test range. It is rumored that China is responsible for aiding in the development of advanced conventional weapons including surface-to-air missiles, combat aircraft, radar systems, and fast-attack missile vessels.[153]

 Georgia 15 May 1992 See Georgia–Iran relations, Persia–Georgia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 May 1992.[154]

Iran and Georgia have had relations for hundreds of years. Georgia, throughout its history, has several times been annexed by the Persian Empire, specifically under the Achaemenid, Parthian, Sassanid, and Safavid dynasties. Accordingly, there has been a lot of political and cultural exchange, and Georgia was often considered a part of Greater Iran. Iran and Georgia, or the Georgian kingdoms, have had relations in different forms, beginning with trade in the Achaemenid era. The relationship got more complex as the Safavids took power in Iran and attempted to maintain Iranian control of the Georgian kingdoms. This continued until the 19th century when Russia, through the Russo-Persian War (1804–13) and Russo-Persian War (1826–1828), took the Caucasus from the Qajars, and thus Iran irrevocably lost the whole region, including Georgia.[135] In the early 20th century, Iran–Georgian relations were merged into Iran–Soviet relations. Since Georgia's independence from the Soviet Union, the two nations have cooperated in many fields including energy, transport, trade, education, and science. Iran is one of Georgia's most important trading partners and an Intergovernmental Joint Economic Commission is functioning between the two countries.[155]

 India 15 March 1950 See India–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 March 1950.[156]

After the Iranian Revolution of 1979, Iran withdrew from CENTO and dissociated itself from US-friendly countries during the Cold War.[157] Some sources suggest, however, that Iran's Islamic revolution could have been an indirect influence on India's current problems with separatism in Kashmir.[original research?]

The two countries currently have friendly relations in many areas. There are significant trade ties, particularly in crude-oil imports into India and diesel exports to Iran. Iran objected to Pakistan's attempts to draft anti-India resolutions at international organizations such as the OIC in 1994.[158] Reciprocally, India supported Iran's inclusion as an observer state in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation.[159] In the 1990s, India and Iran both supported the Northern Alliance in Afghanistan against the Taliban regime.[158]

India and Iran have had relations for millennia. With the growth of India's strategic and economic ties with the United States and the West in recent years, there have been instances of marked differences in diplomatic stances of the two countries on core issues. Specifically, India has twice voted against Iran in the IAEA in 2005 and 2009, calling on Iran to halt its nuclear weapons programme.[160] as well as abstained on a key UN General Assembly resolution condemning Iran for its involvement in an alleged plot to assassinate the Saudi envoy to Washington. Although India voiced support for Iran after it attacked Jaish al Adl terrorist camps in Pakistan's Balochistan Province in January, 2024. [161]

 Indonesia 1950 See Indonesia–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1950.[162]

Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif and his Indonesian counterpart Retno Marsudi held a meeting in the Iranian capital of Tehran.

Indonesia and Iran are Muslim majority countries, despite the differences in its religious orientation. Indonesia has the largest Muslim Sunni population, while Iran is the largest Shiite nation.[163]

As Islamic countries that have among the largest Muslim populations in the world, Iran and Indonesia hold themselves responsible for promoting Islam as a peaceful religion.[164] Diplomatic relations have continued since 1950. Indonesia has an embassy in Tehran, and Iran has an embassy in Jakarta. Both countries are full members of the World Trade Organization (WTO), The Non-Aligned Movement, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), and Developing 8 Countries.

Jakarta had offered to help mediate the Iranian nuclear dispute, Jakarta is on good terms with Iran and other Middle East countries, as well as with the West.[165][166]

 Iraq 25 April 1929 See Iran–Iraq relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 April 1929 when Iran formally recognized Iraq and appointed a diplomatic representative to Baghdad.[167]

Iran–Iraq relations have been turbulent since the war they fought in the 1980s. However, bilateral relations have improved since the fall of Iraq's former president Saddam Hussein in 2003. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was the first Iranian president to visit Iraq since Iran's 1979 Islamic revolution. Iran has an embassy in Baghdad and three consulates-general, in Sulaimaniya, Erbil, and Karbala. Iraq has an embassy in Tehran, and three Consulate-Generals in Ahwaz, Kermanshah, and Mashad.

 Israel Diplomatic relations severed in 1979 See Iran–Israel relations, History of the Jews in Iran and Iran–Israel proxy conflict

In 1947, Iran voted against the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine and recognized Israel two years later. Under the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Iran and Israel enjoyed high degree of diplomatic relations.

Following the Iranian Revolution in 1979, the two states become hostile and the current Iranian government does not recognize the existence of Israel. However, Iranian passports have a back cover reads: "The holder of this passport is not entitled to travel to occupied Palestine". Both countries have severed their diplomatic and commercial ties with each other. Iran does not recognize Israel and refers to it as a Zionist entity or a Zionist regime.

 Japan 4 August 1929 See Iran–Japan relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 August 1929 when It was stated in Teheran that the Japanese Government had decided to establish a Legation there.[168]

Throughout history, the two countries have maintained a relatively friendly and strongly strategic partnership.

 Jordan 16 November 1949 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 November 1949[169]
 Kazakhstan 29 January 1992 See Iran–Kazakhstan relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 29 January 1992.[170]

Trade turnover between the two countries increased fivefold in the last six years, from $400 million to more than $2 billion in 2009.[90]

Iran imports grain, petroleum products, and metals from Kazakhstan.[90] Iran is a partner in joint oil and gas projects including construction of a pipeline connecting Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan with Iran's (Persian Gulf) which will give Astana access to the Asian markets. Kazakhstan is specially interested in Iranian investment in mechanical engineering, infrastructure, transport, and telecommunications.[90]

 Kuwait 17 December 1961 See Iran–Kuwait relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 December 1961.[171]

  • Iran has an embassy in Kuwait City.
  • Kuwait has an embassy in Tehran.
 Kyrgyzstan 10 May 1992 See Iran–Kyrgyzstan relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 May 1992.[172]

Iran and Kyrgyzstan have signed agreements on cooperation in the spheres of transport, customs, trade, and economic relations. Iran and Kyrgyzstan interact in the spheres of education, culture, travel, customs, finances, and the war on trafficking and crime in general.[90]

The two countries trade in agriculture and capital goods. In 2008, Iran promised Kyrgyzstan €200 million for some economic projects. Iranian companies participated in construction of a highway connecting Bishkek and Osh. Iran and Kyrgyzstan hope to increase their annual trade turnover to $100 million.[90]

 Lebanon 21 September 1944 See Iran–Lebanon relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 September 1944.[173]

Around June 1982, Iran dispatched more than 1000 Revolutionary Guards to the predominantly Shi'ite Bekaa Valley of Lebanon. There they established themselves, taking over the Lebanese Army's regional headquarters in the Sheikh Abdullah barracks, as well as a modern clinic, renamed "Hospital Khomeini", and the Hotel Khayyam. The Pasdaran were active in many places, including schools, where they propagated Islamic doctrine.[174] Iranian clerics, most notably Fazlollah Mahallati, supervised.[175]

From this foothold, the Islamic Republic helped organize one of its biggest successes, the Hezbollah militia, a party and social-services organization devoted to the Khomeini principle of Guardianship (i.e. rule) of the Islamic Jurists (Velayat-e-Faqih), and loyal to Khomeini as their leader.[176] Over the next seven years Iran is estimated to have spent $5 to $10 million US per month on Hezbollah, although the organization is now said to have become more self-sufficient.[177][178][179]

In the words of Hussein Musawi, a former commander of Amal militia who joined Hezbollah:

We are her [Iran's] children. We are seeking to formulate an Islamic society which in the final analysis will produce an Islamic state. ... The Islamic revolution will march to liberate Palestine and Jerusalem, and the Islamic state will then spread its authority over the region of which Lebanon is only a part.[180]

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1559 (2 September 2004) called for the "disbanding and disarmament of all Lebanese and non-Lebanese militias". The Government of Lebanon is responsible for the implementation, and for preventing the flow of armaments and other military equipment to the militias, yet including Hezbollah, from Syria, Iran, and other external sources.

 Malaysia See Iran–Malaysia relations

In January 2017, the two countries are set to pursue a free trade agreement.[181] A memorandum of understanding (MoU) on gas field study was signed in February between National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) and Malaysia's Bukhary International Ventures (BIV).[182] Both countries have integrated their banking transactions and also agreed to use local currencies along with Chinese yuan and Japanese yen in their bilateral trade.[183][184][185] As of 2015, there are around 5,000 Iranian students in Malaysia, while only 15 Malaysian students in Iran.[186]

 Mongolia 20 May 1971 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 May 1971.[187]
 Myanmar 8 August 1968 See Iran-Myanmar relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 August 1968.[188]

   Nepal 14 December 1964 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 December 1964.[189]
 North Korea 15 April 1973 See Iran – North Korea relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 April 1973.[190]

Iran – North Korea relations are described as being positive by official news agencies of the two countries. They have pledged cooperation in the educational, scientific, and cultural spheres.[191] North Korea also assisted Iran in its nuclear program.[192] Iran and North Korea have close relations due to their shared hostility towards the United States, who designated both nations as state sponsors of terrorism and part of the Axis of evil.

 Oman 26 August 1971 See Iran–Oman relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 26 August 1971[193]

 Pakistan 23 August 1947 See Iran–Pakistan relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 August 1947 when Pakistan and Iran have agreed to exchange diplomatic representatives.[194]

Iran was the first nation to recognize Pakistan's independence. During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 and Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Iran supported Pakistan under the reign of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and opened the Iran-Pakistan border to provide fuel and arms to the Pakistani soldiers. After the 1971 war Iran tried to strengthen its ties with Pakistan's arch rival India. The Shah of Iran planned to annex the Balochistan province as Pakistan would surrender after a loss of the 1971 war. Following the Iranian revolution of 1979, Pakistan started having close relations with Saudi Arabia. Their relations are complex, driven by Pakistani geo-political aspirations, religious affiliations, Iran's relations with India, and internal and external factors.

 Palestine See Iran–Palestine relations

The Islamic Republic of Iran (established after the 1979 Iranian Revolution) closed the Israeli embassy in Tehran and replaced it with a Palestinian embassy. Iran favours a Palestinian state and officially endorses the replacement of Israel with a unitary Palestinian state or whatever choice the Palestinian people decide through a democratic vote. However, in a 2006 interview, the former reformer President Mohammad Khatami said that Iran has also stated its willingness to accept a two-state solution if the Palestinians find this acceptable.[195][196]

The Iranian government regularly sends aid to various Palestinian causes, everything from transporting injured children to hospitals to supplying the Palestinian Islamist militant groups Islamic Jihad and Hamas with arms. Streets and squares named after Palestinians crisscross the nation.[197]

Several Palestinian militant resistance groups, including Hamas, are Iranian allies. The Iranian government also gives substantial assistance to the Hamas government in Gaza, which is embargoed by Israel, and depends on outside sources for an estimated 90% of its budget. Iranian support has not been unconditional however, and in July and August 2011 Iran cut funding to show its displeasure at "Hamas's failure to hold public rallies in support" of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad during the Syrian Civil War. In part for this reason, Hamas was unable to pay July salaries of its "40,000 civil service and security employees."[198]

 Philippines 22 January 1964 See Iran–Philippines relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 January 1964.[199]

Iran has an embassy in Manila,[200] while the Philippines has an embassy in Tehran.[201]

 Qatar 16 October 1971 See Iran–Qatar relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 October 1971.[202]

  • Iran has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Tehran.
 Saudi Arabia 24 August 1929 See Iran–Saudi Arabia relations and Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 August 1929.[203]

Due to various political and cultural clashes throughout history, relations between the two nations have been greatly strained. In 1966 King Faisal of Saudi Arabia visited Iran with the aim of further strengthening the relationships between the countries. The Shah (King) of Iran reciprocated by paying an official visit to Saudi Arabia, which eventually led to a peaceful resolution of a dispute concerning the islands of Farsi and Arabi: it was agreed that Farsi would belong to Iran and Arabi would be under the control of Saudi Arabia. A unique feature of this agreement is that it assigned only territorial waters to the islands, not the continental shelf.[204] In 1968, when Great Britain announced its withdrawal from the Persian Gulf, Iran and Saudi Arabia took the primary responsibility for peace and security in the region. During the 1970s, Saudi Arabia's main bilateral concerns were Iran's modernization of its military, which was capable of dominating the entire region, and Iran's repossession of the Islands of Big Tunb, Little Tunb and Abu Moussa in 1971, challenging the United Arab Emirates' claim to the Islands.[204] Despite these frictions, the friendliness of Iran–Saudi Arabia relations reached a peak in the period between 1968 and 1979.[205] After the Iranian Revolution in 1979, Khomeini and other Iranian leaders openly attacked and criticized the character and religious legitimacy of the Saudi regime. According to Le Figaro, on 5 June 2010 King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia told Hervé Morin, the Defense Minister of France, "There are two countries in the world that do not deserve to exist: Iran and Israel."[206] On 3 January 2016, Saudi Arabia severed diplomatic relations with Iran.[citation needed]

Iran and Saudi Arabia restored relations in 2023.[207]

 Singapore 6 August 1973

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 August 1973.[208]

Singapore and Iran maintain cordial relations, despite Singapore's close relationship with the United States. The island city state and Iran have conducted numerous cultural exchanges as well as a high expatriate Iranian population living in Singapore.

 Syria 12 November 1946 See Iran–Syria relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 November 1946 when has been accredited Envoy Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Iran to Syria with residence in Beirut Mr. Zein-el-Abdine Rahnema.[209]

Syria was one of the few Arab countries to support Iran during the Iran–Iraq War, putting them at odds with other nations in the Arab League.[210] Iran and Syria have had a strategic alliance ever since, partially due to their common animosity towards Saddam Hussein and coordination against the United States and Israel. Syria and Iran cooperate on arms smuggling from Iran to Hezbollah in Lebanon, which borders Israel.[211] Iran was reported as helping Syria to suppress the anti-government protests that broke out in 2011 with training, munitions and high-tech surveillance technology.[212] The Guardian reported in May 2011 that the Iranian Republican Guard increased its "level of technical support and personnel support" to strengthen Syria's "ability to deal with protesters", according to one diplomat in Damascus.[213] Iran reportedly assisted the Syrian government sending it riot control equipment, intelligence monitoring techniques and oil.[214] It also agreed to fund a large military base at Latakia airport.[214] The Daily Telegraph has claimed in August that a former member of Syria's secret police reported "Iranian snipers" had been deployed in Syria to assist in the crackdown on protests.[215] According to the US government, Mohsen Chizari, the Quds Force's third-in-command, has visited Syria to train security services to fight against the protestors.[216] On 24 June 2011 The EU's official journal said the three Iranian Revolutionary Guard members now subject to sanctions had been "providing equipment and support to help the Syrian regime suppress protests in Syria".[217] The Iranians added to the EU sanctions list were two Revolutionary Guard commanders, Soleimani and Brig Cmdr Mohammad Ali Jafari, and the Guard's deputy commander for intelligence, Hossein Taeb.[218]

 South Korea 23 October 1962 See Iran–South Korea relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 October 1962.[219]

Iran – South Korea relations are described as being positive despite Iran's close relationship with North Korea, and South Korea's with the United States. The two countries have maintained a relatively friendly and strongly strategic partnership. South Korea is one of Iran's major commercial partners.

 Sri Lanka See Iran-Sri Lanka relations

Iran and Sri Lanka have had official diplomatic relations since 1961. Diplomatic relations between Iran and Sri Lanka (then known as Ceylon) began in 1961 via the Ceylonese embassy in Islamabad, which was the closest Ceylon had to a presence on Iranian soil until the opening of the Tehran embassy office in 1990. Tehran set up its Colombo office in 1975. After Mahmoud Ahmadinejad became President of Iran, Sri Lanka was the first country he visited on his inaugural Asian tour. Mahinda Rajapaksa also made ties with Iran a priority after he ascended to office.

 Tajikistan 9 January 1992 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 January 1992.[220]
 Thailand 9 November 1955 See Iran–Thailand relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 November 1955.[221]

 Timor Leste 10 November 2003 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 November 2003.[222]
 Turkey 1835 See Iran–Turkey relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1835.[223]

A period of coolness passed after the 1979 Iranian Revolution, which caused major changes in Iran and the world's status quo. Today Iran and Turkey cooperate in a wide variety of fields that range from fighting terrorism and drug trafficking, and promoting stability in Iraq and Central Asia. Iran and Turkey also have very close trade and economic relations. Both countries are part of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO). Turkey receives about 2 million Iranian tourists each year[224][circular reference] and benefits economically from Iranian tourism.[225]

Bilateral trade between the nations is increasing. In 2005, bilateral trade increased to $4 billion from $1 billion in 2000.[226] Iran's gas exports to Turkey are likely to increase. Turkey imports about 10 billion cubic meters a year of gas from Iran, about thirty percent of its needs.[227] Turkey plans to invest $12 billion in developing phases 22, 23, and 24 of the South Pars gas field, a senior Iranian oil official told Shana.ir.[90] Half of this gas will be re-exported to Europe.[228] Two-way trade is now in the range of $10 billion (2008), and both governments have announced that the figure should reach the $20 billion mark in the not-too-distant future.[229] Turkey has won the tender for privatization of the Razi Petrochemical Complex, valued at $650 million (2008). Since the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt, the two states began close co-operation especially on the 2017–18 Qatar diplomatic crisis. Visits of Persian diplomatic delegations to Siam are attested as early as 1685.[230]

 Turkmenistan 18 February 1992 See Iran–Turkmenistan relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 February 1992.[231]

Iran and Turkmenistan have had relations since the latter's separation from the former Soviet Union in 1991. Iran was the first nation to recognize Turkmenistan's independence.[232] Since then, the two countries have enjoyed good relations and have cooperated in the economic, infrastructure, and energy sectors. Trade between the two nations surpasses $1 billion and Iranians are the second-largest buyers of Turkmen commodities, mainly natural gas. The $139-million Korpeje-Kurt Kui gas pipeline in western Turkmenistan and the $167-million Dousti ("Friendship" in Persian) Dam in the south of the country were built through a joint venture.

Their Caspian Sea territorial boundaries are a cause of tension between the two countries. Iran's Islamic theocracy and Turkmenistan's secular dictatorship also prevent the development of a closer friendship.

 United Arab Emirates 28 October 1972 See Iran–United Arab Emirates relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 October 1972[233]

 Uzbekistan 10 May 1992 See Iran–Uzbekistan relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 May 1992.[235] The two countries have deep cultural and historical ties that date back to several centuries. Iran has been especially been active in pursuing economic projects and social, cultural, and diplomatic initiatives in Uzbekistan. The two nations have also worked on overland links and other joint ventures. Although the differences between their political systems, Iran's Islamic theocracy and Uzbekistan's presidential constitutional republic, keep the two nations apprehensive, it has not deterred them from further improving relations.[236] Iran and Uzbekistan agreed to develop cooperation in agriculture, transport, oil and gas production, construction, production of pharmaceuticals, and banking.[90]

The state visit of Uzbekistan's President Shavkat Mirziyoyev to Iran in 2023 marked the beginning of a new phase of cooperation between the two nations. During the visit, a total of 15 agreements were signed, further strengthening bilateral ties. Notably, this visit led to the establishment of direct flights between Tehran and Samarkand, facilitating enhanced connectivity and promoting closer relations between the two cities.

 Vietnam 4 August 1973 See Iran–Vietnam relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 August 1973.[237]

  • Iran has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Tehran.
 Yemen May 1971 Both countries established diplomatic relations in May 1971.[238]

Europe

See also: Iran–European Union relations

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Albania Diplomatic relations severed in September 2022 See Albania–Iran relations
  • As for the result of Albania's alignment with the United States after the 1990s, the relations between the two countries remain poor. Albania's decision to welcome People's Mujahedin of Iran taking refuge in the country led to further deterioration of Albanian–Iranian relations.[239]
  • On 7 September 2022, Albania severed diplomatic ties with Iran over cyberattacks.[240]
 Andorra 30 September 2015 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 30 September 2015.[241]
 Austria 4 September 1872 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 September 1872 when has been accredited first Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Austria to Persia Graf Victor Dubsky.[242]
  • Austria has an embassy in Tehran.
  • Iran has an embassy in Vienna.
 Belarus 18 March 1993 See Belarus–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 March 1993.[243]

Belarus has an embassy in Tehran; Iran has an embassy in Minsk. The two countries have enjoyed good relations in recent years, reflected in regular high-level meetings and various agreements. In 2008, Belarusian Foreign Minister Sergei Martynov described Iran as an important partner of his country in the region and the world.[244] Both Iran and Belarus are allies of Russia.

 Bosnia and Herzegovina 25 January 1993 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 January 1993.[245]
 Bulgaria 15 November 1897 See Bulgaria–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 November 1897.[246]

Bulgaria has had an embassy in Tehran since 1939.[247] Iran has an embassy in Sofia.[248]

 Croatia 18 April 1992 See Croatia–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 April 1992.[249]

Croatia has an embassy in Tehran; Iran maintains an embassy and a cultural centre in Zagreb. Iran was the seventh country to recognize the newly independent Croatia.

The Croatian national oil company INA is active in the Ardabil Province.[250] Iranian vice-president Hassan Habibi visited Croatia in 1995.[251] Croatian president Stipe Mesić had a three-day state visit to Iran in 2001.[252] In 2008 Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad hailed the two countries' relations and said that their shared cultures and histories, owing to the possible Iranian origin of the Croats, would strengthen those relations.[253]

 Cyprus 2 February 1989 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 2 February 1989.[254]
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Tehran.
  • Iran has an embassy in Nicosia.
 Czech Republic 22 June 1925 See Czech Republic–Iran relations.

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 June 1925.[255] Czech firms mainly export machinery products, electrical goods, and other products to Iran while the bulk of imports from Iran consists of fruit and vegetables (2014).[256]

 Denmark 3 February 1922 See Denmark–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 February 1922 when has been accredited first Persian Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Denmark with residence in Stockholm Mirza Abdol Ghaffar Khan Emad-ol-Molk.[257]

The first Iranian envoy to Denmark arrived in 1691 in order to negotiate the release of the Iranian-owned cargo of a Bengali ship seized by the Danish fleet. The Iranian diplomat had been issued with diplomatic credentials by Suleiman I of Persia (Shah 1666–1694) and opened negotiations with King Christian V of Denmark. He was unable to secure the release of the cargo.

In 1933, a Danish consulate was established in Tehran, and later upgraded to an embassy. Following a state visit in 1958, Iran established an embassy in Copenhagen. The Muhammad cartoons controversy of 2006 saw the Danish embassy to Iran attacked by protesters and the Iranian Ambassador to Denmark called to Tehran, straining political and economic interaction between the two countries.[258]

 Estonia 18 August 1992 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 August 1992.[259]
 Finland 12 December 1931 See Finland–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 December 1931.[260]

  • Finland has an embassy in Tehran.
  • Iran has an embassy in Helsinki.

In 2010 an Iranian diplomat stationed in Finland applied for political asylum in that country.[261]

 France 13 August 1715 See France–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 August 1715.[262]

Iran has generally enjoyed a friendly relationship with France since the Middle Ages. The travels of Jean-Baptiste Tavernier are particularly well known to Safavid Persia. Recently, however, relations have soured over Iran's refusal to halt uranium enrichment and France supporting the referral of Iran to the United Nations Security Council. Relations between France and Iran remained friendly under Jacques Chirac's presidency.

 Germany 11 June 1873 See Germany–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 June 1873.[263]

Official diplomatic relations between Iran and postwar Germany began in 1952 when Iran opened its first mission office in Bonn. However, Germany and Persia had enjoyed diplomatic relations well back into the 19th century.[264]

 Greece 19 November 1902 See Greece–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 November 1902 when has been appointed first Persian Ambassador to Greece.[265][266]

  • Greece has an embassy in Tehran.
  • Iran has an embassy in Athens.
 Holy See 2 May 1953 See Holy See–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 2 May 1953.[267]

The Holy See and Iran have had formal diplomatic relations since 1953, under the pontificate of Pius XII, which have been maintained even during the most difficult periods of the Islamic revolution.[268]

 Iceland 15 March 1948 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 March 1948.[269]
 Ireland 17 February 1976

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 February 1976.[270]

Iran has an embassy in Dublin; Ireland closed its embassy in Tehran along with several others due to the severity of the Irish government's financial difficulties on 23 February 2012.[271]

 Italy 18 February 1886 See Iran–Italy relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 February 1886 when has been appointed first Chargé d'Affaires of Italy to Persia Alessandro De Rege Di Donato.[272]

Iran-Italy trade stood at US$2.7 billion in 2001[273] and €3.852 billion in 2003.[274] In 2005, Italy was Iran's third-largest trading partner, contributing 7.5% of all exports to Iran.[275] Italy was Iran's top European Union trading partner in early 2006.[276] Commercial exchanges hit €6 billion in 2008.[277] Still, Iran considers Italy one of its "important trade partners" indicated by Italy's "presence in [the] Tehran International Book Fair" and the desire of Italian companies to economically cooperate with Iran.[278]

 Latvia 7 July 1992 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 July 1992.[279]
 Liechtenstein 14 August 1998 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 August 1998.[280]
 Lithuania 4 November 1993 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 November 1993.[281]
 Luxembourg 23 May 1936 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 May 1936.[282]
 Malta 11 May 1972 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 May 1972.[283]
 Moldova 11 May 1992 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 May 1992.[284]
 Monaco 10 May 2012 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 May 2012.[285]
 Netherlands 5 January 1883 See Iran-Netherlands relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 January 1883 when Mirza Jawad Khan, Persian Minister in Belgium, was also accredited to the Netherlands.[286][287]

  • Iran has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Tehran.
 North Macedonia 10 March 1995 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 March 1995.[288]
 Norway 14 October 1908

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 October 1908.[289]

An Iranian diplomat stationed in Norway was granted political asylum by that country in February 2010.[290] In September 2010, an Iranian diplomat stationed in Belgium also applied for political asylum in Norway.[291]

Following the 2011 attack on the British Embassy in Iran, Norway announced that it has closed its embassy in Tehran due to security concerns, after Britain's mission was stormed. Hilde Steinfeld, a Foreign Ministry spokeswoman in Oslo, said the decision to close the embassy was taken late Tuesday, but that Norway's diplomatic staff have not been evacuated from the country. "They're still in Tehran," she said.[292]

 Poland 19 March 1927 See Iran–Poland relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 March 1927.[293]

  • Iran has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Tehran.
 Portugal 15 October 1956 See Iran–Portugal relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 October 1956 when Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Portugal with residence in Ankara, Luís Norton de Mato, presented his credentials as non resident to Iran.[294]

  • Iran has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Tehran.
 Romania 24 July 1902 See Iran–Romania relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 July 1902.[295]

Iran has an embassy in Bucharest;[296] Romania has an embassy in Tehran.[297] They exchanged ambassadors for the first time in 1922.

 Russia See Iran–Russia relations

Relations between Russia and Persia (pre-1935 Iran) have a long history, as they officially commenced in 1521 with the Safavids in power. Past and present contact between Russia and Iran has always been complicated and multi-faceted, often wavering between collaboration and rivalry. The two nations have a long history of geographic, economic, and socio-political interaction. Their mutual relations have often been turbulent, and dormant at other times. Since 2019 however, their relationship has drastically improved and Russia and Iran are now strategic allies and form an axis in the Caucasus alongside Armenia. Iran has its embassy in Moscow and consulate generals in the cities of Kazan and Astrakhan. Russia has its embassy in Tehran, and consulate generals in the cities of Rasht and Isfahan. Both also support the Assad government in Syria.

 Serbia 30 April 1937 See Iran-Serbia relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 30 April 1937.[298]

Iran has an embassy in Belgrade; Serbia has an embassy in Tehran. Serbia shares the same Eastern Orthodox heritage with Russia. Historians have stated that it is remotely possible that Serbs historically originated from the early Persian tribes in the Caucasus.[299] Iran has supported Serbia's territorial integrity by not recognizing Kosovo as a state.

 Slovakia 1 January 1993 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 January 1993.[300]
 Slovenia 9 March 1992 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 March 1992.[301]
 Spain 4 March 1842 See Iran–Spain relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 March 1842.[302]

  • Iran has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Tehran.
  Switzerland 4 March 1919 See Iran–Switzerland relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 March 1919 when has been accredited first Persian Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Switzerland Zoka-ed-Dovleh.[303]

Switzerland has had a consulate in Tehran since 1919, raised to the status of embassy in 1936. This embassy represents the interests of the United States in the Iranian capital.

There are agreements between the two countries on air traffic (1954, 1972, and 2004), road and rail transport (1977), export risk guarantees (1966), protection of investments (1998), and double taxation (2002). Iran is one of Switzerland's most important trading partners in the Middle East. A trade agreement was signed in 2005 but has not yet been ratified.

 Sweden 5 September 1897 See Iran–Sweden relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 September 1897 when has been accredited first Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Persia to Sweden with residence in St. Peterbourg Mirza Reza Khan Ar Faed-Doouleh.[304]

  • Iran has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Tehran.
 Ukraine 22 January 1992

See Iran–Ukraine relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 January 1992.[305]

 United Kingdom 5 June 1807 See Iran–United Kingdom relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 June 1807 when has been appointed first British Envoy Extraordinary to Persia Sir Harford Jones.[306]

The Herald Tribune reported on 22 January 2006 a rise in British exports to Iran, from £296 million in 2000 to £443.8 million in 2004. A spokesperson for UK Trade and Investment was quoted to say "Iran has become more attractive because it now pursues a more liberal economic policy."[307]

In 2011, the UK together with the United States and Canada, issued sanctions on Iran following controversy over the country's nuclear program. As a result, Iranian government's Guardian Council approved a parliamentary bill expelling the British ambassador. On 29 November 2011, two compounds of the British embassy in Tehran were stormed by Iranian protesters. They smashed windows, ransacked offices, set fire to government documents, and burned a British flag.[308] As part of the UK's response to this incident the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, William Hague, announced on 30 November 2011 that the United Kingdom had shut the embassy in Tehran and recalled all diplomatic staff. The Iranian chargé d'affaires in London was simultaneously instructed to immediately close the Iranian embassy in London and given a 48-hour ultimatum for all staff to leave the UK.

On Tuesday 17 June 2014 the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, William Hague, announced that the UK embassy would re-open "as soon as practical arrangements are made". On the same day David Cameron, the UK Prime Minister said he is committed to "rebuilding" diplomatic relations with Iran but will proceed with a "clear eye and hard head".[309] The embassy reopened on 23 August 2015.[310]

On Friday 19 July 2019 a British-flagged oil tanker, the Stena Impero, was surrounded and seized by the Iranian Armed Forces at the Strait of Hormuz. The nearly 30,000 tonne tanker and its 23 crew members were surrounded by 4 vessels and 1 helicopter. Many think this was in retaliation of the UK boarding an Iranian Supertanker, the Grace 1, at Gibraltar earlier in July due to suspicions of smuggling oil to Syria. As of today, the tanker has been moved to the port of Bander Abbas and the ship's owners have not been able to contact the tanker. The British Foreign Minister Jeremy Hunt has said that Iran will suffer serious consequences if the tanker is not released. The British diplomatic effort is being supported by American President Donald Trump and both French and German foreign ministries. UK ships are urged to stay away from the strait and the result of this is an increase in oil prices around the world.

Oceania

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Australia 21 September 1968 See Australia–Iran relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 September 1968.[311]

  • Australia has an embassy in Tehran.
  • Iran has an embassy in Canberra.
 Fiji 29 August 2012 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 29 August 2012.[312]
 New Zealand 14 December 1973 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 December 1973.[313]
  • Iran has an embassy in Wellington.
  • New Zealand has an embassy in Tehran.

States with no diplomatic relations

Iran does not have diplomatic relations with the following countries:

International organization participation

Iran is the member of the following organizations: ALBA (observer), Colombo Plan, UNESCAP, ECO, FAO, GECF, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICC, ICAO, IDA, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, IFC, IFAD, IHO, ILO, IMO, IMSO, IMF, IOC, IOM, ISO, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, ITU, Interpol, IDB, NAM, OPEC, OPCW, OIC, PCA, SCO, SAARC (observer), UNESCO, UNCTAD, UNIDO, UNODC, United Nations, UPU, WCO WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO (observer).

Notes

See also

References

  1. ^ A. Ehteshami (2002). "The foreign policy of Iran" (PDF). In Raymond Hinnebusch, Anoushiravan Ehteshami (ed.). The foreign policies of Middle East states. Boulder, Col.: Lynne Rienner publ. pp. 283–290.
  2. ^ CountryReptTrak: 2018 Archived 24 April 2019 at the Wayback Machine. Reputation Institute. Accessed 24 April 2019.
  3. ^ Staufenberg, Jess. "Countries with the best and worst reputations for 2016 revealed" Archived 24 April 2019 at the Wayback Machine. The Independent. 11 August 2016.
  4. ^ "A Global “No” To a Nuclear-Armed Iran" Archived 26 October 2019 at the Wayback Machine. Pew Research Center. May 2012.
  5. ^ Movali, Ifshin, The Soul of Iran, Norton, 2005
  6. ^ "Was BBC biased against the Shah of Iran?". BBC News. 23 March 2009. Archived from the original on 30 March 2009. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  7. ^ [11 February 1979 (according to Dilip Hiro in The Longest War p.32) p.108 from Excerpts from Speeches and Messages of Imam Khomeini on the Unity of the Muslims.
  8. ^ Wright, Robin, Sacred Rage (2001), p.28
  9. ^ Wright, Robin, Sacred Rage, (2001), p. 33
  10. ^ Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival, Norton, (2006), p. 143
  11. ^ Wright, Robin, Sacred Rage, (2001), pp. 34-5
  12. ^ See Uyghurs Human Rights Project Archived 14 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Fuller, Graham E., The Future of Political Islam, Palgrave MacMillan (2003), p. 41
  14. ^ Fredrik Dahl, "Iran cleric says time to export the revolution" Archived 16 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine, "Reuters", 4 September 2009
  15. ^ "Iran Seeks Allies in South America" Archived 10 July 2012 at archive.today, 2 January 2012
  16. ^ "EU Iran sanctions: Ministers adopt Iran oil imports ban" Archived 11 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine, "BBC News", 23 January 2012
  17. ^ Afghan Refugees in Iran, "[1] Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine", International Peace Research Institute, Oslo, 16 June 2004. Retrieved 29 April 2007.
  18. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 October 2010. Retrieved 8 April 2010.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ Robert Baer (30 September 2008). The Devil We Know: Dealing with the New Iranian Superpower. Crown Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-307-44978-8. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  20. ^ "Meeting The Growing Threat of Iran". CBS News. 15 February 2009. Archived from the original on 11 November 2010. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
  21. ^ Bar, Zvi (26 February 2010). "Iran is regional superpower even without nukes". Haaretz. Israel. Archived from the original on 18 April 2010. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  22. ^ Sick, Gary G. (1 March 1987). "Iran's Quest for Superpower Status". Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 22 August 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  23. ^ "Iran seeking to become Mideast superpower". CNN. 30 August 2006. Archived from the original on 23 January 2009. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  24. ^ "Vladimir Sazhin "Iran Seeking Superpower Status"". Global Affairs. 8 February 2006. Archived from the original on 3 October 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  25. ^ Burston, Bradley. "Will Bush make Iran the only superpower?". Haaretz. Israel. Archived from the original on 7 December 2009. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  26. ^ Simpson, John (20 September 2006). "Iran's growing regional influence". BBC News. Archived from the original on 5 March 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  27. ^ Fathi, Nazila (2 February 2007). "Iran boasts of becoming a superpower". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  28. ^ "The Leonard Lopate Show: Iran: Superpower?". WNYC. Archived from the original on 7 December 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  29. ^ "Iran 'becoming superpower'". Baltimore Sun. 2 February 2007. Archived from the original on 16 June 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  30. ^ "Senegal threatens to cut ties" Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine, 19 December 2010
  31. ^ "Algeria Deepens its Isolation by Endorsing Assad and Iran in Syria". Archived from the original on 6 April 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  32. ^ Of), Iran (Islamic Republic (8 January 1986). "Diplomatic Relations Between Islamic Republic of Iran and Angola as of 8 Jan. 1986". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  33. ^ Of), Iran (Islamic Republic; Faso, Burkina (November 1984). "Diplomatic Relations Between Islamic Republic of Iran and Burkina Faso as of 1 Nov. 1984". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  34. ^ Africa Contemporary Record: Annual Survey and Documents, Volume 18. Africana Publishing Company. 1985. p. 259.
  35. ^ Nouvelles Du Cameroun: Cameroon News. Service de presse et d'information de l'Ambassade du Cameroun. 1974. p. 16.
  36. ^ L'Année politique africaine (in French). Société africaine d'édition. 1975. p. 19.
  37. ^ News Review on West Asia. Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses. 1972. p. 10.
  38. ^ Auto, Hermes (16 January 2016). "Saudi Arabia ally Comoros breaks off relations with Iran | The Straits Times". www.straitstimes.com. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
  39. ^ "RDC-Iran : les deux Etats célèbrent leur 51ème année des relations diplomatiques". zoom-eco.net (in French). 13 February 2023. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  40. ^ The Iranian Journal of International Affairs Volume 6, Issues 1-4. Institute for Political and International Studies. 1994. p. 137.
  41. ^ Farah, Gaouad (1982). La République de Djibouti: naissance d'un Etat : chronologie (in French). Imprimerie Officielle. p. 123.
  42. ^ "Khomeini Orders Iranian Regime". The New York Times. 1 May 1979. Retrieved 2 November 2023.
  43. ^ African Chronicle: A Fortnightly Record on Governance, Economy, Development, Human Rights, and Environment, Volume 8. C.P. Chacko. 2007. p. 2308.
  44. ^ "Eritrea: President Isaias Receives Credentials of 9 Ambassadors". allAfrica. 31 May 2007. Retrieved 3 August 2023.
  45. ^ Summary of World Broadcasts: Non-Arab Africa - Issues 4717-4792. British Broadcasting Corporation. Monitoring Service. 1974.
  46. ^ "Gambia severs ties with Iran". Al Jazeera English. Archived from the original on 4 February 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  47. ^ "Sanctions cause problems, but do not halt progress, says Ahmadinejad". Yourmiddleeast.com. 17 April 2013. Archived from the original on 28 April 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
  48. ^ "Iranian leader Ahmadinejad's West Africa tour defended". BBC News. 17 April 2013. Archived from the original on 22 September 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
  49. ^ Marchés tropicaux et méditerranéens - Issues 2330-2342 (in French). Rene Moreaux et Cie. 1990. p. 2466.
  50. ^ http://en.mfa.ir/index.aspx?fkeyid=&siteid=3&pageid=1997&newsview=24166[permanent dead link]
  51. ^ http://en.mfa.ir/index.aspx?fkeyid=&siteid=3&pageid=1997&newsview=329883[permanent dead link]
  52. ^ a b The White Revolution and Iran's Independent National Policy. Iranian Government. 1973. p. 43.
  53. ^ Iran Almanac and Book of Facts - Volume 15. Echo of Iran. 1976. p. 137.
  54. ^ Bing, Christopher; Wallis, Daniel (23 December 2023). "Pentagon says Iranian drone 'attack' hit chemical tanker near India" (News article). Reuters. Archived from the original on 24 December 2023. Retrieved 24 December 2023.
  55. ^ OSINTdefender (23 December 2023). "The U.S. Department of Defense has now Confirmed that "Suicide" Drone which Struck the Liberian-Flagged Oil and Chemical Tanker, M/V CHEM PLUTO today in the Arabian Sea while it was Transiting between Saudi Arabia and India was launched directly from Iran by the Iranian Armed Forces" (Post on X). X (Formerly Twitter). @SentDefender.
  56. ^ The White Revolution and Iran's Independent National Policy. Iranian Government. 1973. p. 37.
  57. ^ a b Zahed, Saud (22 October 2011). "Tehran switches gear in its relationship with Tripoli after Qaddafi's death". Al Arabiya. Archived from the original on 22 July 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  58. ^ Iran Almanac and Book of Facts. Echo of Iran. 1973. p. 161.
  59. ^ Defense & Foreign Affairs Handbook. Perth Corporation. 2002. p. 1088.
  60. ^ Iran Almanac and Book of Facts Volume 15. Echo of Iran. 1976. p. 137.
  61. ^ Summary of World Broadcasts Non-Arab Africa · Issues 4412-4487. British Broadcasting Corporation. Monitoring Service. 1973. p. 5. Retrieved 23 April 2023.
  62. ^ Iran Almanac and Book of Facts Issue 11. Echo of Iran. 1972. p. 261.
  63. ^ "Moroccan premier ends visit to Iran". BBC News. 21 January 2001. Archived from the original on 17 December 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  64. ^ a b http://www.metimes.com/International/2009/03/09/iran_angered_by_morocco_severing_ties/1933/2025~1236618001~1/[permanent dead link]
  65. ^ [2] Archived 30 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  66. ^ "Morocco severs ties with Iran, accusing it of backing Polisario Front". Reuters. Archived from the original on 1 May 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  67. ^ Samuel Abraham, Peyavali Mushelenga (November 2008). "Selected agreements signed between Namibia and other countries by 17 June 1991" (PDF). p. 254. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  68. ^ Current Background, Issues 1035-1040. American Consulate General. 1975. p. 46.
  69. ^ News Review on West Asia. Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses. 1972. p. 12.
  70. ^ Summary of World Broadcasts Non-Arab Africa · Issues 3650-3723. British Broadcasting Corporation. Monitoring Service. 1971. p. 7.
  71. ^ "Iran, Senegal presidents urge OIC to support Muslims".[permanent dead link]
  72. ^ "Iranian car assembly line in Senegal". Payvand. 20 March 2008. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  73. ^ [3] Archived 29 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  74. ^ "Senegal severs ties with Iran". Al Jazeera English. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  75. ^ The Iranian Journal of International Affairs. Vol. 6. Institute for Political and International Studies. 1994. p. 138.
  76. ^ Le mois en Afrique (in French). 1983. p. 169.
  77. ^ "Transition (1990 - 1994) - Chronologies: 1994". omalley.nelsonmandela.org. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  78. ^ [4] Archived 13 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  79. ^ Record of the Arab World: Yearbook of Arab and Israeli Politics, Volume 1. Research and Publishing House. 1972. p. 599.
  80. ^ "Archived copy". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 4 January 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2016.((cite news)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  81. ^ "Iran and Sudan look to restore diplomatic ties". Reuters. 6 July 2023. Retrieved 7 November 2023.
  82. ^ "FCO 8/4608 1982 Jan 01 - 1982 Dec 31 Iran: multilateral political relations". agda.ae. p. 26. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  83. ^ Iran-Uganda establish diplomatic relations. State Deptment cable 1974-229280. 1974. Retrieved 23 July 2023.
  84. ^ Summary of World Broadcasts Non-Arab Africa · Issues 4335-4411. British Broadcasting Corporation. Monitoring Service. 1973. p. 5.
  85. ^ Sub-Saharan Africa Report, Issues 2761-2765. United States. Foreign Broadcast Information Service. 1983.
  86. ^ Michael, Chideme (8 September 2011). "Buddies take imperialists head on". The Herald online. Archived from the original on 22 September 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
  87. ^ Percyslage, Chigora; Dorothy Goredema (2011). "Zimbabwe-Iran relations in the 21st century" (PDF). Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa. 13 (4): 423–430. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
  88. ^ "Mugabe backs Iran's nuclear program". NewZimbabwe. 12 November 2009. Archived from the original on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
  89. ^ "Iranian Foreign Minister hails First Lady's philanthropic work". The Herald. Retrieved 9 November 2022.
  90. ^ a b c d e f g h [5] Archived 20 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  91. ^ "Iran Daily - Domestic Economy - 12/14/08". Archived from the original on 29 January 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2008.
  92. ^ O'Connor, Anne-Marie (13 July 2009). "Iran's Rumored Nicaraguan 'Mega-Embassy' Set Off Alarms in U.S". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 31 August 2017. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  93. ^ Barbuda, Antigua and; Of), Iran (Islamic Republic (October 2015). "Diplomatic Relations between Islamic Republic of Iran and Antigua and Barbuda as of 1 Oct. 2015". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  94. ^ "Tratado de Amistad y Comercio entre la República Argentina y el Reino de Persia". Biblioteca Digital de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  95. ^ Of), Iran (Islamic Republic (March 1978). "Diplomatic relations between Iran (Islamic Republic of) and Barbados as of 1 Mar. 1978". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  96. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 December 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2017.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  97. ^ "Mercado sostiene reunión bilateral con el embajador de Irán en Bolivia Morteza Tafreshi". diputados.gob.bo (in Spanish). 23 February 2023. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  98. ^ "Brazil-Iran Foreign Relations". IranTracker. 20 May 2010. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  99. ^ "Iran, Brazil agree to boost trade ties to $10 billion". Payvand. Archived from the original on 25 November 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  100. ^ "Why Iran-Brazil friendship has gone cold". CNN. 5 April 2012. Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
  101. ^ "Amid Pressure And Threats, Iran's Isolation Grows With Cooled Brazil Relations - ThinkProgress". ThinkProgress. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  102. ^ Romero, Simon (23 January 2012). "Ahmadinejad Adviser Accuses Brazil of Ruining Relations". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
  103. ^ CTV News (7 September 2012). "Canada closes embassy in Iran, expels Iranian diplomats". CTV News. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
  104. ^ "Relaciones Bilaterales con la República Islámica de Irán". cancilleria.gov.co (in Spanish). Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  105. ^ "Estados con los que Cuba mantiene relaciones diplomaticas" (PDF). Memoria anual 2015 (in Spanish). p. 21. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 May 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  106. ^ "Iran, Cuba sign banking agreement". Islamic Republic News Agency. 19 February 2008. Archived from the original on 24 January 2008. Retrieved 8 June 2008.
  107. ^ "President urges Tehran-Havana cooperation in NAM – Irna". Archived from the original on 10 February 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  108. ^ a b c Iran Almanac and Book of Facts. Echo of Iran. 1974. p. 190.
  109. ^ "Hoy se celebran 29 años de relaciones diplomáticas con Irán. Guatemala reafirma el compromiso por estrechar aún más los vínculos de amistad y cooperación". MINEX Guatemala (in Spanish). 25 January 2022. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  110. ^ "Countries with which Guyana has Establishment Diplomatic Relations" (PDF). minfor.gov.gy. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  111. ^ "Countries with which Jamaica has Established Diplomatic Relations". Ministry of Foreifn Affairs and Foreign Trade Jamaica. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  112. ^ "Hace 58 años se establecieron las relaciones diplomáticas entre México e Irán". Relaciones Exteriores (in Spanish). 15 October 2022. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  113. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Mexico-Iran". Embamex. Archived from the original on 25 November 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  114. ^ Embassy of Iran in Mexico City
  115. ^ Embassy of Mexico in Tehran
  116. ^ "Relaciones diplomaticas de la Republica de Panama" (PDF). Memoria 2011-2012 (in Spanish). p. 200. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  117. ^ Of), Iran (Islamic Republic (19 February 1993). "Diplomatic Relations Between Iran (Islamic Republic of) and Paraguay as of 19 Feb. 1993". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  118. ^ "Diplomatic Relations -Saint Vincent anf the Grenadines (by geographic location)" (PDF). Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Diplomatic and Consular List. February 2020. p. 110. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  119. ^ Tobago, Trinidad and; Of), Iran (Islamic Republic (11 December 1998). "Diplomatic Relations Between Islamic Republic of Iran and Suriname as of 11 Dec. 1997". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  120. ^ Shah, Saeed; Black, Ian (13 July 2010). "Missing Iranian nuclear scientist turns up in US". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 17 December 2016. Because Iran and the US do not have diplomatic relations, Pakistan handles Iranian interests in the US.
  121. ^ "Q&A With the Head of Iran's New America's Desk". The Wall Street Journal. 1 April 2009. Archived from the original on 4 January 2020. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  122. ^ Reading Khamenei: The World View of Iran's Most Powerful Leader, by Karim Sadjadpour March 2008 Archived 6 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine p.20
  123. ^ The New Republic, "Charm Offensive", by Laura Secor, 1 April 2009
  124. ^ "Venezuela celebra el 72° aniversario del establecimiento de las relaciones diplomáticas con la República Islámica de Irán , con la que consolida una respetuosa y fructífera alianza estratégica, fortalecida con valores de hermandad y paz". Cancillería Venezuela (in Spanish). 9 August 2022. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  125. ^ Iran and Venezuela plan anti-U.S. fund Archived 9 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, USA Today, 14 January 2007
  126. ^ "Iran, Venezuela in "axis of unity" against U.S". Reuters. 2 July 2007. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  127. ^ Almanach de Gotha (in French). Gotha, Germany : Justus Perthes. 1923. p. 1237. Retrieved 7 November 2023.
  128. ^ Snow, Shawn (14 January 2020). "Iran's support to the Taliban, which has included MANPADS and a bounty on US troops, could be a spoiler for peace in Afghanistan". Military Times. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  129. ^ "Why the Taliban Won't Cut Ties with Iran". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  130. ^ "Iran Supporting Taliban in Form of Weapons, Funding: Pompeo". TOLOnews. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  131. ^ "Iran: Afghan Refugees and Migrants Face Abuse". Human Rights Watch. 20 November 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  132. ^ Saber, Shapoor. "'They Were Laughing': Iranian Border Guards Accused of Torturing, Drowning Afghan Migrants". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  133. ^ "Iran has 1.2 million drug addicts". AFP. 7 May 2009.[permanent dead link]
  134. ^ "Bilateral Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Armenia. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  135. ^ a b Timothy C. Dowling Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond Archived 3 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine pp 728–729 ABC-CLIO, 2 December 2014 ISBN 1598849484
  136. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 18 June 2015.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  137. ^ "The Islamic Republic of Iran". Republic of Azerbaijan Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  138. ^ Swietochowski, Tadeusz (1995). Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition. Columbia University Press. pp. 69, 133. ISBN 978-0-231-07068-3. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
  139. ^ L. Batalden, Sandra (1997). The newly independent states of Eurasia: handbook of former Soviet republics. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-89774-940-4. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
  140. ^ E. Ebel, Robert, Menon, Rajan (2000). Energy and conflict in Central Asia and the Caucasus. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-7425-0063-1. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  141. ^ Andreeva, Elena (2010). Russia and Iran in the great game: travelogues and orientalism (reprint ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-415-78153-4. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
  142. ^ Çiçek, Kemal, Kuran, Ercüment (2000). The Great Ottoman-Turkish Civilisation. University of Michigan. ISBN 978-975-6782-18-7. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  143. ^ Ernest Meyer, Karl, Blair Brysac, Shareen (2006). Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia. Basic Books. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-465-04576-1. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  144. ^ Juan Eduardo Campo,Encyclopedia of Islam, p.625
  145. ^ Iran Almanac and Book of Facts. Echo of Iran. 1973. p. 157.
  146. ^ "Brief history on Bilateral Relations between Iran and Bangladesh". dhaka.mfa.ir. Archived from the original on 11 October 2023. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  147. ^ "Dhaka to sign preferential trade accord with Tehran". Bilaterals. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  148. ^ "Bangladesh Seeks Iran"s Cooperation in Nuclear Energy Sector". SHANA. 5 August 2007. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  149. ^ "Iran". Ministry of Foreign Affairs Brunei Darussalam. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  150. ^ "Side by side and hand in hand, Usher in a New Era for China-Iran Friendship". Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the Islamic Republic of Iran. 15 August 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  151. ^ "Iran's nuclear ambitions – Western buffer, Eastern bulwark". Parstimes.com. 24 January 2005. Archived from the original on 27 May 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  152. ^ "AJE". Al Jazeera English. Archived from the original on 26 August 2006. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
  153. ^ George L. Simpson Jr. (2010). "Russian and Chinese Support for Tehran" Middle East Quarterly
  154. ^ "Iran, Islamic Republic of". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  155. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia". Mfa.gov.ge. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  156. ^ "India-Iran Relations" (PDF). mea.gov.in. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  157. ^ "Milestones: 1953-1960. The Baghdad Pact (1955) and the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO)". Archived from the original on 24 December 2011. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
  158. ^ a b "How Iran saved India – in 1994". 19 January 2011. Archived from the original on 1 July 2011. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
  159. ^ "Iran faces world chill but SAARC, India warm up to it as observer". 29 March 2007. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
  160. ^ "Again, India votes against Iran's nuclear programme". The Indian Express. 28 November 2009. Archived from the original on 4 January 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
  161. ^ "India abstains from UN vote against Iran". The Times of India. 20 November 2011. Archived from the original on 30 October 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
  162. ^ "Diplomasi Indonesia 2014" (PDF) (in Indonesian). p. 55. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 April 2023. Retrieved 2 November 2023.
  163. ^ Yon Machmudi. "Cultural Cooperation between Indonesia and Iran:Challenges and Opportunities". Academia. Retrieved 3 June 2013. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  164. ^ Priyambodo RH (19 March 2012). "RI-Iran relations have no limit". Antara News. Archived from the original on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
  165. ^ Breffni O'Rourke (12 May 2006). "Iran finds an ally in Indonesia". Asia Times Online. Archived from the original on 14 April 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013.((cite web)): CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  166. ^ "Indonesia offers Iran mediation". BBC News. 10 May 2006. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
  167. ^ Chelsi Mueller (2020). The Origins of the Arab-Iranian Conflict Nationalism and Sovereignty in the Gulf Between the World Wars. Cambridge University Press. p. 111.
  168. ^ Bulletin of International News Volume 6, Issue 3. Royal Institute of International Affairs. Information Department. 1929. p. 84.
  169. ^ Walter Lippmann, Whitney Hart Shepardson, William Oscar Scroggs (1950). The United States in World Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations. p. 545.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  170. ^ "Kazakhstan-Iranian Relations". Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  171. ^ "حدث فى مثل هذا اليوم فى الكويت". Kuwait News Agency (KUNA) (in Arabic). 17 December 2005. Retrieved 7 September 2023.
  172. ^ "Kyrgyzstan, Iran back political solutions for conflicts: Kyrgyz Envoy to Iran". Islamic Republic News Agency. 28 May 2022. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  173. ^ Gérard D. Khoury (2004). Sélim Takla 1895-1945 une contribution à l'indépendance du Liban (in French). Karthala. p. 380.
  174. ^ Wright, Robin, Sacred Rage, (2001), pp. 80-1
  175. ^ Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival, Norton, (2006), p. 115
  176. ^ "An open letter, The Hizballah program" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  177. ^ "Who are Hezbollah?". BBC News. 4 July 2010. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  178. ^ Jaber, Hala, Hezbollah: Born with a Vengeance, Columbia University Press, c1997, p. 150
  179. ^ How Iran Keeps Assad in Power in SyriaArchived 20 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine|Geneive Abdo|29 August 2011
  180. ^ Monday Morning magazine, 31 October 1983
  181. ^ "Malaysia set to pursue FTA with Iran by end-Jan 2017". Bernama. The Star. 23 December 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  182. ^ "Iran, Malaysia Sign MoU For Gas Fields Study". Bernama. 9 February 2017. Archived from the original on 1 March 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  183. ^ "Iran, Malaysia to expand trade ties using local currencies". Mehr News Agency. 24 February 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  184. ^ "Iran, Malaysia Integrating Banking Transactions". Financial Tribune. 25 February 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  185. ^ "Iran, Malaysia Agree to Trade in Yen, Yuan: Official". Tasnim News Agency. 25 February 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  186. ^ "Iran keen to have more Malaysian students". Bernama. The Malay Mail. 12 October 2015. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  187. ^ "List of Countries Maintaining Diplomatic Relations with Mongolia" (PDF). Diplomatic and Consular List Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Mongolia. March 2020. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2022. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  188. ^ "Diplomatic Relations". Embassy of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar in Brazil. Archived from the original on 14 October 2022. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  189. ^ "Bilateral Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs Nepal. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  190. ^ "DPRK Diplomatic Relations" (PDF). The National Committee On North Korea. August 2016. p. 4. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  191. ^ "Result of Iranian delegation visit to N Korea positive". IRNA. 23 January 2007. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 24 April 2007.
  192. ^ Coughlin, Con (26 January 2007). "N. Korea helping Iran with nuclear testing". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 18 May 2007. Retrieved 24 April 2007.
  193. ^ Iran Almanac and Book of Facts. Echo of Iran. 1973. p. 158.
  194. ^ Atique Zafar Sheikh, Mohammad Riaz Malik (1990). Quaid-e-Azam and the Muslim World Selected Documents, 1937-1948. Royal Book Company. p. 262.
  195. ^ "Iran 'accepts two-state answer' in Mideast". Financial Times. 4 September 2006. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  196. ^ Kessler, Glenn (18 June 2006). "In 2003, U.S. Spurned Iran's Offer of Dialogue". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 17 February 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  197. ^ Molavi, Afshin,Soul of Iran, Norton, 2005
  198. ^ Iran punishes Hamas for not backing Assad Archived 13 April 2020 at the Wayback Machine| 23 August 2011
  199. ^ "The Republic of the Philippines and the Islamic Republic of Iran celebrate 58 years of formal diplomatic relations today, January 22!". DFA Philippines. 22 January 2022. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  200. ^ "Embassy of Iran in the Philippines". Embassypages.com. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  201. ^ "Embassy of Philippines in Tehran". Embassy Finder. Archived from the original on 28 August 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  202. ^ The Foreign Relations of Iran: A Developing State in a Zone of Great-power Conflict. University of California Press. 1974. p. 232.
  203. ^ Dr. Emir Hadžikadunić. "Insight 215: Iran–Saudi Ties: Can History Project Their Trajectory?". Ifimes. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  204. ^ a b Kaven L. Afrasiab, "Saudi-Iran Tension Fuel Wider Conflict" Asia Times, 6 December 2006. http://www.atimes.com/atime/Middle_East/HLO6AKo4.html[permanent dead link].
  205. ^ Fürtig, Henner (29 January 2009). "Iran and Saudi Arabia: Eternal 'Gamecocks?'". Middle East Institute. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  206. ^ [6] Archived 29 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine, "La violente charge du roi Abdallah contre l'Iran et Israël," Georges Malbrunot, 29 June 2010, Le Figaro.
  207. ^ "Iran and Saudi Arabia agree to resume relations after years of tension". NPR. 10 March 2023. Retrieved 10 March 2023.
  208. ^ "Republic of Singapore Diplomatic & Consular List" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs Singapore. 20 August 2017. p. 104. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 August 2017. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  209. ^ Heads of Foreign Missions in Syria, 1947. Syria from Foreign Office files 1947-1956. 1947. p. 34. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  210. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 October 2015. Retrieved 9 October 2015.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  211. ^ Wergin, Clemens (16 February 2012). "welt.de, in german". Die Welt. Welt.de. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
  212. ^ "Iran helping Assad to put down protests: officials". Reuters. 23 March 2012. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  213. ^ Iran helping Syrian regime crack down on protesters, say diplomats Archived 28 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Simon Tisdall and foreign staff in Damascus, The Guardian, 9 May 2011
  214. ^ a b Iran agrees to fund Syrian military base Archived 4 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine| Con Coughlin|12 August 2011| The Telegraph
  215. ^ Iran sees support for Syria essential to fend off U.S., Israeli 'wolves'[permanent dead link], Rob Crilly and Robin Pomeroy, Daily Telegraph and Reuters, 16 August 2011
  216. ^ "InsideIRAN | How Iran Keeps Assad in Power in Syria". Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  217. ^ "COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING REGULATION (EU) No 611/2011 of 23 June 2011". Archived from the original on 28 August 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  218. ^ "Syria: Deadly protests erupt against Bashar Assad". BBC News. 24 June 2011. Archived from the original on 2 November 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  219. ^ "Overview". Ministry of Foreign Affairs Republic of Korea. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  220. ^ "Relations between the Republic of Tajikistan and the Islamic Republic of Iran". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Tajikistan. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  221. ^ "Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Islamic Republic of Iran will pay an Official Visit to Thailand". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Kingdom of Thailand. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  222. ^ "Middle East". mnec.gov.tl. Archived from the original on 21 March 2023. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  223. ^ "Embassy History and Previous Ambassadors". Turkish Embassy in Tehran. Retrieved 28 October 2023.
  224. ^ Iran–Turkey relations#Tourism
  225. ^ "Turkey, Iran ready to bolster tourism". Turkish daily news. 19 June 2006. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
  226. ^ Schleifer, Yigal (2 February 2006). "Caught in the fray: Turkey enters debate on Iran's nuclear program". CS Monitor. Archived from the original on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2009.
  227. ^ http://www.iran-daily.com/1387/3304/html/economy.htm. Retrieved 27 June 2009. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  228. ^ [7] Archived 9 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  229. ^ http://www.iran-daily.com/1387/3278/html/national.htm. Retrieved 27 June 2009. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  230. ^ Safine-ye SolaymanI Archived 14 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine in Encyclopaedia Iranica
  231. ^ "States with which Turkmenistan established diplomatic relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkmenistan. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  232. ^ "وب سایتهای ایرنا". Irna. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  233. ^ Chronicle of Progress. Trident Press. 1996. p. 32. ISBN 9781900724036. Retrieved 20 April 2023.
  234. ^ "EMBASSY OF THE UAE IN TEHRAN". United Arab Emirates Ministry of Foreign Relations & International Cooperation. Archived from the original on 20 September 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  235. ^ "Uzbek-Iranian Relations". Embassy of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  236. ^ "Uzbekistan – The Middle East and Pakistan". Country Studies. Archived from the original on 3 November 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  237. ^ "Hanoi-Tehran ties set up for growth by solid ties: Vietnamese official". Tehran Times. 5 August 2023. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  238. ^ Iran Almanac and Book of Facts. Echo of Iran. 1973. p. 160.
  239. ^ "Terrorists, cultists – or champions of Iranian democracy? The wild wild story of the MEK". the Guardian. 9 November 2018.
  240. ^ "Albania Cuts Diplomatic Ties with Iran over Cyberattack". 7 September 2022.
  241. ^ Of), Iran (Islamic Republic (30 September 2015). "Diplomatic Relations between Islamic Republic of Iran and Andorra as of 30 Sept. 2015". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  242. ^ Heinrich Friedjung, Franz Adlgasser, Margret Friedrich (1997). Geschichte in Gesprächen: 1904-1919 (in German). Böhlau. p. 115.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  243. ^ "Political cooperation". Embassy of the Republic of Belarus in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  244. ^ "Tehran Times". 12 December 2008. Archived from the original on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  245. ^ "Dates of Recognition and Establishment of Diplomatic Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  246. ^ "Установяване, прекъсване u възстановяване на дипломатическите отношения на България (1878-2005)" (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 14 October 2023.
  247. ^ "Bulgarian embassy in Tehran". Archived from the original on 19 April 2010.
  248. ^ "Iranian embassy in Sofia". Archived from the original on 13 May 2009.
  249. ^ "Date of Recognition and Establishment of Diplomatic Relations". Republic of Croatia Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  250. ^ Croatia set for all-out cooperation with Iran Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Tehran Times
  251. ^ "Timeline". HIC. Archived from the original on 3 December 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  252. ^ "Iran, Croatia Pledge to Expand Cooperation". People's Daily. 19 June 2001. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  253. ^ Ahmadinejad calls for expansion of Iran-Croatia ties[permanent dead link]
  254. ^ Newsom, David D. (2019). The Diplomatic Record 1989-1990. Routledge.
  255. ^ Nováková, Klára (2014). "Československo-íránské vztahy. Politické a kulturní vztahy v letech 1953-1979" (PDF) (in Czech). p. 17. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2023. Retrieved 14 October 2023.
  256. ^ "Large Czech trade delegation to visit Iran - Tehran Times". Archived from the original on 7 September 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  257. ^ "Kongelig dansk Hof- og Statskalender 1923" (PDF). slaegtsbibliotek.dk (in Danish). p. 28. Retrieved 13 October 2023.
  258. ^ Wikinews:Danish and Austrian embassies in Tehran attacked
  259. ^ "Diplomaatiliste suhete (taas)kehtestamise kronoloogia". vm.ee (in Estonian). Retrieved 14 October 2023.
  260. ^ "History of representation in Iran". Finland abroad. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  261. ^ Verdens Gang, 15 September 2010, p. 12 by journalist Einar Hagvaag. Norwegian text: "En diplomat ved den iranske ambassaden i Helsinfors hoppet lørdag av og har søkt politisk asyl i Finland."
  262. ^ "L'audience donnée par Louis XIV à l'ambassadeur de Perse à Versailles" (in French). Retrieved 2 November 2023.
  263. ^ "Geschichte von Kanzlei und Residenz". Deutsche Botschaft Teheran (in German). Retrieved 2 November 2023.
  264. ^ German-Persian Diplomatic Relations, 1873–1912. Bradford G. Martin. 1959.
  265. ^ American Monthly Review of Reviews, Volume 26. Review of Reviews. 1902. p. 669.
  266. ^ Persia and Greece. The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1889 - 1931) View title info Sat 22 Nov 1902. p. 7. Retrieved 13 October 2023.
  267. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Of The Holy See". Permanent Observer Mission of the Holy See to the United Nations. Retrieved 13 October 2023.
  268. ^ "Iran's Secret Weapon: The Pope". Time magazine. 26 November 2007. Archived from the original on 3 July 2009. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
  269. ^ "Iceland - Establishment of Diplomatic Relation". Government of Iceland. Retrieved 14 October 2023.
  270. ^ Ireland Today 879-941. Information Section, Department of Foreign Affairs. 1976. p. 24.
  271. ^ "Irish embassy in Tehran". Embassyofireland.ir. 15 June 2011. Archived from the original on 1 March 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  272. ^ Annuario diplomatico del Regno d'Italia ... (in Italian). Italia : Ministero degli affari esteri. 1931. p. 53.
  273. ^ "Iran-Italy trade hits dlrs 2.7 bn in 1st 11 months". Payvand. 22 November 2006. Archived from the original on 26 September 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  274. ^ [8] Archived 4 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  275. ^ "The Cost of Economic Sanctions on Major Exporters to Iran". Payvand. Archived from the original on 9 July 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  276. ^ "Italy remains top trading partner of Iran in EU". Payvand. Archived from the original on 25 November 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  277. ^ [9] Archived 7 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  278. ^ "Iranian Deputy Meet Italian Counterpart". Iran Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 11 May 2017. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  279. ^ "Dates of Establishment and Renewal of Diplomatic Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs Republic of Latvia. Retrieved 14 October 2023.
  280. ^ "پادشاه لیختن اشتاین ایران را عامل ثبات در منطقه خاورمیانه دانست". irna.ir (in Persian). 18 August 1998. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  281. ^ "List of countries with which Lithuania has established diplomatic relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Lithuania. Retrieved 14 October 2023.
  282. ^ "Mémorial du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Samedi, 30 mai 1936". Strada lex Luxembourg (in French). Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  283. ^ News Review on West Asia. Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses. 1972. p. 6.
  284. ^ "Republica Islamică Iran". mfa.gov.md (in Romanian). Retrieved 14 October 2023.
  285. ^ "Rapport Politique Extérieure 2012 DRE" (PDF). Government of Monaco (in French). p. 8. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  286. ^ "Dutch-Persian Relations". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 13 October 2023.
  287. ^ Bescheiden betreffende de buitenlandse politiek van Nederland, 1848-1919 tweede periode 1871-1898 · Issue 122 (in Dutch). M. Nijhoff. 1967. p. 425.
  288. ^ "Bilateral Relations". Republic of North Macedonia Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2023.
  289. ^ "Norges opprettelse af diplomatiske forbindelser med fremmede stater" (PDF). regjeringen.no (in Norwegian). 27 April 1999. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  290. ^ Verdens Gang, 15 September p. 12 (Norwegian text: "I januar hoppet Mohammed Reza Heydari ved Irans ambassade i Norge av. Han fikk innvilget politisk asyl i Norge i februar."
  291. ^ Verdens Gang, 15 September 2010 p. 12 (Norwegian text: "Farzad Farhangian var inntil i forrige uke pressemedarbeider ved Irans ambassade i Brussel. Mandag kom han til Norge for å søke politisk asyl ..."
  292. ^ "Timeline: Norway closes embassy in Iran after Brits attacked". CBS. 30 November 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2011.[dead link]
  293. ^ "Poland in Iran". gov.pl. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  294. ^ "Irão". Portal Diplomatico (in Portuguese). Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  295. ^ "Diplomatic Relations of Romania". Ministry of Foreign Affairs Romania. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  296. ^ "Iranian embassy in Bucharest". Iranembassy.ro. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  297. ^ "Romanian embassy in Teheran". Ambrotehran. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  298. ^ "Bilateral Relations". Republic of Serbia Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  299. ^ Miodrag Milanović, Srpski stari vek, Beograd, 2008, page 81[dead link].
  300. ^ "Irán: Základné informácie". mzv.sk (in Slovak). Retrieved 14 October 2023.
  301. ^ mag. Mojca Pristavec Đogić (2016). "Priznanja samostojne Slovenije" (PDF) (in Slovenian). p. 5. Retrieved 14 October 2023.
  302. ^ "Gaceta de Madrid" (PDF) (in Spanish). 18 July 1872. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 April 2018. Retrieved 28 October 2023.
  303. ^ "Agents diplomatiques en Suisse" (in French). p. 60. Retrieved 13 October 2023.
  304. ^ Almanach de Gotha (in French). Gotha, Germany : Justus Perthes. 1898. p. 1270. Retrieved 28 October 2023.
  305. ^ "Протокол про встановлення дипломатичних відносин між Україною та Ісламською Республікою Іран". zakon.rada.gov.ua (in Ukrainian). 22 January 1992. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  306. ^ Francis W H Cavendish; Edward Hertslet. The Foreign Office List 1857 9th Publication [Great Britain]. 1857. p. 35. Retrieved 14 October 2023.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  307. ^ Hint of Iran sanctions tugs at trade ties Archived 6 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Judy Dempsey, 22 January 2006, International Herald Tribune
  308. ^ Iranian protesters storm British diplomatic compounds Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Reuters, 29 November 2011
  309. ^ "Cameron committed to 'rebuilding' relations with Iran". BBC News. BBC News. 17 June 2014.
  310. ^ "British embassy in Tehran reopens four years after closure". BBC News. BBC News. 23 August 2015. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
  311. ^ The White Revolution and Iran's Independent National Policy. Iranian Government. 1973. p. 88.
  312. ^ Of), Iran (Islamic Republic (29 August 2013). "Diplomatic Relations between Fiji and Islamic Republic of Iran as of 29 Aug. 2012". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  313. ^ Iran Almanac and Book of Facts. Echo of Iran. 1974. p. 178.

Further reading