Supreme Leader of the
Islamic Republic of Iran
Emblem of Iran.svg
Khamenei delivers Nowruz messgae 13990101 0745202 (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Ali Khamenei

since 4 June 1989
Office of the Supreme Leader
StatusHead of State
Reports toAssembly of Experts
ResidenceHouse of Leadership
SeatTehran
AppointerAssembly of Experts
Term lengthLife tenure[1]
Constituting instrumentConstitution of Iran
PrecursorShah of Iran
Formation3 December 1979
First holderRuhollah Khomeini
Websitewww.leader.ir

The Supreme Leader of Iran (Persian: رهبر معظم ایران, romanizedrahbar-e mo'azzam-e irān (listen)), also referred to as Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution[2] (رهبر معظم انقلاب اسلامی, rahbar-e mo'azzam-e enqelāb-e eslāmi), but officially called the Supreme Leadership Authority (مقام معظم رهبری, maqām mo'azzam rahbari), is the head of state and the highest political and religious authority of the Islamic Republic of Iran (above the president). The armed forces, judiciary, state television, and other key government organisations such as Guardian Council and Expediency Discernment Council are subject to the Supreme Leader.[3][4] According to the constitution, the Supreme Leader delineates the general policies of the Islamic Republic (article 110), supervising the legislature, the judiciary, and the executive branches (article 57).[5] The current lifetime officeholder, Ali Khamenei, has issued decrees and made the final decisions on the economy, the environment, foreign policy, education, national planning, and other aspects of governance in Iran.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13] Khamenei also makes the final decisions on the amount of transparency in elections,[14] and has dismissed and reinstated presidential cabinet appointees.[15] The Supreme Leader is legally considered "inviolable", with Iranians being routinely punished for questioning or insulting him.[16][17][18][19]

The office was established by the Constitution of Iran in 1979, pursuant to Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini's concept of the Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist,[20] and is a lifetime appointment. Originally the constitution required the Supreme Leader to be Marja'-e taqlid, the highest-ranking cleric in the religious laws of Usuli Twelver Shia Islam. In 1989, however, the constitution was amended and simply asked for Islamic "scholarship" to allow the Supreme Leader to be a lower-ranking cleric.[21][22] As the Guardian Jurist (Vali-ye faqih), the Supreme Leader, guides the country, protecting it from heresy and imperialist predations, and ensuring the laws of Islam are followed. The style "Supreme Leader" (Persian: رهبر معظم, romanizedrahbar-e mo'azzam) is commonly used as a sign of respect although the Constitution designates them simply as "Leader" (رهبر, rahbar). According to the constitution (Article 111), the Assembly of Experts is tasked with electing (following Ayatollah Khomeini), supervising, and dismissing the Supreme Leader. In practice, the Assembly has never been known to challenge or otherwise publicly oversee any of the Supreme Leader's decisions[23] (all of its meetings and notes are strictly confidential).[24] Members of the Assembly are chosen by bodies (the Guardian Council) whose members are appointed by the Supreme Leader or appointed by an individual (Chief Justice of Iran) appointed by the Supreme Leader.

In its history, the Islamic Republic of Iran only has had two Supreme Leaders: Khomeini, who held the position from 1979 until his death in 1989 and Ali Khamenei, who has held the position for 30+ years since Khomeini's death.

Mandate and status

The Supreme Leader of Iran is elected by the Assembly of Experts (مجلس خبرگان, Majles-e Khobregan), which is also the only government body in charge of choosing and dismissing Supreme Leaders of Iran.[25]

The Supreme Leader is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and the provisional[citation needed] head of the three branches of the state (the Judiciary, the Legislature, and the Executive).

He oversees, appoints (or inaugurates) and can dismiss the following offices:

Iran's regional policy is directly controlled by the office of the Supreme Leader with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs' task limited to protocol and ceremonial occasions. All of Iran's ambassadors to Arab countries, for example, are chosen by the Quds Force, which directly reports to the Supreme Leader.[13]

According to the constitution, all Supreme Leaders (following Ayatollah Khomeini) are to be elected by the Assembly of Experts who are elected by Iranian voters to eight year terms. However, all candidates for membership at the Assembly of Experts (along with candidates for President and for the Majlis (parliament)) must have their candidacy approved by the Guardian Council (in 2016 166 candidates were approved by the Guardians out of 801 who applied to run for the office),[32] whose members in turn, are half appointed unilaterally by the Supreme Leader and half subject to confirmation by the Majlis after being appointed by the head of the Iranian judiciary (Chief Justice of Iran), who is himself appointed by the Supreme Leader.[33] Thereby, the Assembly has never questioned the Supreme Leader.[23] There have been cases where incumbent Ali Khamenei publicly criticized members of the Assembly, resulting in their arrest and subsequent removal. There also have been cases where the Guardian Council repealed its ban on particular people after being directed to do so by Khamenei.[34] The Supreme Leader is legally considered "inviolable", with Iranians being routinely punished for questioning or insulting him.[35][36][37][38]

Incorporation in the Constitution

1979

In March 1979, shortly after Ruhollah Khomeini's return from exile and the overthrow of Iran's monarchy, a national referendum was held throughout Iran with the question "Islamic Republic, yes or no?".[39] Although some groups objected to the wording and choice and boycotted the referendum, 98% of those voting voted "yes".[39] Following this landslide victory, the constitution of Iran of 1906 was declared invalid and a new constitution for an Islamic state was created and ratified by referendum during the first week of December in 1979. According to Francis Fukuyama, the 1979 constitution is a "hybrid" of "theocratic and democratic elements" with much of it based on the ideas Khomeini presented in his published book Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist (Hukumat-e Islami).[40] In the work, Khomeini argued that government must be run in accordance with traditional Islamic sharia, and for this to happen a leading Islamic jurist (faqih) must provide political "guardianship" (wilayat or velayat) over the people. The leading jurist were known as Marja'.

The Constitution stresses the importance of the clergy in government, with Article 4 stating that

all civil, criminal, financial, economic, administrative, cultural, military, political, and all other statutes and regulations (must) be keeping with Islamic measures;…the Islamic legal scholars of the watch council (Shura yi Nigahban) will keep watch over this.[41]

and the importance of the Supreme Leader. Article 5 states

during the absence of the removed Twelfth Imam (may God hasten his reappearance) government and leadership of the community in the Islamic Republic of Iran belong to the rightful God fearing legal scholar (Faqih) who is recognized and acknowledged as the Islamic leader by the majority of the population.

Article 107 in the constitution mentions Khomeini by name and praises him as the most learned and talented leader for emulation (marja-i taqlid). The responsibilities of the Supreme Leader are vaguely stated in the constitution, thus any 'violation' by the Supreme Leader would be dismissed almost immediately. As the rest of the clergy governed affairs on a daily basis, the Supreme Leader is capable of mandating a new decision as per the concept of Vilayat-e Faqih.[42]

The Supreme Leader does not receive a salary.[43]

1989

Shortly before Khomeini's death a change was made in the constitution allowing a lower ranking Shia cleric to become Supreme Leader. Khomeini had a falling out with his successor Hussein-Ali Montazeri who disapproved of human rights abuses by the Islamic Republic[44] such as the mass execution of political prisoners in late summer and early autumn 1988. Montazeri was demoted as a marja and Khomeini chose a new successor, a relatively low-ranking member of the clergy, Ali Khamene'i. However Article 109 stipulated that the leader be "a source of imitation" (Marja-e taqlid). Khomeini wrote a letter to the president of the Assembly for Revising the Constitution, which was in session at the time, making the necessary arrangements to designate Khamene'i as his successor, and Article 109 was revised accordingly.[45] "Khomeini is supposed to have written a letter to the Chairman of the assembly of Leadership Experts on 29.4.89 in which he emphasised that he had always been of the opinion that the marja'iyat was not a requirement for the office of leader.[45]

Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist (Velayat-e faqih)

Main article: Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist

Ayatollah Ali Khamenei met with Hajj authorities, 2018
Ayatollah Ali Khamenei met with Hajj authorities, 2018

The constitution of Iran combines concepts of both democracy and theocracy, theocracy in the form of Khomeini's concept of vilayat-e faqih (Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist), as expressed in the Islamic Republic. According to Ayatollah Khomeini, the Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist was not restricted to orphans or mental incompetents, but applied to everyone in absence of the twelfth Imam. Jurists were the only rightful political/governmental leaders because "God had commanded Islamic government" and "no one knew religion better than the ulama" (Islamic clergy).[46] They alone would preserve "Islamic order" and keep everyone from deviating from "the just path of Islam".[47] Prior to the revolution observant Shia Muslims selected their own leading faqih to emulate (known as a Marja'-i taqlid) according to their own decision making. The "congregation rather than the hierarchy decided how prominent the ayatollah was" thus allowing the public to possibly limit the influence of the Faqih.[46]

After the revolution Shia Muslims (or at least Iranian Shia) were commanded to show allegiance to the current vali-e faghih, Guardian Jurist or Supreme Leader. In this new system, the jurist oversaw all governmental affairs. The complete control exercised by the Faqih was not to be limited to the Iranian Revolution because the revolution and its Leader had international aspirations. As the constitution of the Islamic Republic states, it

intends to establish an ideal and model society on the basis of Islamic norms. ... the Constitution provides the necessary basis for ensuring the continuation of the Revolution at home and abroad. In particular, in the development of international relations, the Constitution will strive with other Islamic and popular movements to prepare the way for the formation of a single world community (in accordance with the Koranic verse `This your community is a single community, and I am your Lord, so worship Me` [21:92]), and to assure the continuation of the struggle for the liberation of all deprived and oppressed peoples in the world.[41]

According to author Seyyed Vali Nasr, Khomeini appealed to the masses, during the pre-1979 period, by referring to them as the oppressed and with charisma and political ability was tremendously successful. He became a very popular role model for Shiites and hoped for the Iranian Revolution to be the first step to a much larger Islamic revolution, transcending Shia Islam, in the same way that Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky wanted their revolution to be a world revolution, not just a Russian one.[48]

Functions, powers, and duties of the Supreme Leader

Ali Khamenei voting in the 2017 Presidential election
Ali Khamenei voting in the 2017 Presidential election
Ali Khamenei with Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Löfven, 2017
Ali Khamenei with Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Löfven, 2017

Duties and Powers given to the Supreme Leader by the Constitution, decrees and other laws are:

  1. Delineation of the general policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran in consultation with the Nation's Expediency Discernment Council.
  2. Supervision over the proper execution of the general policies of the systems.
  3. Resolving conflicts between the three branches of the government[49]
  4. Issuing decrees for national referendums.
  5. Supreme command over the Armed Forces.
  6. Declaration of war and peace, and the mobilization of the armed forces.[31]
  7. Ability to veto laws passed by the parliament.[28][50]
  8. Appointment, dismissal, and acceptance of resignation of:
    1. the members of Expediency Discernment Council.
    2. the members of Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution.
    3. two personal representatives to the Supreme National Security Council.[28]
    4. Can delegate representatives to all branches of government. Ali Khamenei has currently around 2000 representatives.[29]
    5. the six fuqaha' of the Guardian Council.
    6. the supreme judicial authority of the country.
    7. ministers of defense, intelligence, foreign affairs, and science.
    8. the head of the radio and television network of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
    9. the chief of the joint staff.
    10. the chief commander of the armed forces of the country
    11. the highest commanders of the armed forces.
  9. Can dismiss and reinstate ministers.[51][15][52]
  10. Resolving differences between the three wings of the armed forces and regulation of their relations.
  11. Resolving the problems, which cannot be solved by conventional methods, through the Nation's Expediency Discernment Council.
  12. Signing the decree formalizing the elections in Iran for the President of the Republic by the people.
  13. Dismissal of the President of the Republic, with due regard for the interests of the country, after the Supreme Court holds him guilty of the violation of his constitutional duties, or after an impeachment vote of the Islamic Consultative Assembly (Parliament) testifying to his incompetence on the basis of Article 89 of the Constitution.
  14. Pardoning or reducing the sentences of convicts, within the framework of Islamic criteria, on a recommendation (to that effect) from the head of the Judiciary. The Supreme Leader may delegate part of his duties and powers to another person.
  15. Confirms decisions of the Supreme National Security Council.[53]
  16. Control over Special Clerical Court.[54]

List of supreme leaders

Ali KhameneiRuhollah Khomeini
No. Supreme Rule Portrait Name
English · Persian · Signature
Lifespan Place of birth Notes
1 3 December 1979[note 1]
– 3 June 1989
(9 years, 182 days)
Portrait of Ruhollah Khomeini.jpg
The Ayatollah
Imam
Sayyid
Ruhollah Khomeini
سیدروح‌الله خمینی
Ruhollah Khomeini signature.png
(1900-05-17)17 May 1900 – 3 June 1989(1989-06-03) (aged 89)[55] Khomeyn, Markazi Province Leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution,[56] and founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran.[57]
2 4 June 1989
– present
(33 years, 159 days)
Khamenei meets with members of parliament 2022 D.jpeg
The Ayatollah
Imam
Sayyid
Ali Khamenei
سیدعلی خامنه‌ای
Khamenei signature.png
(1939-07-16) 16 July 1939 (age 83)[58] Mashhad, Razavi Khorasan Province Previously served as President of Iran from 1981 until Khomeini's death.[59]

The Vice Supreme Leader

Iranian vice supreme leader role (Deputy Supreme leader) was incorporated into the authority of the supreme leader.

During the presidency of Hassan Rouhani, amid longstanding rumors of Khamenei's declining health, it was recommended to Khamenei to reestablish the office of deputy supreme leader to transition towards new leadership better.[62]

Future leader

Further information: Next Supreme Leader of Iran election

See also

Notes

  1. ^ His title was Leader of the Revolution from 5 February 1979 until 3 December 1979.

References

  1. ^ "Iran's possible next Supreme Leader being examined: Rafsanjani". Reuters. 13 December 2015. Archived from the original on 16 December 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  2. ^ Article 89-91, Iranian Constitution
  3. ^ "Who's in Charge?" by Ervand Abrahamian London Review of Books, 6 November 2008
  4. ^ mshabani (23 October 2017). "Did Khamenei block Rouhani's science minister?". Archived from the original on 24 October 2017.
  5. ^ "Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran (full text)". shora-gc.ir. 2 June 2021. Retrieved 13 October 2022.
  6. ^ "Iran's Khamenei hits out at Rafsanjani in rare public rebuke". Middle East Eye. Archived from the original on 2016-04-04. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
  7. ^ "Khamenei says Iran must go green - Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 2015-12-22.
  8. ^ Louis Charbonneau and Parisa Hafezi (16 May 2014). "Exclusive: Iran pursues ballistic missile work, complicating nuclear talks". Reuters. Archived from the original on 31 July 2017. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  9. ^ "IranWire - Asking for a Miracle: Khamenei's Economic Plan". Archived from the original on 2016-03-07. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
  10. ^ kjenson (22 May 2014). "Khamenei outlines 14-point plan to increase population". Archived from the original on 1 August 2017.
  11. ^ "Iran: Executive, legislative branch officials endorse privatisation plan". www.payvand.com. Archived from the original on 2017-01-05. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
  12. ^ "Khamenei slams Rouhani as Iran's regime adopted UN education agenda". 8 May 2017. Archived from the original on 31 May 2017. Retrieved 3 June 2017.
  13. ^ a b Al-awsat, Asharq (25 September 2017). "Khamenei Orders New Supervisory Body to Curtail Government - ASHARQ AL-AWSAT English Archive". Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  14. ^ "Leader outlines elections guidelines, calls for transparency". 15 October 2016. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  15. ^ a b "BBC NEWS - Middle East - Iranian vice-president 'sacked'". 2009-07-25. Archived from the original on 2018-10-03. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
  16. ^ "Iran arrests 11 over SMS Khomeini insults". GlobalPost. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016.
  17. ^ "Iran arrests 11 over SMS Khomeini insults: report". The Daily Star. 22 September 2017. Archived from the original on 5 February 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  18. ^ "Poet to Serve Two Years in Prison For Criticizing Iran's Supreme Leader". December 30, 2017. Archived from the original on January 12, 2020. Retrieved December 8, 2019.
  19. ^ Vahdat, Ahmed (March 19, 2019). "Iranian dissident ordered to copy out books by Ayatollah Khamenei after branding Supreme Leader a despot". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on May 14, 2019. Retrieved May 14, 2019 – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  20. ^ Article 5, Iranian Constitution
  21. ^ Moin, Baqer, Khomeini, (2001), p.293
  22. ^ "Article 109 [Leadership Qualifications]
    (1) Following are the essential qualifications and conditions for the Leader:
    a. Scholarship, as required for performing the functions of the religious leader in different fields.
  23. ^ a b "Everything you need to know about Iran's Assembly of Experts election". 30 November 2001. Archived from the original on 22 April 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  24. ^ "Iran Announces Second Extension of Voting," Reuters, 23 October 1998. quoted in Wright, Robin (2001). The Last Great Revolution: Turmoil and Transformation in Iran. Knopf Doubleday Group. p. 317 note 26. ISBN 9780307766076. Retrieved 13 October 2022.
  25. ^ "The Assembly of Experts - The Iran Primer". iranprimer.usip.org. Archived from the original on 7 July 2018. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  26. ^ "خانه ملت" (in Persian). 5 July 2009. Archived from the original on 5 July 2009.
  27. ^ "Iranian Government Constitution, English Text". 17 June 2011. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011.
  28. ^ a b c Brumberg, Daniel; Farhi, Farideh (4 April 2016). Power and Change in Iran: Politics of Contention and Conciliation. Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253020796. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 21 November 2020 – via Google Books.
  29. ^ a b "Inside Iran - The Structure Of Power In Iran | Terror And Tehran | FRONTLINE | PBS". www.pbs.org. Archived from the original on 7 May 2019. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  30. ^ (see Article 108 of the constitution)
  31. ^ a b Tschentscher, Axel. "ICL - Iran - Constitution". www.servat.unibe.ch. Archived from the original on 21 August 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
  32. ^ "Elections in Iran: The great candidate cull: Choose any candidate you like—after the mullahs have excluded reformers". The Economist. 20 February 2016. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
  33. ^ Reuters (14 December 2015). "Rafsanjani breaks taboo over selection of Iran's next supreme leader". TheGuardian.com. Archived from the original on 18 December 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  34. ^ Staff and agencies (24 May 2005). "Iran reverses ban on reformist candidates". TheGuardian.com. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  35. ^ "Iran arrests 11 over SMS Khomeini insults". GlobalPost. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016.
  36. ^ "Iran arrests 11 over SMS Khomeini insults: report". The Daily Star. 22 September 2017. Archived from the original on 5 February 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  37. ^ "Poet to Serve Two Years in Prison For Criticizing Iran's Supreme Leader". December 30, 2017. Archived from the original on January 12, 2020. Retrieved December 8, 2019.
  38. ^ Vahdat, Ahmed (March 19, 2019). "Iranian dissident ordered to copy out books by Ayatollah Khamenei after branding Supreme Leader a despot". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on May 14, 2019. Retrieved May 14, 2019 – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  39. ^ a b Duality by Design: The Iranian Electoral System Archived 2016-05-03 at the Wayback Machine By Yasmin Alem
  40. ^ Fukuyama, Francis (July 27, 2009). "Iran, Islam and the Rule of Law". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on October 27, 2017. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
  41. ^ a b "ICL - Iran - Constitution". Archived from the original on 21 August 2018. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  42. ^ Halm, Heinz (1997). Shi'a Islam: From Religion to Revolution. University of Michigan. p. 120-121.
  43. ^ "The Frugality Of Iran's Supreme Leader". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  44. ^ Keddie, Nikki R.; Yann Richard (2003). Modern Iran: Roots and Results of Revolution. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. p. 260 Archived 2016-04-15 at the Wayback Machine.
  45. ^ a b Schirazi, Asghar, The Constitution of Iran: politics and the state in the Islamic Republic / by Asghar Schirazi, London; New York: I.B. Tauris, 1997 p.73-75
  46. ^ a b Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza, The Shia Revival: How Conflicts within Islam Will Shape the Future, W. W. Norton & Company, Apr 17, 2007, p.?
  47. ^ Khomeini, Islam and Revolution, Writings and Declarations Of Imam Khomeini p.54
  48. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza, The Shia Revival: How Conflicts within Islam Will Shape the Future, W. W. Norton & Company, Apr 17, 2007, p.137
  49. ^ Brumberg, Daniel; Farhi, Farideh (April 4, 2016). Power and Change in Iran: Politics of Contention and Conciliation. Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253020796. Archived from the original on June 24, 2021. Retrieved November 21, 2020 – via Google Books.
  50. ^ Aslan, Reza (22 June 2009). "Iran's Supreme Revolutionary". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 11 October 2021. Retrieved 10 January 2018 – via www.thedailybeast.com.
  51. ^ "Iranian lawmakers warn Ahmadinejad to accept intelligence chief as political feud deepens". CP. Archived from the original on 2017-08-08. Retrieved 2017-05-21.
  52. ^ Amir Saeed Vakil,Pouryya Askary (2004). constitution in now law like order. p. 362.
  53. ^ § 5 of Article 176
  54. ^ "Inside Iran - The Structure Of Power In Iran - Terror And Tehran - FRONTLINE - PBS". www.pbs.org. Archived from the original on 2019-05-07. Retrieved 2018-01-09.
  55. ^ "Imam Khomeini's Biography". 21 February 2015. Archived from the original on 21 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  56. ^ Steinzova, Lucie; Greer, Stuart (8 February 2019). "In Pictures: Iran's 1979 Islamic Revolution". RFE/RL. Archived from the original on 20 February 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  57. ^ Nettleton, Todd (2 January 2020). "Ayatollah Khomeini: The greatest Christian missionary in the history of Iran". Christian Post. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  58. ^ "Detailed biography of Ayatollah Khamenei, Leader of Islamic Revolution". 23 September 2013. Archived from the original on 10 April 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
  59. ^ Vatanka, Alex (29 October 2019). "Iran's IRGC Has Long Kept Khamenei in Power". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 10 December 2019. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  60. ^ "Grand Ayatollah Hossein Ali Montazeri: 1922–2009". FRONTLINE - Tehran Bureau. Archived from the original on 2021-03-09. Retrieved 2021-10-11.
  61. ^ اسلامی, مرکز اسناد انقلاب (August 16, 2020). "آیت‌الله منتظری چگونه قائم مقام شد؟". fa (in Persian). Archived from the original on 2021-10-11. Retrieved 2021-10-11.
  62. ^ "تایید خبر پیشنهاد قائم مقام برای خامنه‌ای "از طرف نزدیکان روحانی"". رادیو فردا (in Persian). Archived from the original on 2019-12-15. Retrieved 2021-10-11.
Head of state of Iran Preceded byShah Supreme Leader 1979–present Incumbent