Lungsod ng Maynila
(City of Manila)
Manila skyline day.jpg
Manila Cathedral Facade at Sunset.jpg
Rizal Monument at Dusk.jpg
The Gate of Fort Santiago (17107690389).jpg
GRMondala Manila City Hall 3 DSC 0346 1.jpg
Malacañang Palace (local img).jpg
Flag of Manila
Pearl of the Orient,[1]
Queen City of the Pacific and others
Manila, God First
Welcome Po Kayo sa Maynila (transl. You are welcome in Manila)
Anthem: Awit ng Maynila (Song of Manila)
Map of Metro Manila with Manila highlighted[a]
Map of Metro Manila with Manila highlighted[a]
Manila is located in Philippines
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 14°35′45″N 120°58′38″E / 14.5958°N 120.9772°E / 14.5958; 120.9772Coordinates: 14°35′45″N 120°58′38″E / 14.5958°N 120.9772°E / 14.5958; 120.9772
RegionNational Capital Region
Legislative district 1st to 6th district
Administrative district16 city districts
Established13th century or earlier
Sultanate of Brunei (Rajahnate of Maynila)1500s
Spanish ManilaJune 24, 1571
City CharterJuly 31, 1901
Highly urbanized cityDecember 22, 1979
Barangays897 (see Barangays and districts)
 • TypeSangguniang Panlungsod
 • MayorHoney Lacuna (Aksyon/Asenso Manileño)
 • Vice MayorYul Servo (Aksyon/Asenso Manileño)
 • Representatives
 • City Council
 • Electorate1,133,042 voters (2022)
 • City42.34 km2 (16.35 sq mi)
 • Urban
1,873 km2 (723 sq mi)
 • Metro
619.57 km2 (239.22 sq mi)
7.0 m (23.0 ft)
Highest elevation
108 m (354 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
 (2020 census) [7][8]
 • City1,846,513
 • Density44,000/km2 (110,000/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Metro
 • Metro density22,000/km2 (56,000/sq mi)
 • Households
Demonym(s)English: Manileño, Manilan;
Spanish: manilense,[9] manileño(-a)
Filipino: Manileño(-a), Manilenyo(-a), Taga-Maynila
 • Income classspecial city income class
 • Poverty incidence2.99% (2018)[10]
 • HDIIncrease 0.781[11]high (2019)
 • Revenue₱17,922,805,500.00 (2020)
 • Assets₱74,464,757,574.00 (2020)
 • Expenditure₱17,874,675,033.00 (2020)
 • Liabilities₱22,420,747,872.00 (2020)
 • ElectricityManila Electric Company (Meralco)
 • WaterMaynilad (Majority)
Manila Water (Santa Ana and San Andres)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
+900 – 1-096
IDD:area code+63 (0)2
Native languagesTagalog
CurrencyPhilippine peso (₱)
  1. ^ The exclave within Makati is Manila South Cemetery.

Manila (/məˈnɪlə/ mə-NIL, Spanish: [maˈnila]; Filipino: Maynila, pronounced [majˈnilaʔ]), known officially as the City of Manila (Filipino: Lungsod ng Maynila, [luŋˈsod nɐŋ majˈnilaʔ]), is the capital of the Philippines, and its second-most populous city. It is highly urbanized and as of 2019 was the world's most densely populated city proper. Manila is considered to be a global city and rated as an Alpha – City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC).[12][13] It was the first chartered city in the country, designated as such by the Philippine Commission Act 183 of July 31, 1901. It became autonomous with the passage of Republic Act No. 409, "The Revised Charter of the City of Manila", on June 18, 1949.[14] Manila is considered to be part of the world's original set of global cities because its commercial networks were the first to extend across the Pacific Ocean and connect Asia with the Spanish Americas through the galleon trade; when this was accomplished, it marked the first time in world history that an uninterrupted chain of trade routes circling the planet had been established.[15] It is among the most populous and fastest growing cities in Southeast Asia.[16]

A Tagalog-fortified polity called Maynila had already existed on the site of modern Manila dating as far back as 1258. On June 24, 1571, the Spanish-built walled fortification of Intramuros was constructed by Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi on the ruins of the older settlement from which the Spanish and English name Manila derives. However, that Spanish construction began only after the defeat of the polity's last indigenous Rajah, Sulayman III, in the Battle of Bangkusay. Manila was used as the capital of the captaincy general of the Spanish East Indies (which included the Marianas, Guam and other islands) and was controlled and administered by Mexico City in the Viceroyalty of New Spain for the Spanish crown. Today, it is home to many historic sites.

In modern times, the term "Manila" is commonly used to refer to the whole metropolitan area, the greater metropolitan area, or the city proper. The officially defined metropolitan area, called Metro Manila, the "capital region" of the Philippines, includes the much larger Quezon City and the Makati Central Business District. It is the most populous region in the country, one of the most populous urban areas in the world,[17] and is one of the wealthiest regions in Southeast Asia.[18] The city proper was home to 1,846,513 people in 2020, [7] and is the historic core of a built-up area that extends well beyond its administrative limits. With 71,263 people per square kilometer, Manila is the most densely populated city proper in the world. [7][8]

Manila is located on the eastern shore of Manila Bay, on the island of Luzon. The Pasig River flows through the middle of the city, dividing it into the north and south sections. The city comprises 16 administrative districts and is divided into six political districts for the purposes of its representation in the Congress of the Philippines and the election of city council members. In 2018, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network listed Manila as an "Alpha-" global city[19] and ranked it seventh in economic performance globally and second regionally,[20] while the Global Financial Centres Index ranks Manila 79th in the world.[21]


Maynilà, the Filipino name for the city, comes from the phrase may-nilà, meaning "where indigo is found".[22] Nilà is derived from the Sanskrit word nīla (नील), which refers to indigo – and, by extension, to several plant species from which this natural dye can be extracted.[22][23] The name Maynilà was probably bestowed because of the indigo-yielding plants that grow in the area surrounding the settlement, and not because it was known as a settlement that traded in indigo dye:[22] Indigo-dye extraction became an important economic activity in the area only in the 18th century, several hundred years after the Maynila settlement was founded and named.[22]

Maynilà was eventually hispanicized into Spanish as Manila.[24]


Plate depicting the "nilad" plant (Scyphiphora hydrophylacea), from Augustinian missionary Fray Francisco Manuel Blanco's botanical reference, "Flora de Filipinas"
Plate depicting the "nilad" plant (Scyphiphora hydrophylacea), from Augustinian missionary Fray Francisco Manuel Blanco's botanical reference, "Flora de Filipinas"

An antiquated, inaccurate, and now debunked etymological theory held that the city's name originated from the word may-nilad (meaning "where nilad is found").[22] There are two versions of this false etymology. One popular incorrect notion is that the old word nilad refers to the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) that grows on the banks of the Pasig River.[22] However, this plant species was only recently introduced into the Philippines from South America, and therefore could not have been the source of the toponym for old Manila.[22]

Another incorrect etymology has arisen from the observation that, in Tagalog, nilád or nilár refers to a shrub-like tree (Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea; formerly Ixora manila Blanco) that grows in or near mangrove swamps.[22][25][26] However, linguistic analysis shows that the word Maynilà is unlikely to have developed from this term. It is unlikely that native Tagalog speakers would completely drop the final consonant /d/ in nilad to arrive at the present form Maynilà.[22] As an example, nearby Bacoor still retains the final consonant of the old Tagalog word bakoód ("elevated piece of land"), even in old Spanish renderings of the placename (e.g., Vacol, Bacor).[27] Moreover, the historians Ambeth Ocampo[28][29] and Joseph Baumgartner[22] have shown that, in every early document, the place name Maynilà was always written without a final /d/. This documentation shows conclusively that the may-nilad etymology is spurious.

Originally, the mistaken identification of nilad as the source of the toponym probably originated in an 1887 essay by Trinidad Pardo de Tavera, in which he mistakenly used the word nila to refer both to Indigofera tinctoria (true indigo) and to Ixora manila (which is actually nilád in Tagalog[26]).[23][22] Early 20th century writings, such as those of Julio Nakpil[30] and of Blair and Robertson, then simply repeated the claim.[31][29] Today, this erroneous etymology continues to be perpetuated through casual repetition in both literature[32][33] and in popular use. Examples of popular adoption of this mistaken etymology include the name of a local utility, Maynilad Water Services, and the name of an underpass close to Manila City Hall, Lagusnilad (meaning "Nilad Pass").[28]


Main article: History of Manila

For a chronological guide, see Timeline of Manila.

Early history

The Laguna Copperplate Inscription is the oldest historical record in the Philippines. It has the first historical reference to Tondo and dates back to Saka 822 (c. 900).
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription is the oldest historical record in the Philippines. It has the first historical reference to Tondo and dates back to Saka 822 (c. 900).

The earliest evidence of human life around present-day Manila is the nearby Angono Petroglyphs, dated to around 3000 BC. Negritos, the aboriginal inhabitants of the Philippines, lived across the island of Luzon, where Manila is located, before the Malayo-Polynesians migrated in and assimilated them.[34]

Manila was an active trade partner with the Song and Yuan dynasties of China.[35] The polity of Tondo flourished during the latter half of the Ming dynasty as a result of direct trade relations with China. The Tondo district was the traditional capital of the empire, and its rulers were sovereign kings, not mere chieftains. Tondo was christened under the traditional Chinese characters in the Hokkien reading, Chinese: 東都; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tong-to͘; lit. 'Eastern Capital', due to its chief position located southeast of China. The kings of Tondo were addressed variously as panginoón in Tagalog ("lords") or panginuan in Maranao; anák banwa ("son of heaven"); or lakandula ("lord of the palace"). The Emperor of China considered the lakans—the rulers of ancient Manila—"王", or kings.[36]

During the 12th century, then Hindu Brunei called "Pon-i", as reported in the Chinese annals, Nanhai zhi, that Pon-i invaded Malilu 麻裏蘆 (present-day Manila) as it also administered Sarawak and Sabah as well as the Philippine kingdoms of Butuan, Sulu, Ma-i (Mindoro), Shahuchong 沙胡重 (present-day Siocon), Yachen 啞陳 (Oton), and 文杜陵 Wenduling (present-day Mindanao). However, Manila regained independence.[37] In the 13th century, Manila consisted of a fortified settlement and trading quarter on the shore of the Pasig River. It was then settled by the Indianized empire of Majapahit, as recorded in the epic eulogy poem Nagarakretagama, which described the area's conquest by Maharaja Hayam Wuruk. Selurong (षेलुरोङ्), a historical name for Manila, is listed in Canto 14 alongside Sulot, which is now Sulu, and Kalka. Selurong (Manila) together with Sulot (Sulu) was able to regain independence afterward, and Sulu even attacked and looted the then Majapahit-invaded province of Po-ni (Brunei) in retribution.[38]

During the reign of the Arab emir, Sharif Ali's descendant, Sultan Bolkiah, from 1485 to 1521, the Sultanate of Brunei which had seceded from Hindu Majapahit and became a Muslim, had invaded the area. The Bruneians wanted to take advantage of Tondo's strategic position in trade with China and Indonesia and thus attacked its environs and established the rajahnate of Maynilà (كوتا سلودوڠ; Kota Seludong). The rajahnate was ruled under and gave yearly tribute to Brunei as a satellite state.[39] It created a new dynasty under the local leader, who accepted Islam and became Rajah Salalila or Sulaiman I. He established a trading challenge to the already rich House of Lakan Dula in Tondo. Islam was further strengthened by the arrival of Muslim traders from the Middle East and Southeast Asia.[40]

Spanish period

1734 map of the Walled City of Manila. The city was planned according to the Laws of the Indies.
1734 map of the Walled City of Manila. The city was planned according to the Laws of the Indies.
Ayuntamiento de Manila served as the City Hall during the Spanish Colonial Period.
Ayuntamiento de Manila served as the City Hall during the Spanish Colonial Period.

On June 24, 1571, the conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi arrived in Manila and declared it a territory of New Spain (Mexico), establishing a city council in what is now the district of Intramuros. Inspired by the Reconquista, a war in mainland Spain to rechristianize and reclaim the parts of the country that once fell to the Umayyad Caliphate's rule, he took advantage of a Hindu Tondo versus Islamic Manila territorial conflict to justify expelling or converting Bruneian Muslim colonists who supported their Manila vassals while his Mexican grandson Juan de Salcedo had a romance with a princess of Tondo, Gandarapa.[41] López de Legazpi had the local royalty executed or exiled after the failure of the Conspiracy of the Maharlikas, a plot wherein an alliance between datus, rajahs, Japanese merchants and the Sultanate of Brunei would band together to execute the Spaniards, along with their Latin American recruits and Visayan allies. The victorious Spaniards made Manila the capital of the Spanish East Indies and of the Philippines, which their empire would control for the next three centuries. In 1574, Manila was temporarily besieged by the Chinese pirate Lim Hong, who was ultimately thwarted by the local inhabitants. Upon Spanish settlement, Manila was immediately made, by papal decree, a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Mexico. Then, by royal decree of Philip II of Spain, the city of Manila was put under the spiritual patronage of Saint Pudentiana and Our Lady of Guidance (spurred by a locally found sacred image, i.e., a Black Madonna of unknown origin; one theory is that it is from Portuguese-Macau, another is that it is a Tantric goddess and this was worshiped by the natives in a Pagan-Hindu manner and had survived Islamic iconoclasm by the Sultanate of Brunei. This image was interpreted to be of Marian nature, and it was found during the Miguel de Legazpi expedition and eventually a Mexican hermit built a chapel around that image).

Manila became famous for its role in the Manila–Acapulco galleon trade, which lasted for more than two centuries and brought goods from Europe, Africa and Hispanic America across the Pacific Islands to Southeast Asia (which was already an entrepôt for goods coming from India, Indonesia and China), and vice versa. Silver that was mined in Mexico and Peru was exchanged for Chinese silk, Indian gems and the spices of Indonesia and Malaysia. Likewise, wines and olives grown in Europe and North Africa were shipped via Mexico to Manila.[42] Because of the Ming ban on trade leveled against the Ashikaga shogunate in 1549, this resulted in the ban for all the Japanese to enter China, and for Chinese ships to sail to Japan. Thus, Manila became the only place where the Japanese and Chinese can openly trade, often also trading Japanese silver from Chinese silk.[43] In 1606, upon the Spanish conquest of the Sultanate of Ternate, one of monopolizers of the growing of spice, the Spanish deported the ruler, Sultan Said Din Burkat[44] of Ternate, along with his clan and his entire entourage to Manila, were they were initially enslaved and eventually converted to Christianity.[45] About 200 families of mixed Spanish-Mexican-Filipino and Moluccan-Indonesian-Portuguese descent from Ternate and Tidor followed him there at a later date.[46] The city attained great wealth due to it being at the confluence of three great commercial exchanges: the Silk Road, the Spice Route and the Silver Flow. Significant is the role of Armenians, who acted as merchant intermediaries that made Europe to Asia trade possible in this area. Most specifically, it was France first trying to finance their Asian trade with a partnership in Manila through Armenian khojas. The largest trade volume was in iron, and 1000 men of iron bars were traded only in 1721.[47] In 1762, the city was captured by Great Britain as part of the Seven Years' War, which Spain had recently become involved in.[48] The city was then occupied by the British for twenty months from 1762 to 1764 in their attempt to capture the Spanish East Indies, but they proved to be unable to extend their occupation past Manila proper.[49] Frustrated by their inability to take the rest of the archipelago, the British eventually withdrew in accordance with the Treaty of Paris signed in 1763, which brought an end to the war. An unknown number of Indian soldiers known as sepoys, who came with the British, deserted and settled in nearby Cainta, Rizal.[50][51]

Spanish cannons on a fortress wall in Manila, circa pre-1900
Spanish cannons on a fortress wall in Manila, circa pre-1900

The Chinese minority were then punished for supporting the British, and the fortress city of Intramuros, initially populated by 1,200 Spanish families and garrisoned by 400 Spanish troops,[52] kept its cannons pointed at Binondo, the world's oldest Chinatown.[53] The native Mexican population was concentrated at the south part of Manila,[54] and also at Cavite, where ships from Spain's American colonies docked, and at Ermita, an area so named because of a Mexican hermit that lived there. The Philippines hosts the only Latin American-established districts in Asia.[55] When the Spanish evacuated Ternate, they settled the Papuan refugees in Ternate, Cavite which was named after their former homeland.[56]

Tutuban Main Station, which was built in 1887, is the main terminal of the Ferrocaril de Manila-Dagupan (now known as the Philippine National Railways). At the present moment, it serves as a shopping center and a public transit hub.
Tutuban Main Station, which was built in 1887, is the main terminal of the Ferrocaril de Manila-Dagupan (now known as the Philippine National Railways). At the present moment, it serves as a shopping center and a public transit hub.

The rise of Spanish Manila marked the first time in world history where all hemispheres and continents were interconnected in a worldwide trade network. Thus, making Manila, alongside Mexico City and Madrid, the world's original set of global cities, predating the ascent of modern Alpha++ class world cities like New York or London as global financial centers, by hundreds of years.[57] A Spanish Jesuit priest commented that due to the confluence of many foreign languages gathering in Manila, he said that the confessional in Manila is "the most difficult in the world".[58] Another Spanish missionary in the 1600s by the name of Juan de Cobo was so astonished by the manifold commerce, cultural complexity and ethnic diversity in Manila he thus wrote the following to his brethren in Mexico:

"The diversity here is immense such that I could go on forever trying to differentiate lands and peoples. There are Castilians from all provinces. There are Portuguese and Italians; Dutch, Greeks and Canary Islanders, and Mexican Indians. There are slaves from Africa brought by the Spaniards [Through America], and others brought by the Portuguese [Through India]. There is an African Moor with his turban here. There are Javanese from Java, Japanese and Bengalese from Bengal. Among all these people are the Chinese whose numbers here are untold and who outnumber everyone else. From China there are peoples so different from each other, and from provinces as distant, as Italy is from Spain. Finally, of the mestizos, the mixed-race people here, I cannot even write because in Manila there is no limit to combinations of peoples with peoples. This is in the city where all the buzz is." (Remesal, 1629: 680–1)

— [59]

After Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821, the Spanish crown began to govern Manila directly.[60] Under direct Spanish rule, banking, industry and education flourished more than they had in the previous two centuries.[61] The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 facilitated direct trade and communications with Spain. The city's growing wealth and education attracted indigenous peoples, Negritos, Malays, Africans, Chinese, Indians, Arabs, Europeans, Latinos and Papuans from the surrounding provinces[62] and facilitated the rise of an ilustrado class that espoused liberal ideas: the ideological foundations of the Philippine Revolution, which sought independence from Spain. A revolt by Andres Novales was inspired by the Latin American wars of independence as the revolt itself was led by demoted Latin-American military officers stationed at the city, from the then newly independent nations of Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Chile, Argentina and Costa Rica.[63] Following the Cavite Mutiny and the Propaganda Movement, the Philippine revolution eventually erupted, Manila was among the first eight provinces to rebel and thus their role was enshrined in the Philippine Flag where Manila was marked as one of the eight rays of the symbolic sun.[64]

American period

The 1905 Burnham Plan of Manila recommended improving the city's transit systems by creating diagonal arteries radiating from the new central civic district into areas at the outskirts of the city.
The 1905 Burnham Plan of Manila recommended improving the city's transit systems by creating diagonal arteries radiating from the new central civic district into areas at the outskirts of the city.
The tranvía running along Escolta Street during the American period.
The tranvía running along Escolta Street during the American period.
Aerial view of Manila, 1936
Aerial view of Manila, 1936

After the 1898 Battle of Manila, Spain ceded Manila to the United States. The First Philippine Republic, based in nearby Bulacan, fought against the Americans for control of the city.[65] The Americans defeated the First Philippine Republic and captured its president, Emilio Aguinaldo, who declared allegiance to the United States on April 1, 1901.[66]

Upon drafting a new charter for Manila in June 1901, the Americans made official what had long been tacit: that the city of Manila consisted not of Intramuros alone but also of the surrounding areas. The new charter proclaimed that Manila was composed of eleven municipal districts: presumably Binondo, Ermita, Intramuros, Malate, Paco, Pandacan, Sampaloc, San Miguel, Santa Ana, Santa Cruz and Tondo. In addition, the Catholic Church recognized five parishes—Gagalangin, Trozo, Balic-Balic, Santa Mesa and Singalong—as part of Manila. Later, two more would be added: Balut and San Andres.[67]

Under American control, a new, civilian-oriented Insular Government headed by Governor-General William Howard Taft invited city planner Daniel Burnham to adapt Manila to modern needs.[68] The Burnham Plan included the development of a road system, the use of waterways for transportation, and the beautification of Manila with waterfront improvements and construction of parks, parkways and buildings.[69][70] The planned buildings included a government center occupying all of Wallace Field, which extends from Rizal Park to the present Taft Avenue. The Philippine capitol was to rise at the Taft Avenue end of the field, facing towards the sea. Along with buildings for various government bureaus and departments, it would form a quadrangle with a lagoon in the center and a monument to José Rizal at the other end of the field.[71] Of Burnham's proposed government center, only three units—the Legislative Building and the buildings of the Finance and Agricultural Departments—were completed when World War II erupted.

Japanese occupation and World War II

Further information: Battle of Manila (1945) and Manila Massacre

USS Essex TBF-1 Avenger dropping a bomb over Pasig River in Manila targeting the dockyard, November 14, 1944
USS Essex TBF-1 Avenger dropping a bomb over Pasig River in Manila targeting the dockyard, November 14, 1944
The destruction brought about by the Battle of Manila in 1945
The destruction brought about by the Battle of Manila in 1945

During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, American soldiers were ordered to withdraw from Manila, and all military installations were removed on December 24, 1941. Two days later, General Douglas MacArthur declared Manila an open city to prevent further death and destruction, but Japanese warplanes continued to bomb it.[72] Manila was occupied by Japanese forces on January 2, 1942.[73]

From February 3 to March 3, 1945, Manila was the site of one of the bloodiest battles in the Pacific theater of World War II. Under orders of Japanese Rear Admiral Sanji Iwabuchi, retreating Japanese forces killed some 100,000 Filipino civilians and perpetrated mass raping of women in February.[74][75] At the end of the war, Manila had suffered from heavy bombardment and became the second most-destroyed city in World War II.[76][77] Manila was recaptured by joint American and Philippine troops.

Post-war years and the martial law era (1945–1986)

After the war, reconstruction efforts started. Buildings like the Manila City Hall, Legislative Building (now the National Museum of Fine Arts) and Manila Post Office, roads and other infrastructures were rebuilt. In 1948, President Elpidio Quirino moved the seat of government of the Philippines to Quezon City, a new capital in the suburbs and fields northeast of Manila, created in 1939 during the administration of President Manuel L. Quezon.[78] The move ended any implementation of the Burnham Plan's intent for the government center to be at Luneta.

With the Visayan-born Arsenio Lacson as its first elected mayor in 1952 (all mayors were appointed before this), Manila underwent The Golden Age,[79] once again earning its status as the "Pearl of the Orient", a moniker it earned before the Second World War. After Lacson's term in the 1950s, Manila was led by Antonio Villegas for most of the 1960s. Ramon Bagatsing (an Indian-Filipino) was mayor from 1972 until the 1986 People Power Revolution.[80]

During the administration of Ferdinand Marcos, the region of Metro Manila was created as an integrated unit with the enactment of Presidential Decree No. 824 on November 7, 1975. The area encompassed four cities and thirteen adjoining towns, as a separate regional unit of government.[81] On the 405th anniversary of the city's foundation on June 24, 1976, Manila was reinstated by President Marcos as the capital of the Philippines for its historical significance as the seat of government since the Spanish Period.[82][83] Concurrent with the reinstatement of Manila as the capital, Ferdinand Marcos designated his wife, Imelda Marcos, as the first governor of Metro Manila. She started the rejuvenation of the city as she re-branded Manila as the "City of Man".[84]

During the martial law era, Manila became a hot-bed of resistance activity as youth and student demonstrators repeatedly clashed with the police and military which were subservient to the Marcos regime. After decades of resistance, the non-violent People Power Revolution, led by Corazon Aquino and Cardinal Jaime Sin, ousted the dictator Marcos from power.[85]

Contemporary period (1986–present)

From 1986 to 1992, Mel Lopez was mayor of Manila. During his early years, his administration was faced with 700 million pesos worth of debt and inherited an empty treasury. In the first eleven months, however, the debt was reduced to 365 million pesos and the city's income rose by around 70% eventually leaving the city with positive income until the end of his term. Lopez closed down numerous illegal gambling joints and jueteng. In January 1990, Lopez padlocked two Manila casinos operated by the Philippine Amusement and Gaming Corporation (PAGCOR), saying the billions it gained cannot make up for the negative effects gambling inflicts upon the people, particularly the youth. He also revived the Boys' Town Haven (now referred to as "Boys Town"), rehabilitating its facilities to accommodate underprivileged children and provide them with livelihood and education.

In 1992, Alfredo Lim was elected mayor, the first Chinese-Filipino to hold the office. He was known for his anti-crime crusades. Lim was succeeded by Lito Atienza, who served as his vice mayor. Atienza was known for his campaign (and city slogan) "Buhayin ang Maynila" (Revive Manila), which saw the establishment of several parks and the repair and rehabilitation of the city's deteriorating facilities. He was the city's mayor for three terms (9 years) before being termed out of office. Lim once again ran for mayor and defeated Atienza's son Ali in the 2007 city election and immediately reversed all of Atienza's projects[86] claiming Atienza's projects made little contribution to the improvements of the city. The relationship of both parties turned bitter, with the two pitting again during the 2010 city elections in which Lim won against Atienza. Lim was sued by councilor Dennis Alcoreza on 2008 over human rights,[87] charged with graft over the rehabilitation of public schools,[88] and was heavily criticized for his haphazard resolution of the Rizal Park hostage taking incident, one of the deadliest hostage crisis in the Philippines.[citation needed]

View of the Rizal Monument in Rizal Park.
View of the Rizal Monument in Rizal Park.

In 2012, DMCI Homes began constructing Torre de Manila, which became controversial for ruining the sight line of Rizal Park.[89] The tower is infamously known as "Terror de Manila" or the "national photobomber".[90] The Torre de Manila controversy is regarded as one of the most sensationalized heritage issues of the country. In 2017, the National Historical Commission of the Philippines erected a 'comfort woman' statue along Roxas Boulevard, which made Japan express regret that such statue was erected in the city despite the healthy relationship between Japan and the Philippines.[91][92]

In the 2013 elections, former President Joseph Estrada defeated Lim in the mayoral race. During his term, Estrada allegedly paid ₱5 billion in city debts and increased the city's revenues. In 2015, in line with President Noynoy Aquino's administration progress, the city became the most competitive city in the Philippines, making the city the best place for doing business and for living in. In the 2016 elections, Estrada narrowly won over Lim in their electoral rematch.[93] Throughout Estrada's term, numerous Filipino heritage sites were demolished, gutted out, or approved for demolition. Among such sites are the post-war Santa Cruz Building, Capitol Theater, El Hogar, old Magnolia Ice Cream Plant, and Rizal Memorial Stadium, among many others[94][95][96] Some of these sites were saved upon the intervention of various cultural agencies of government and heritage advocate groups against Estrada's orders.[97] In May 2019, Estrada claimed that Manila was debt-free,[98] however, two months later, the Commission on Audit verified that Manila has a total of 4.4 billion pesos in debt.[99]

Skyline of Manila as seen from Harbour Square.
Skyline of Manila as seen from Harbour Square.

Estrada, who was seeking for re-election for his third and final term, lost to Isko Moreno in the 2019 local elections.[100][101] Moreno has served as the vice mayor under both the Lim and Estrada administrations. Estrada's defeat was seen as the end of their reign as a political clan, whose other family members run for various national and local positions.[102] After assuming office, Moreno initiated a city-wide cleanup against illegal vendors, signed an executive order promoting open governance, and vowed to stop bribery and corruption in the city.[103] Under his administration, several ordinances were signed, giving additional perks and privileges to Manila's senior citizens,[104] and monthly allowances for Grade 12 Manileño students in all public schools in the city, including students of Universidad de Manila and the University of the City of Manila.[105][106] The city government also undertook infrastructure projects such as the restoration of Jones Bridge to its near-original architecture, sprucing up the city's parks and plazas, and clearing the public roads of obstructions.

In 2022, Time Out ranked Manila as one of the 53 best cities in the world landing in the 34th spot, citing it as "an underrated hub for art and culture, with unique customs and cuisine to boot". Manila was also voted the third most resilient and least rude city for the year's index.[107][108]


Main article: Geography of Manila

The Manila Bay sunset
The Manila Bay sunset
The Manila Bay Beach during the International Coastal Cleanup Day in September 2020
The Manila Bay Beach during the International Coastal Cleanup Day in September 2020

The City of Manila is situated on the eastern shore of Manila Bay, on the western edge of Luzon, 1,300 km (810 mi) from mainland Asia.[109] One of Manila's greatest natural resources is the protected harbor upon which it sits, regarded as the finest in all of Asia.[110] The Pasig River flows through the middle of city, dividing it into the north and south.[111][112] The overall grade of the city's central, built-up areas, is relatively consistent with the natural flatness of its overall natural geography, generally exhibiting only slight differentiation otherwise.[113]

Almost all of Manila sits on top of centuries of prehistoric alluvial deposits built by the waters of the Pasig River and on some land reclaimed from Manila Bay. Manila's land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since the American colonial times. Some of the city's natural variations in topography have been evened out. As of 2013, Manila had a total area of 42.88 square kilometers.[111][112]

In 2017, the City Government approved five reclamation projects: the New Manila Bay–City of Pearl (New Manila Bay International Community) (407.43 hectares), Solar City (148 hectares), the Manila Harbour Center expansion (50 hectares), Manila Waterfront City (318 hectares)[114] and Horizon Manila (419 hectares). Out of the five planned reclamation, only Horizon Manila was approved by the Philippine Reclamation Authority in December 2019 and was slated for construction in 2021.[115] Another reclamation project is possible and when built, it will contain the in-city housing relocation projects.[116] Reclamation projects have been criticized by environmental activists and the Philippine Catholic Church, claiming that these are not sustainable and would put communities at risk of flooding.[117][118] In line of the upcoming reclamation projects, the Philippines and the Netherlands forged a cooperation to craft the ₱250 million Manila Bay Sustainable Development Master Plan to guide future decisions on programs and projects on Manila Bay.[119]

Barangays and districts

Manila is divided into six congressional districts.
Manila is divided into six congressional districts.
District map of Manila showing its sixteen districts.
District map of Manila showing its sixteen districts.

Manila is made up of 897 barangays,[120] which are grouped into 100 Zones for statistical convenience. Manila has the most barangays in the Philippines.[121] Attempts at reducing its number have not prospered despite local legislation—Ordinance 7907, passed on April 23, 1996—reducing the number from 896 to 150 by merging existing barangays, because of the failure to hold a plebiscite.[122]

District name Legislative
Area Population
Density Barangays
km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi
Binondo 3 0.6611 0.2553 18,040 27,000 70,000 10
Ermita 5 1.5891 0.6136 10,523 6,600 17,000 13
Intramuros 5 0.6726 0.2597 5,935 8,800 23,000 5
Malate 5 2.5958 1.0022 86,196 33,000 85,000 57
Paco 5 & 6 2.7869 1.0760 82,466 30,000 78,000 43
Pandacan 6 1.66 0.64 87,405 53,000 140,000 38
Port Area 5 3.1528 1.2173 66,742 21,000 54,000 5
Quiapo 3 0.8469 0.3270 28,478 34,000 88,000 16
Sampaloc 4 5.1371 1.9834 265,046 52,000 130,000 192
San Andrés 5 1.6802 0.6487 128,499 76,000 200,000 65
San Miguel 6 0.9137 0.3528 17,464 19,000 49,000 12
San Nicolas 3 1.6385 0.6326 43,069 26,000 67,000 15
Santa Ana 6 1.6942 0.6541 66,656 39,000 100,000 34
Santa Cruz 3 3.0901 1.1931 118,903 38,000 98,000 82
Santa Mesa 6 2.6101 1.0078 110,073 42,000 110,000 51
Tondo 1 & 2 8.6513 3.3403 631,363 73,000 190,000 259


Temperature and rainfall
Temperature and rainfall

Under the Köppen climate classification system, Manila has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw), bordering closely on a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen Am). Together with the rest of the Philippines, Manila lies entirely within the tropics. Its proximity to the equator means that temperatures are hot year-round especially during the daytime, rarely going below 19 °C (66.2 °F) or above 39 °C (102.2 °F). Temperature extremes have ranged from 14.5 °C (58.1 °F) on January 11, 1914,[124] to 38.6 °C (101.5 °F) on May 7, 1915.[125]

Humidity levels are usually very high all year round, making the temperature feel hotter than it is. Manila has a distinct dry season from late December through early April, and a relatively lengthy wet season that covers the remaining period with slightly cooler temperatures during the daytime. In the wet season, it rarely rains all day, but rainfall is very heavy during short periods. Typhoons usually occur from June to September.[126]

Climate data for Port Area, Manila (1991–2020, extremes 1885–2020)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.5
Average high °C (°F) 29.9
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.9
Average low °C (°F) 23.9
Record low °C (°F) 14.5
Average rainfall mm (inches) 19.4
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 4 3 3 3 9 14 19 19 18 14 10 8 124
Average relative humidity (%) 72 70 67 66 72 76 80 82 81 77 75 75 74
Mean monthly sunshine hours 177 198 226 258 223 162 133 133 132 158 153 152 2,105
Source 1: PAGASA[127][128]
Source 2: Danish Meteorological Institute (sun, 1931–1960)[129]

Natural hazards

See also: List of earthquakes in the Philippines

Swiss Re ranked Manila as the second riskiest capital city to live in, citing its exposure to natural hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis, typhoons, floods and landslides.[130] The seismically active Marikina Valley Fault System poses a threat of a large-scale earthquake with an estimated magnitude between 6–7 and as high as 7.6[131] to Metro Manila and nearby provinces.[132] Manila has endured several deadly earthquakes, notably in 1645 and in 1677 which destroyed the stone and brick medieval city.[133] The Earthquake Baroque style was used by architects during the Spanish colonial period in order to adapt to the frequent earthquakes.[134]

Manila is hit with five to seven typhoons yearly.[135] In 2009, Typhoon Ketsana (Ondoy) struck the Philippines. It led to one of the worst floodings in Metro Manila and several provinces in Luzon with an estimated damages worth ₱11 billion ($237 million).[136][137] The floodings caused 448 deaths in Metro Manila alone. Following the aftermath of Typhoon Ketsana, the city began to dredge its rivers and improve its drainage network.


Smog in Quiapo-Binondo area.
Smog in Quiapo-Binondo area.

Due to industrial waste and automobiles, Manila suffers from air pollution,[138][139] affecting 98% of the population.[140][needs update] Swiss firm IQAir reported in December 2020 that Manila suffered from an average PM2.5 concentration of 6.1 μg/m3, which was classed as "Good" according to recommendations made by the World Health Organization.[141]

According to a report in 2003, the Pasig River is one of the most polluted rivers in the world with 150 tons of domestic waste and 75 tons of industrial waste dumped daily.[142][needs update] The city is the second biggest waste producer in the country with 1,151.79 tons (7,500.07 cubic meters) per day, after Quezon City which yields 1,386.84 tons or 12,730.59 cubic meters per day. Both cities were cited as having poor management in garbage collection and disposal.[143]

Rehabilitation efforts have resulted in the creation of parks along the riverside, along with stricter pollution controls.[144][145] In 2019, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources has launched a rehabilitation program for Manila Bay that will be administered by different government agencies.[146][147]


Street map of Manila city proper indicating points of interest
Street map of Manila city proper indicating points of interest

Manila is a planned city. In 1905, American Architect and Urban Planner Daniel Burnham was commissioned to design the new capital.[148] His design for the city was based on the City Beautiful movement, which features broad streets and avenues radiating out from rectangles. The city is made up of fourteen city districts, according to Republic Act No. 409—the Revised Charter of the City of Manila—the basis of which officially sets the present-day boundary of the city.[149] Two districts were later created, which are Santa Mesa (partitioned off from Sampaloc)[150] and San Andres (partitioned off from Santa Ana).

Ermita-Malate skyline in Manila
Ermita-Malate skyline in Manila

Manila's mix of architectural styles reflects the turbulent history of the city and country. During the Second World War, Manila was razed to the ground by the Japanese forces and the shelling of American forces.[151][152] After the liberation, rebuilding began and most of the historical buildings were thoroughly reconstructed. However, much of the historic churches and buildings in Intramuros, Manila's historic core, had been damaged by the war beyond repair.[153] Manila's current urban landscape is one of modern and contemporary architecture.


The façade of the NCCA Metropolitan Theater, designed by Filipino architect Juan M. Arellano
The façade of the NCCA Metropolitan Theater, designed by Filipino architect Juan M. Arellano
Jones Bridge was redeveloped in 2019 to "restore" it to its near-original design using Beaux-Arts architecture.
Jones Bridge was redeveloped in 2019 to "restore" it to its near-original design using Beaux-Arts architecture.

Manila is known for its eclectic mix of architecture that shows a wide range of styles spanning different historical and cultural periods. Architectural styles reflect American, Spanish, Chinese, and Malay influences.[154] Prominent Filipino architects such as Antonio Toledo,[155] Felipe Roxas,[156] Juan M. Arellano[157] and Tomás Mapúa have designed significant buildings in Manila such as churches, government offices, theaters, mansions, schools and universities.[158]

Manila is also famed for its Art Deco theaters.[159] Some of these were designed by National Artists for Architecture such as Juan Nakpil and Pablo Antonio. Unfortunately most of these theaters were neglected, and some have been demolished.[citation needed] The historic Escolta Street in Binondo features many buildings of Neoclassical and Beaux-Arts architectural style, many of which were designed by prominent Filipino architects during the American Rule in the 1920s to the late 1930s. Many architects, artists, historians and heritage advocacy groups are pushing for the rehabilitation of Escolta Street, which was once the premier street of the Philippines.[160]

The Luneta Hotel, an example of French Renaissance architecture with Filipino stylized beaux art
The Luneta Hotel, an example of French Renaissance architecture with Filipino stylized beaux art

Almost all of Manila's prewar and Spanish colonial architecture were destroyed during its battle for liberation by the intensive bombardment of the United States Air Force during World War II. Reconstruction took place afterwards, replacing the destroyed historic Spanish-era buildings with modern ones, erasing much of the city's character. Some buildings destroyed by the war have been reconstructed, such as the Old Legislative Building (now the National Museum of Fine Arts), Ayuntamiento de Manila (now the Bureau of the Treasury) and the under construction San Ignacio Church and Convent (as the Museo de Intramuros). There are plans to rehabilitate and/or restore several neglected historic buildings and places such as Plaza Del Carmen, San Sebastian Church and the NCCA Metropolitan Theater. Spanish-era shops and houses in the districts of Binondo, Quiapo, and San Nicolas are also planned to be restored, as a part of a movement to restore the city to its prewar state.[161][162]

Since Manila is prone to earthquakes, the Spanish colonial architects invented the style called Earthquake Baroque which the churches and government buildings during the Spanish colonial period adopted.[134] As a result, succeeding earthquakes of the 18th and 19th centuries barely affected Manila, although it did periodically level the surrounding area. Modern buildings in and around Manila are designed or have been retrofitted to withstand an 8.2 magnitude quake in accordance to the country's building code.[163]


Population Census of Manila
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 219,928—    
1918 285,306+1.75%
1939 623,492+3.79%
1948 983,906+5.20%
1960 1,138,611+1.22%
1970 1,330,788+1.57%
1975 1,479,116+2.14%
1980 1,630,485+1.97%
1990 1,601,234−0.18%
1995 1,654,761+0.62%
2000 1,581,082−0.97%
2007 1,660,714+0.68%
2010 1,652,171−0.19%
2015 1,780,148+1.43%
2020 1,846,513+0.72%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[5][164][165][166][167]
People flocking the street market at Plaza Miranda.
People flocking the street market at Plaza Miranda.

According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 1,846,513 people, making it the second most populous city in the Philippines. [168] Manila is the most densely populated city in the world, with 41,515 inhabitants per km2 in 2015.[8] District 6 is listed as being the most dense with 68,266 inhabitants per km2, followed by District 1 with 64,936 and District 2 with 64,710. District 5 is the least densely populated area with 19,235.[169]

Manila has been presumed to be the Philippines' largest city since the establishment of a permanent Spanish settlement with the city eventually becoming the political, commercial and ecclesiastical capital of the country.[170] Since colonial times, Manila has been the destination of peoples whose origins are as wide-ranging as India[171] and Latin-America.[172] In the 1860s to 1890s, in the urban areas of the Philippines, especially at Manila, according to burial statistics, as much as 3.3% of the population were pure European Spaniards and the pure Chinese were as high as 9.9% of the people. The Spanish-Filipino and Chinese-Filipino Mestizo populations also fluctuated. Eventually, everybody belonging to these non-native categories diminished because they were assimilated into and chose to self-identify as pure Filipinos[173] since during the Philippine Revolution, the term "Filipino" included anybody born in the Philippines coming from any race.[174][175] That would explain the abrupt drop of otherwise high Chinese, Spanish and mestizo percentages across the country by the time of the first American census in 1903.[176][full citation needed] Manila's population increased dramatically since the 1903 census as the population tended to move from rural areas to towns and cities. In the 1960 census, Manila became the first Philippine city to breach the one million mark (more than 5 times of its 1903 population). The city continued to grow until the population somehow "stabilized" at 1.6 million and experienced alternating increase and decrease starting the 1990 census year. This phenomenon may be attributed to the higher growth experience by suburbs and the already very high population density of city. As such, Manila exhibited a decreasing percentage share to the metropolitan population[177] from as high as 63% in the 1950s to 27.5%[178] in 1980 and then to 13.8% in 2015. The much larger Quezon City marginally surpassed the population of Manila in 1990 and by the 2015 census already has 1.1 million people more. Nationally, the population of Manila is expected to be overtaken by cities with larger territories such as Caloocan and Davao City by 2020.[179]

The vernacular language is Filipino, based mostly on the Tagalog language of the city and its surroundings, and this Manileño form of spoken Tagalog has essentially become the lingua franca of the Philippines, having spread throughout the archipelago through mass media and entertainment. English is the language most widely used in education and business, and is in heavy everyday usage throughout Metro Manila and the Philippines itself.

A variant of Southern Min, Hokkien (locally known as Lan'nang-oe) is mainly spoken by the city's Chinese-Filipino community. According to data provided by the Bureau of Immigration, a total of 3.12 million Chinese citizens arrived in the Philippines from January 2016 to May 2018.[180]


A Toyota Vios of the Manila Police District

Crime in Manila is concentrated in areas associated with poverty, drug abuse, and gangs. Crime in the city is also directly related to its changing demographics and unique criminal justice system. Illegal drug trade is a major problem of the city. In Metro Manila alone, 92% of the barangays are affected by illegal drugs.[181]

From 2010 to 2015, the city had the second highest index crime rates in the Philippines, with 54,689 cases or an average of about 9,100 cases per year.[182] By October 2017, the Manila Police District (MPD) reported a 38.7% decrease in index crimes, from 5,474 cases in 2016 to only 3,393 in 2017. MPD's crime solution efficiency also improved, whereby six to seven out of 10 crimes have been solved by the city police force.[183] MPD was cited as the Best Police District in Metro Manila in 2017 for registering the highest crime solution efficiency.[184]


Religion in Manila (circa 2010)[185]

  Catholicism (93.5%)
  Protestantism (1.8%)
  Buddhism (1.1%)
  Other (1.4%)


As a result of Spanish cultural influence, Manila is a predominantly Christian city. As of 2010, Roman Catholics were 93.5% of the population, followed by adherents of the Iglesia ni Cristo (1.9%); various Protestant churches (1.8%); and Buddhists (1.1%). Members of Islam and other religions make up the remaining 1.4% of its population.[185]

Manila is the seat of prominent Catholic churches and institutions. There are 113 Catholic churches within the city limits; 63 are considered as major shrines, basilicas, or a cathedral.[186] The Manila Cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila and the oldest established church in the country.[187] Aside from the Manila Cathedral, there are also three other basilicas in the city: Quiapo Church, Binondo Church, and the Minor Basilica of San Sebastián.[188] The San Agustín Church in Intramuros is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[189]

Several Mainline Protestant denominations are headquartered in the city. St. Stephen's Parish pro-cathedral in the Santa Cruz district is the see of the Episcopal Church in the Philippines' Diocese of Central Philippines, while align Taft Avenue are the main cathedral and central offices of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (also called the Aglipayan Church, a national church that was a product of the Philippine Revolution). Other faiths like The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) have temples within the city such as the Manila Philippines Temple in the Quezon City and Alabang Philippines Temple in Muntinlupa.

The indigenous Iglesia ni Cristo has several locales (akin to parishes) in the city, including its very first chapel (now a museum) in Punta, Santa Ana.[190] Evangelical, Pentecostal and Seventh-day Adventist denominations also thrive. The headquarters of the Philippine Bible Society is in Manila. Also, the main campus of the Cathedral of Praise is located along Taft Avenue. Jesus Is Lord Church Worldwide has several branches and campuses in Manila.

Religious groups such as Iglesia ni Cristo, Jesus Is Lord Church Worldwide and the El Shaddai (movement) celebrate their anniversary at the Quirino Grandstand, which is an open space, in Rizal Park.[191]

Other faiths

There are many Taoist and Buddhist temples like Seng Guan Temple in the city serving the spiritual needs of the Chinese Filipino community.[193] Quiapo has a "Muslim town" where the city's largest mosque, Masjid Al-Dahab, exists.[194] Members of the Indian expatriate population have the option of worshiping at the large Hindu temple in the city, or at the Sikh gurdwara along United Nations Avenue. The National Spiritual Assembly of the Baháʼís of the Philippines, the governing body for followers of the Baháʼí Faith in the Philippines, is headquartered near Manila's eastern border with Makati.[citation needed]


Main article: Economy of Manila

Aerial view of the Port of Manila, the chief port of the Philippines.
Aerial view of the Port of Manila, the chief port of the Philippines.
The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, the central bank of the Philippines
The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, the central bank of the Philippines
Skyline of Binondo, the central business district of the city of Manila, as seen from Fort Santiago
Skyline of Binondo, the central business district of the city of Manila, as seen from Fort Santiago

Manila is a major center for commerce, banking and finance, retailing, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media as well as traditional media, advertising, legal services, accounting, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the Philippines. Around 60,000 establishments operate in the city.[202]

The National Competitiveness Council of the Philippines which annually publishes the Cities and Municipalities Competitiveness Index (CMCI), ranks the cities, municipalities and provinces of the country according to their economic dynamism, government efficiency and infrastructure. According to the 2016 CMCI, Manila was the second most competitive city in the Philippines.[203] Manila placed third in the Highly Urbanized City (HUC) category.[204] Manila held the title country's most competitive city in 2015, and since then has been making it to the top 3, assuring that the city is consistently one of the best place to live in and do business.[205]

The Port of Manila is the largest seaport in the Philippines, making it the premier international shipping gateway to the country. The Philippine Ports Authority is the government agency responsible to oversee the operation and management of the ports. The International Container Terminal Services Inc. cited by the Asian Development Bank as one of the top five major maritime terminal operators in the world[206][207] has its headquarters and main operations on the ports of Manila. Another port operator, the Asian Terminal Incorporated, has its corporate office and main operations in the Manila South Harbor and its container depository located in Santa Mesa.

Binondo, the oldest and one of the largest Chinatowns in the world, was the center of commerce and business activities in the city. Numerous residential and office skyscrapers are found within its medieval streets. Plans to make the Chinatown area into a business process outsourcing (BPO) hub progresses and is aggressively pursued by the city government of Manila. 30 buildings are already identified to be converted into BPO offices. These buildings are mostly located along the Escolta Street of Binondo, which are all unoccupied and can be converted into offices.[208]

Divisoria in Tondo is known as the "shopping mecca of the Philippines". Numerous shopping malls are located in this place, which sells products and goods at bargain price. Small vendors occupy several roads that causes pedestrian and vehicular traffic. A famous landmark in Divisoria is the Tutuban Center, a large shopping mall that is a part of the Philippine National Railways' Main Station. It attracts 1 million people every month, but is expected to add another 400,000 people upon the completion of the LRT Line 2 West Extension, thereby making it Manila's busiest transfer station.[209]

Diverse manufacturers within the city produce industrial-related products such as chemicals, textiles, clothing, and electronic goods. Food and beverages and tobacco products also produced. Local entrepreneurs continue to process primary commodities for export, including rope, plywood, refined sugar, copra, and coconut oil. The food-processing industry is one of the most stable major manufacturing sector in the city.

Landbank Plaza, the headquarters of the Land Bank of the Philippines.
Landbank Plaza, the headquarters of the Land Bank of the Philippines.

The Pandacan oil depot houses the storage facilities and distribution terminals of the three major players in the country's petroleum industry, namely Caltex Philippines, Pilipinas Shell and Petron Corporation. The oil depot has been a subject of various concerns, including its environmental and health impact to the residents of Manila. The Supreme Court has ordered that the oil depot to be relocated outside the city by July 2015,[210][211] but it failed to meet this deadline. Most of the oil depot facility inside the 33 hectare compound have been demolished,[212] and plans have been put into place to transform it into a transport hub or food park.[213]

Manila is a major publishing center in the Philippines.[214] Manila Bulletin, the Philippines' largest broadsheet newspaper by circulation, is headquartered in Intramuros.[215] Other major publishing companies in the country like The Manila Times, The Philippine Star and Manila Standard Today are headquartered in the Port Area. The Chinese Commercial News, the Philippines' oldest existing Chinese-language newspaper, and the country's third-oldest existing newspaper[216] is headquartered in Binondo. DWRK used to have its studio at the FEMS Tower 1 along South Superhighway in Malate before transferring to the MBC Building at the CCP Complex in 2008.

Manila serves as the headquarters of the Central Bank of the Philippines which is located along Roxas Boulevard.[217] Some universal banks in the Philippines that has its headquarters in the city are the Landbank of the Philippines and Philippine Trust Company. Unilever Philippines used to have its corporate office along United Nations Avenue in Paco before transferring to Bonifacio Global City in 2016.[218] Toyota, a company listed in the Forbes Global 2000, also has its regional office along UN Avenue.


Main article: Tourism in Manila

The historic Plaza Moriones in Fort Santiago, Intramuros.

Manila welcomes over 1 million tourists each year.[214] Major tourist destinations include the historic Walled City of Intramuros, the Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex,[note 1] Manila Ocean Park, Binondo (Chinatown), Ermita, Malate, Manila Zoo, the National Museum Complex and Rizal Park.[219] Both the historic Walled City of Intramuros and Rizal Park were designated as flagship destinations and as tourism enterprise zones in the Tourism Act of 2009.[220]

Rizal Park, also known as Luneta Park, is a national park and the largest urban park in Asia[221] with an area of 58 hectares (140 acres),[222] The park was constructed in honor of and dedication to the country's national hero José Rizal, who was executed by the Spaniards on charges of subversion. The flagpole west of the Rizal Monument is the Kilometer Zero marker for distances to the rest of the country. The park is managed by the National Parks and Development Committee.[223]

The 0.67 square kilometers (0.26 sq mi) Walled City of Intramuros is the historic center of Manila. It is administered by the Intramuros Administration, an attached agency of the Department of Tourism. It contains the famed Manila Cathedral and the 18th Century San Agustin Church, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Kalesa is a popular mode of transportation for tourists in Intramuros and nearby places including Binondo, Ermita and Rizal Park.[224] Known as the oldest chinatown in the world, Binondo was established on 1521[225] and served as a hub of Chinese commerce before the Spaniards colonized the Philippines. Its main attractions are Binondo Church, Filipino-Chinese Friendship Arch, Seng Guan Buddhist temple and authentic Chinese restaurants.

Manila is designated as the country's pioneer of medical tourism, estimated to generate $1 billion in revenue annually.[226] However, lack of a progressive health system, inadequate infrastructure and the unstable political environment are seen as hindrances to its growth.[227]


Divisoria is a popular flea market for locals and tourists.
Divisoria is a popular flea market for locals and tourists.

Manila is regarded as one of the best shopping destinations in Asia.[228][229] Major shopping malls, department stores, markets, supermarkets and bazaars thrive within the city.

One of the city's famous shopping destinations is Divisoria, home to numerous shopping malls, including the famed Tutuban Center and the Lucky Chinatown. It is also dubbed the shopping mecca of the Philippines where everything is sold at a bargain price. There are almost 1 million shoppers in Divisoria according to the Manila Police District.[230] Binondo, the oldest Chinatown in the world,[53] is the city's center of commerce and trade for all types of businesses run by Filipino-Chinese merchants, with a wide variety of Chinese and Filipino shops and restaurants. Quiapo is referred to as the "Old Downtown", where tiangges, markets, boutique shops, music and electronics stores are common.[231] Many department stores are on Recto Avenue.

Robinsons Place Manila is the largest shopping mall in the city.[232] The mall was the second and the largest Robinsons Malls built. SM Supermalls operates two shopping malls in the city which are the SM City Manila and SM City San Lazaro. SM City Manila is located on the former grounds of YMCA Manila beside the Manila City Hall in Ermita, while SM City San Lazaro is built on the site of the former San Lazaro Hippodrome in Santa Cruz. The building of the former Manila Royal Hotel in Quiapo, which is famed for its revolving restaurant atop, is now the SM Clearance Center established in 1972.[233] The site of the first SM Department Store is located at Carlos Palanca Sr. (formerly Echague) Street in San Miguel.[234]



The National Museum of Fine Arts.

As the cultural center of the Philippines, Manila is the home to a number of museums. The National Museum Complex of the National Museum of the Philippines, located in Rizal Park, is composed of the National Museum of Fine Arts, the National Museum of Anthropology, the National Museum of Natural History,[235] and the National Planetarium. The famous painting of Juan Luna, the Spoliarium, can be found in the complex.[236] The city also hosts the repository of the country's printed and recorded cultural heritage and other literary and information resources, the National Library.[237][238] The National Historical Commission of the Philippines maintains two history museums in the city which are the Museo ni Apolinario Mabini – PUP and the Museo ni Jose Rizal – Fort Santiago.[239] Museums established or run by educational institutions are the DLS-CSB Museum of Contemporary Art and Design,[240] UST Museum of Arts and Sciences,[241] and the UP Museum of a History of Ideas.[242]

The National Museum of Natural History at Agrifina Circle, Rizal Park.

Bahay Tsinoy, one of Manila's prominent museums, documents the Chinese lives and contributions in the history of the Philippines.[243][244] The Intramuros Light and Sound Museum chronicles the Filipinos desire for freedom during the revolution under Rizal's leadership and other revolutionary leaders. The Metropolitan Museum of Manila is a museum of modern and contemporary visual arts exhibits the Filipino arts and culture.[245]

Other museums in the city are the Museum of Manila,[citation needed] the city-owned museum that exhibits the city's culture and history, Museo Pambata,[246] a children's museum and a place of hands-on discovery and fun learning,[247] and Plaza San Luis which is an outdoor heritage public museum that contains a collection of nine Spanish Bahay na Bato houses.[248] Ecclesiastical museums in the located in the city are the Parish of the Our Lady of the Abandoned in Santa Ana,[249] the San Agustin Church Museum[250] and the Museo de Intramuros which houses the ecclesiastical art collection of the Intramuros Administration in the reconstructed San Ignacio Church and Convent.[251]


Aerial view of the city-owned Rizal Memorial Sports Complex, considered as the national sports complex of the Philippines.
Aerial view of the city-owned Rizal Memorial Sports Complex, considered as the national sports complex of the Philippines.
Children playing basketball at the ruins of San Ignacio Church in Intramuros
Children playing basketball at the ruins of San Ignacio Church in Intramuros
The Intramuros Golf Club
The Intramuros Golf Club

Sports in Manila have a long and distinguished history. The city's, and in general the country's main sport is basketball, and most barangays have a basketball court or at least a makeshift basketball court, with court markings drawn on the streets. Larger barangays have covered courts where inter-barangay leagues are held every summer (April to May). Manila has many sports venues, such as the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex and San Andres Gym, the home of the now defunct Manila Metrostars.[252] The Rizal Memorial Sports Complex houses the Rizal Memorial Track and Football Stadium, the Baseball Stadium, Tennis Courts, the Rizal Memorial Coliseum and the Ninoy Aquino Stadium (the latter two are indoor arenas). The Rizal complex had hosted several multi-sport events, such as the 1954 Asian Games and the 1934 Far Eastern Games. Whenever the country hosts the Southeast Asian Games, most of the events are held at the complex, but in the 2005 Games, most events were held elsewhere. The 1960 ABC Championship and the 1973 ABC Championship, forerunners of the FIBA Asia Championship, was hosted by the memorial coliseum, with the national basketball team winning on both tournaments. The 1978 FIBA World Championship was held at the coliseum although the latter stages were held in the Araneta Coliseum in Quezon City.

Manila also hosts several well-known sports facilities such as the Enrique M. Razon Sports Center and the University of Santo Tomas Sports Complex, both of which are private venues owned by a university; collegiate sports are also held, with the University Athletic Association of the Philippines and the National Collegiate Athletic Association basketball games held at Rizal Memorial Coliseum and Ninoy Aquino Stadium, although basketball events had transferred to San Juan's Filoil Flying V Arena and the Araneta Coliseum in Quezon City. Other collegiate sports are still held at the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex. Professional basketball, which has been organized mostly by corporate teams, also used to play at the city, but the Philippine Basketball Association now holds their games at Araneta Coliseum and Cuneta Astrodome at Pasay; the now defunct Philippine Basketball League played some of their games at the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex such as its 1995–96 Philippine Basketball League season.[253]

Manila has always been represented whenever city-based sports leagues are set up.[citation needed] The Manila Metrostars participated in the Metropolitan Basketball Association.[254] The Metrostars, named after the Metrostar Express, the brand name of the Metro Manila MRT-3, which does not have stations in the city, participated in its first three seasons, and won the 1999 championship.[255] The Metrostars later merged with the Batangas Blades and subsequently played in Lipa. Almost two decades later, the Manila Stars participated in the Maharlika Pilipinas Basketball League. The Stars' best performance was reaching the Northern Division Finals in 2019. Both teams played in the San Andres Sports Complex. Other teams that represented Manila but did not host games in the city are the Manila Jeepney F.C. and FC Meralco Manila. Jeepney were acknowledged by the city's government as Manila's representative in the United Football League. Meralco Manila played in the Philippines Football League and designated the Rizal Memorial Stadium as their home ground.[citation needed]

The Manila Storm are the city's rugby league team training at Rizal Park (Luneta Park) and playing their matches at Southern Plains Field, Calamba, Laguna. Previously a widely played sport in the city, Manila is now the home of the only sizable baseball stadium in the country, at the Rizal Memorial Baseball Stadium. The stadium hosted games of the now defunct Baseball Philippines; Lou Gehrig and Babe Ruth were the first players to score a home run at the stadium at their tour of the country on December 2, 1934.[256] Another popular sport in the city are cue sports, and billiard halls are a feature in most barangays. The 2010 World Cup of Pool was held at Robinsons Place Manila.[257]

The Rizal Memorial Track and Football Stadium hosted the first FIFA World Cup qualifier in decades when the Philippines hosted Sri Lanka in July 2011. The stadium, which was previously unfit for international matches, had undergone a major renovation program before the match.[258] The stadium also hosted its first rugby test when it hosted the 2012 Asian Five Nations Division I tournaments.[259]

Festivities and holidays

Further information: Public holidays in the Philippines

Catholic devotees during the Feast of the Black Nazarene (Traslacíon)
Catholic devotees during the Feast of the Black Nazarene (Traslacíon)
Grand Marian Procession in Intramuros
Grand Marian Procession in Intramuros

Manila celebrates civic and national holidays. Since most of the city's citizens are Roman Catholics as a result of the Spanish colonization,[260][261] most of the festivities are religious in nature. Manila Day, which celebrates the city's founding on June 24, 1571,[262] by Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi, was first proclaimed by Herminio A. Astorga (then vice mayor of Manila) on June 24, 1962. It has been annually commemorated under the patronage of John the Baptist, and has always been declared by the national government as a special non-working holiday through Presidential Proclamations. Each of the city's 896 barangays also have their own festivities guided by their own patron saint.[citation needed]

The city is also the host to the Procession of the Feast of the Black Nazarene (Traslacíon), held every January 9, which draws millions of Catholic devotees.[263] Other religious festivities held in Manila are the Feast of Santo Niño in Tondo and Pandacan held on the third Sunday of January,[264][265] the Feast of the Nuestra Señora de los Desamparados de Manila (Our Lady of the Abandoned), the patron saint of Santa Ana which was held every May 12,[266] and the Flores de Mayo.[267] Non-religious holidays include the New Year's Day, National Heroes' Day, Bonifacio Day and Rizal Day.[268]


Manila City Hall, the seat of city government
Manila City Hall, the seat of city government
Especially since martial law era, Manila, being home of nationally-significant government offices and being the national capital, has been a venue for major protests.
Especially since martial law era, Manila, being home of nationally-significant government offices and being the national capital, has been a venue for major protests.

Manila—officially known as the City of Manila—is the national capital of the Philippines and is classified as a Special City (according to its income)[269][270] and a Highly Urbanized City (HUC). The mayor is the chief executive, and is assisted by the vice mayor, and the 38-member City Council. The members of the City Council are elected as representatives of the six councilor districts within the city, and the municipal presidents of the Liga ng mga Barangay and Sangguniang Kabataan.[citation needed]

The city, however, has no control over Intramuros and the Manila North Harbor. The historic Walled City is administered by the Intramuros Administration, while the Manila North Harbor is managed by the Philippine Ports Authority. Both are national government agencies. The barangays that have jurisdictions over these places only oversee the welfare of the city's constituents and cannot exercise their executive powers. Manila has a total of 12,971 personnel complement by the end of 2018.[271] Under the proposed form of federalism in the Philippines, Manila may no longer be the capital or Metro Manila may no longer be the seat of government. The committee has not yet decided on the federal capital and states that they are open to other proposals.[272][273]

The mayor is Dr. Maria Shielah "Honey" Lacuna-Pangan, daughter of former Manila vice mayor Danilo Lacuna. Lacuna made history as she became the first female Mayor of Manila.[274] The vice mayor is Yul Servo. The mayor and the vice mayor are term-limited by up to 3 terms, with each term lasting for three years. The city has an ordinance penalizing cat-calling since 2018, and is the second city in the Philippines to do so after Quezon City passed a similar ordinance in 2016.[275] Recently, the city government is planning to revise existing curfew ordinance since the Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in August 2017. Out of the three cities reviewed by the Supreme Court, namely: the City of Manila, Navotas and Quezon City; only the curfew ordinance of Quezon City was approved.[276][277]

Manila, being the seat of political power of the Philippines, has several national government offices headquartered at the city. Planning for the development for being the center of government started during the early years of American colonization when they envisioned a well-designed city outside the walls of Intramuros. The strategic location chosen was Bagumbayan, a former town which is now the Rizal Park to become the center of government and a design commission was given to Daniel Burnham to create a master plan for the city patterned after Washington, D.C. These improvements were eventually abandoned under the Commonwealth Government of Manuel L. Quezon. A new government center was to be built on the hills northeast of Manila, or what is now Quezon City. Several government agencies have set up their headquarters in Quezon City but several key government offices still reside in Manila. However, many of the plans were substantially altered after the devastation of Manila during World War II and by subsequent administrations.[citation needed]

The city, as the capital, still hosts the Office of the President, as well as the president's official residence. Aside from these, important government agencies and institutions such as the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals, the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, the Departments of Budget and Management, Finance, Health, Justice, Labor and Employment and Public Works and Highways still call the city home. Manila also hosts important national institutions such as the National Library, National Archives, National Museum of the Philippines and the Philippine General Hospital.[citation needed]. Other notable institutions based in Manila are the National Commission for Culture and the Arts, National Historical Commission, Film Development Council of the Philippines and the Cultural Center of the Philippines.

Congress previously held office at the Old Congress Building.[278] In 1972, due to declaration of martial law, Congress was dissolved; its successor, the unicameral Batasang Pambansa, held office at the new Batasang Pambansa Complex. When a new constitution restored the bicameral Congress, the House of Representatives stayed at the Batasang Pambansa Complex, while the Senate remained at the Old Congress Building. In May 1997, the Senate transferred to a new building it shares with the Government Service Insurance System at reclaimed land at Pasay. The Supreme Court was slated to transfer to its new campus at Bonifacio Global City, Taguig in 2019 but was postponed to a later year.[279]

In Congress, Manila is represented by its six representatives, one each from its six congressional districts, while in the Senate, that body is elected nationally.[citation needed]


In the 2019 Annual Audit Report published by the Commission on Audit, the total revenue of the City of Manila amounted to ₱16.534 billion.[271] It is one of the cities with the highest tax collection and internal revenue allotment.[280] For the 2019 fiscal year, the total tax revenue collected by the city amounted to ₱8.4 billion. The city's total Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA), coming from the National Treasury, is at ₱2.94 billion. Meanwhile, its total assets was worth ₱63.4 billion in 2019.[271] The City of Manila has the highest budget allocation to healthcare among all the cities and municipalities in the Philippines, which maintains the six district hospitals, 59 health centers and lying-in clinic, and healthcare programs.



The Smokey Mountain Housing Project was built on a former landfill. Continuous development of housing buildings continues up to the present day.
The Smokey Mountain Housing Project was built on a former landfill. Continuous development of housing buildings continues up to the present day.

Development of public housing in the city began in the 1930s when the United States rule over the Philippines. Americans have to deal with the problem of sanitation and concentration of settlers around business areas.[281] Business codes and sanitation laws were implemented in the 1930s. During this period until the 1950s, new communities were opened for relocation. Among these were Projects 1–8 in Diliman, Quezon City[citation needed] and the Vitas tenement houses in Tondo.[282] The government implemented the Public Housing Policy in 1947 that established the People's Homesite and Housing Corporation (PHHC). A few years later, it put up the Slum Clearance Committee which, with the help of the PHHC, relocated thousands of families from Tondo and Quezon City to Sapang Palay in San Jose del Monte, Bulacan in the 1960s.

In 2016, the national government completed several medium-rise houses for 300 Manila residents whose slum community was destroyed by a fire in 2011.[283] Meanwhile, the city government plans to retrofit dilapidated tenements within the city,[284] and will construct new housing buildings for the city's informal settlers such as the 14-storey Tondominium 1 and Tondomium 2 buildings, containing 42-square meter, two-bedroom units. The construction of these new in-city vertical housing projects was funded by a loan from the Development Bank of the Philippines and the Land Bank of the Philippines.[285][286] A multitude of other vertical housing projects are in development.

Since 2019, the Manila City Government has initiated 5 housing projects, namely: Tondominium 1 & 2, Binondominium, BaseCommunity, San Lazaro Residences and the Pedro Gil Residences.[287][288]


Main articles: Transportation in Metro Manila, Public transport in Manila, and Major roads in Metro Manila

Jeepneys are one of the most popular modes of transportation in Manila
Jeepneys are one of the most popular modes of transportation in Manila
Pureza station of LRT Line 2 in Santa Mesa
Blumentritt Station of the LRT Line 1

One of the more famous modes of transportation in Manila is the jeepney. Patterned after U.S. Army jeeps, these have been in use since the years immediately following World War II.[289] The Tamaraw FX, the third generation Toyota Kijang, which competed directly with jeepneys and followed fixed routes for a set price, once plied the streets of Manila. They were replaced by the UV Express. All types of public road transport plying Manila are privately owned and operated under government-issued franchises.[citation needed]

On a for-hire basis, the city is served by numerous taxicabs, "tricycles" (motorcycles with sidecars, the Philippine version of the auto rickshaw), and "trisikads" or "sikads", which are also known as "kuligligs" (bicycles with sidecars, the Philippine version of pedicabs). In some areas, especially in Divisoria, motorized pedicabs are popular. Spanish-era horse-drawn calesas are still a popular tourist attraction and mode of transportation in the streets of Binondo and Intramuros. Manila will phase out all gasoline-run tricycles and pedicabs and replace them with electric tricycles (e-trikes), and plans to distribute 10,000 e-trikes to qualified tricycle drivers from the city.[290][291] As of January 2018, the city has already distributed e-trikes to a number of drivers and operators in Binondo, Ermita, Malate and Santa Cruz.[292]

The city is serviced by LRT Line 1 (LRT-1) and Line 2 (LRT-2), which form the Light Rail Transit. Development of the railway system began in the 1970s under the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos, when the LRT Line 1 was built, making it the first light rail transport in Southeast Asia, though despite the name "light rail", LRT-1 operates as a light metro running on dedicated right-of-way. LRT 2 on the other hand, operates as a full-metro heavy rail system. These systems are undergoing a multibillion-dollar expansion.[293] The LRT runs along the length of Taft Avenue (N170/R-2) and Rizal Avenue (N150/R-9), while LRT-2 runs along Claro M. Recto Avenue (N145/C-1) and Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard (N180/R-6) from Santa Cruz, through Quezon City, up to Masinag in Antipolo, Rizal.

The central terminal of the Philippine National Railways lies within the city.[294][295] One commuter railway within Metro Manila is in operation. The line runs in a general north–south direction from Tutuban (Tondo) toward the province of Laguna. The Port of Manila, located at the western section of the city at the vicinity of Manila Bay, is the largest and chief seaport of the Philippines.[296] The Pasig River Ferry Service which runs on the Pasig River is another form of transportation.[297] The city is also served by the Ninoy Aquino International Airport, the country's main international airport and hub for domestic flights.[298]

“Trolleys", hand-made human-powered metal handcarts operated by “trolley boys” transport people along sections of the PNR lines. This is a popular means of transport, due to it being cheap (roughly ₱10 or US$.20) and avoiding traffic. Many “trolley boys” are homeless, and live alongside the rail line as a result. Since the line is actively used by passenger trains, collisions with passenger trains are a consistent danger, although casualties are reportedly rare. Rides are unofficial and unregulated, but tolerated by authorities.[299][300][301][302]

Manila was ranked by TomTom as the second world's most traffic-congested city in 2019.[303] According to Waze's 2015 "Global Driver Satisfaction Index", Manila is the town with the worst traffic worldwide.[304] Manila is notorious for its frequent traffic jams and high densities.[305] The government has undertaken several projects to alleviate the traffic in the city. Some of the projects include: the proposed construction of a new viaduct or underpass at the intersection of España Boulevard and Lacson Avenue,[306] the construction of Skyway Stage 3, NLEX Connector, Pasig River Expressway, the proposed LRT Line 2 West Extension Project from Recto Avenue to Pier 4 of the Manila North Harbor,[307] the proposed construction of the PNR east–west line, which will run through España Boulevard up to Quezon City, and the expansion and widening of several national and local roads. However, such projects have yet to make any meaningful impact, and the traffic jams and congestion continue unabated.[308]

The Metro Manila Dream Plan seeks to address these urban transport problems. It consists of a list of short term priority projects and medium to long term infrastructure projects that will last up to 2030.[309][310]

Water and electricity

Water services used to be provided by the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System, which served 30% of the city with most other sewage being directly dumped into storm drains, septic tanks, or open canals.[311] MWSS was privatized in 1997, which split the water concession into the east and west zones. The Maynilad Water Services took over the west zone of which Manila is a part. It now provides the supply and delivery of potable water and sewerage system in Manila,[312] but it does not provide service to the southeastern part of the city which belongs to the east zone that is served by Manila Water.[313] Electric services are provided by Meralco, the sole electric power distributor in Metro Manila.[314]


See also: List of hospitals in Metro Manila

The Manila Health Department is responsible for the planning and implementation of the health care programs provided by the city government. It operates 59 health centers and six city-run hospitals, which are free of charge for the city's constituents. The six public city-run hospitals are the Ospital ng Maynila Medical Center, Ospital ng Sampaloc, Gat Andres Bonifacio Memorial Medical Center, Ospital ng Tondo, Santa Ana Hospital, and Justice Jose Abad Santos General Hospital.[315] Manila is also the site of the Philippine General Hospital, the tertiary state-owned hospital administered and operated by the University of the Philippines Manila. The city is also planning to put up an education, research and hospital facility for cleft-palate patients,[316][317] as well as establishing the first children's surgical hospital in Southeast Asia.[318]

Manila's healthcare is also provided by private corporations. Private hospitals that operates in the city are the Manila Doctors Hospital,[319] Chinese General Hospital and Medical Center,[320] José R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center,[321] Metropolitan Medical Center,[322] Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital,[323] and the University of Santo Tomas Hospital.[324]

The Department of Health (DOH) has its main office in Manila.[325] The national health department operates the San Lazaro Hospital, a special referral tertiary hospital. DOH also operates the Dr. Jose Fabella Memorial Hospital, Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center and the Tondo Medical Center.[326] Manila is the home to the headquarters of the World Health Organization's Regional Office for the Western Pacific and Country Office for the Philippines.[327]

The city has free immunization programs for children, specifically targeted against hepatitis B, Hemophilus influenza B pneumonia, diphtheria, tetanus, polio, measles, mumps and rubella. As of 2016, a total of 31,115 children age one and below has been "fully immunized".[328] The Manila Dialysis Center that provides free services for the poor has been cited by the United Nations Committee on Innovation, Competitiveness and Public-Private Partnerships as a model for public-private partnership (PPP) projects.[329][330] The dialysis facility was named as the Flora V. Valisno de Siojo Dialysis Center in 2019, and was inaugurated as the largest free dialysis facility in the Philippines. It has 91 dialysis machines, which can be expanded up to 100, matching the capabilities of the National Kidney and Transplant Institute (NKTI).[331][332]


Main articles: List of universities and colleges in Manila and Division of City Schools–Manila

De La Salle University is a Lasallian educational institution established in 1911.
The campus of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila and Baluarte de San Diego in Intramuros.
The campus of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila and Baluarte de San Diego in Intramuros.

The center of education since the colonial period,[333] Manila is home to several Philippine universities and colleges as well as its oldest ones. The city contains the University Belt, an area where there is a high concentration of colleges and universities. Each of the colleges and universities found here are at a short walking distance of each other. The area is commonly understood as the one where the San Miguel, Quiapo, and Sampaloc districts meet, while another cluster of colleges lies along the southern bank of the Pasig River, mostly at the Intramuros and Ermita districts, and still a smaller cluster is found at the southernmost part of Malate near the city limits.

The historic district of Intramuros once served as the home of the University of Santo Tomas (1611), Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620), and Ateneo de Manila University (1859).[333][334] Today, only Colegio de San Juan de Letran remains at Intramuros; the University of Santo Tomas transferred to a new campus at Sampaloc in 1927, and Ateneo left Intramuros for Loyola Heights, Quezon City (while still retaining "de Manila" in its name) in 1952. Meanwhile, new non-sectarian schools were built after the war: Mapúa University (1925), Lyceum of the Philippines University (1952), and Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila (1965) which is owned and operated by the Manila city government.[335][336] Together, the four schools in the district formed the Intramuros Consortium. Other notable universities in the city include De La Salle University (1911), the largest of all De La Salle University System of schools, Far Eastern University (1928), and Adamson University (1939).

The University of the Philippines (1908), the premier state university of the country, was established in Ermita, Manila. It moved its central administrative offices from Manila to Diliman in 1949 and eventually made the original campus the University of the Philippines Manila – the oldest of the constituent universities of the University of the Philippines System and the center of health sciences education in the country.[337] The city is also the site of the main campus of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, the largest university in the country in terms of student population.[338]

The Division of the City Schools of Manila, a branch of the Department of Education, refers to the city's three-tier public education system. It governs the 71 public elementary schools and 32 public high schools within the city.[339] The city also contains the Manila Science High School, the pilot science high school of the Philippines.[340]

Sister cities

See also: List of sister cities in Metro Manila




International relations

Manila hosts the foreign embassies of the United States[372] and Vietnam.[373] Honorary consulates of Belize, Burkina Faso, Jordan, Nepal, Poland, Thailand, and Tunisia are based in the city.[374]

See also


  1. ^ The city limits was at Vicente Sotto Street. The rest of the place south of the street belongs to Pasay. Buildings and structures in CCP that falls under the jurisdiction of Manila includes the National Theater.


  1. ^ "'Pearl of Orient' Stripped of Food; Manila, Before Pearl Harbor, Had Been Prosperous—Its Harbor One, of Best Focus for Two Attacks Osmeña Succeeded Quezon". New York Times. February 5, 1945. Retrieved March 3, 2014. Manila, modernized and elevated to the status of a metropolis by American engineering skill, was before Pearl Harbor a city of 623,000 population, contained in an area of fourteen square miles.
  2. ^ [
  3. ^ "City Profile | Lungsod ng Maynila". Retrieved September 22, 2022.
  4. ^ "Demographia World Urban Areas 17th Annual Edition: 202106" (PDF). p. 22. Retrieved March 2, 2022.
  5. ^ a b Census of Population (2020). "National Capital Region (NCR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  6. ^ "Demographia World Urban Areas PDF (July 2022)" (PDF). Demographia. Retrieved September 16, 2022.
  7. ^ a b c Census of Population (2020). Table B - Population and Annual Growth Rates by Province, City, and Municipality - By Region. PSA. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  8. ^ a b c "Philippine Population Density (Based on the 2015 Census of Population)". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved November 2, 2017.
  9. ^ This is the original Spanish, even used by José Rizal in El filibusterismo.
  10. ^; publication date: 4 June 2020; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  11. ^ Sub-national HDI. "Area Database – Global Data Lab".
  12. ^ "The World According to GaWC 201".
  13. ^ "Manila—the world's most densely-populated city". Philippine Daily Inquirer. October 7, 2018.
  14. ^ "Annual Audit Report: City of Manila" (PDF). Commission on Audit. 2014. Archived from the original on November 4, 2016. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
  15. ^ Frank, Andre G. (1998). ReOrient: Global Economy in the Asian Age. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 131. ISBN 9780520214743.
  16. ^ "Global Metro Monitor". Brookings Institution. January 22, 2015. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
  17. ^ "Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population". Philippine Statistics Authority. May 19, 2016. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
  18. ^ "GRDP Tables 2015 (as of July 2016)". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
  19. ^ "GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2018". Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  20. ^ "Brookings – Global Metro Monitor 2018". November 30, 2001. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
  21. ^ "The Global Financial Centres Index 27" (PDF). Long Finance. March 2020. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Baumgartner, Joseph (March 1975). "Manila – Maynilad or Maynila?". Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society. 3 (1): 52–54. JSTOR 29791188.
  23. ^ a b Chamberlain, Alexander F. (1901). "Philippine Studies: V. The Origin of the Name Manila". The American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal. 23 (5): 33.
  24. ^ Thomas, Hugh (August 11, 2015). World Without End: Spain, Philip II, and the First Global Empire. Random House Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8129-9812-2. Retrieved March 28, 2022.
  25. ^ "Ixora manila Blanco". World Marine Species Database. Retrieved August 20, 2018.
  26. ^ a b Merrill, Elmer Drew (1903). A Dictionary of the Plant Names of the Philippine Islands. Manila: Bureau of Public Printing.
  27. ^ Aloma Monte de los Santos (1994). Parish of Santo Niño de Molino – Bacoor, Cavite – 1984–1994: The Making of a Parish. Parish of Santo Niño de Molino. Retrieved August 20, 2018.
  28. ^ a b Ambeth Ocampo (June 25, 2008), Looking Back: Pre-Spanish Manila, Philippine Daily Inquirer, archived from the original on June 28, 2008, retrieved August 21, 2018
  29. ^ a b Ocampo, Ambeth R. (1990). Looking Back, Volume 1. Anvil Publishing Inc. ISBN 9789712700583. Retrieved August 21, 2018.
  30. ^ Nakpil, Julio. "A Suggestion to the Tagalistas to Elucidate the Origin of the Name of the Capital City of the Philippines: Manila. Which of these Three Terms or Names Is the More Accurate: Maynilad, Manilad, or Manila?". August 26, 1940.
  31. ^ Blair and Robertson, The Philippine Islands, 1493–1898, Vol. VIII, p. 96-141. The Arthur H. Clarke Company.; Census of the Philippines, 1903
  32. ^ Velasquez-Ty, Catalina; García, Tomas; Maceda, Antonio J. (1955). Your Country and Mine.
  33. ^ An example is: Saenger, Peter (June 29, 2013). Mangrove Ecology, Silviculture and Conservation. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 19. ISBN 9789401599627.
  34. ^ Mijares, Armand Salvador B. (2006). .The Early Austronesian Migration To Luzon: Perspectives From The Peñablanca Cave Sites Archived July 7, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 26: 72–78.
  35. ^ Junker, Laura Lee (2000). Raiding, Trading, and Feasting: The Political Economy of Philippine Chiefdoms. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. pp. 184–192. ISBN 978-9715503471.
  36. ^ Wakan Sansai Zue, Pages 202-216
  37. ^ Reading Song-Ming Records on the Pre-colonial History of the Philippines By Wang Zhenping Page 256.
  38. ^ Brunei Rediscovered: A Survey of Early Times By Robert Nicholl Page 12, citing: "Groenveldt, Notes Page 112"
  39. ^ "Pusat Sejarah Brunei" (in Malay). Government of Brunei Darussalam. Archived from the original on April 15, 2015. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
  40. ^ Agoncillo, Teodoro (1990) [1960]. History of the Filipino People (8th ed.). Quezon City: Garotech Publishing Inc. p. 22. ISBN 971-10-2415-2.
  41. ^ Wright, Hamilton M. (1907). "A Handbook of the Philippines", p. 143. A.C. McClurcg & Co., Chicago.
  42. ^ Kane, Herb Kawainui (1996). "The Manila Galleons". In Bob Dye (ed.). Hawaiʻ Chronicles: Island History from the Pages of Honolulu Magazine. Vol. I. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. pp. 25–32. ISBN 978-0-8248-1829-6.
  43. ^ The “Indo-Pacific” Crossroads: The Asian Waters as Conduits of Knowledge, People, Cargoes, and Technologies Page 107 (Citing:"Wang 1953; Tanaka Takeo 1961.")
  44. ^ Bartolome Juan Leonardy y de Argensola, Conquistas de las islas Molucas (Madrid: Alonso Martin, 1909) pp. 351-8; Cesar Majul, Muslims in the Philippines (Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1973) pp. 119-20; Hal, History of Southeast Asia, pp. 249-50.
  45. ^ Peter Borschberg (2015). Journal, Memorials and Letters of Cornelis Matelieff de Jonge. Security, Diplomacy and Commerce in 17th-Century Southeast Asia. Singapore: NUS Press. pp. 82, 84, 126, 421. Retrieved August 30, 2015.
  46. ^ Zamboangueño Chavacano: Philippine Spanish Creole or Filipinized Spanish Creole? By Tyron Judes D. Casumpang (Page 3)
  47. ^ Bhattacharya, Bhaswati (March 2008). "Making money at the blessed place of Manila: Armenians in the Madras–Manila trade in the eighteenth century*". Journal of Global History. 3 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1017/S1740022808002416. ISSN 1740-0236.
  48. ^ "Manila (Philippines)". Britannica. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
  49. ^ Backhouse, Thomas (1765). The Secretary at War to Mr. Secretary Conway. London: British Library. pp. v. 40.
  50. ^ Fish, Shirley (2003). When Britain Ruled The Philippines 1762–1764. 1stBooks. p. 158. ISBN 978-1-4107-1069-7.
  51. ^ "Wars and Battles: Treaty of Paris (1763)".
  52. ^ Barrows, David (2014). "A History of the Philippines". Guttenburg Free Online E-books. 1: 179. Within the walls, there were some six hundred houses of a private nature, most of them built of stone and tile, and an equal number outside in the suburbs, or "arrabales," all occupied by Spaniards ("todos son vivienda y poblacion de los Españoles"). This gives some twelve hundred Spanish families or establishments, exclusive of the religious, who in Manila numbered at least one hundred and fifty, the garrison, at certain times, about four hundred trained Spanish soldiers who had seen service in Holland and the Low Countries, and the official classes.
  53. ^ a b Raitisoja, Geni " Chinatown Manila: Oldest in the world" Archived April 2, 2011, at the Wayback Machine,, July 8, 2006, accessed March 19, 2011.
  54. ^ "In 1637 the military force maintained in the islands consisted of one thousand seven hundred and two Spaniards and one hundred and forty Indians." ~Memorial de D. Juan Grau y Monfalcon, Procurador General de las Islas Filipinas, Docs. Inéditos del Archivo de Indias, vi, p. 425. "In 1787 the garrison at Manila consisted of one regiment of Mexicans comprising one thousand three hundred men, two artillery companies of eighty men each, three cavalry companies of fifty men each." La Pérouse, ii, p. 368.
  55. ^ "West Coast of the Island Of Luzon | Tourist Attractions". Archived from the original on December 6, 2016. Retrieved December 6, 2016.
  56. ^ John. M. Lipski, with P. Mühlhaüsler and F. Duthin (1996). "Spanish in the Pacific" (PDF). In Stephen Adolphe Wurm & Peter Mühlhäusler (ed.). Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas: Texts, Volume 2. Walter de Gruyter. p. 276. ISBN 9783110134179.
  57. ^ The Age of Trade: The Manila Galleons and the Dawn of the Global Economy by Arturo Giraldez
  58. ^ Bartolomé de Letona, La perfecta religiosa (Puebla, 1662), as quoted in Irving, Colonial Counterpoint, page 245
  59. ^ "Connecting the Indies: the hispano-asian Pacific world in early Modern Global History". ResearchGate.
  60. ^ Criado, Buenaventura Delgado, ed. (1992). Historia de la educación en España y América (in Spanish). Vol. 3: La educación en la España contemporánea (1789–1975). Madrid: Fundación Santa María. p. 508. ISBN 978-84-7112-378-7.
  61. ^ John Bowring, "Travels in the Philippines", p. 18, London, 1875
  62. ^ Olsen, Rosalinda N. "Semantics of Colonization and Revolution". Retrieved January 8, 2011.
  63. ^ "Filipinos In Mexico's History 4 (The Mexican Connection – The Cultural Cargo Of The Manila-Acapulco Galleons) By Carlos Quirino". Archived from the original on August 4, 2020. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
  64. ^ Beede, Benjamin R. (May 1, 1994). The War of 1898 and U.S. Interventions, 1898T1934: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. pp. 417-418. ISBN 978-1-136-74690-1. Retrieved March 28, 2022.
  65. ^ The text of the amended version published by General Otis is quoted in its entirety in José Roca de Togores y Saravia; Remigio Garcia; National Historical Institute (Philippines) (2003), Blockade and siege of Manila, National Historical Institute, pp. 148–150, ISBN 978-971-538-167-3
    See also s:Letter from E.S. Otis to the inhabitants of the Philippine Islands, January 4, 1899.
  66. ^ Magoc, Chris J.; Bernstein, David (December 14, 2015). Imperialism and Expansionism in American History: A Social, Political, and Cultural Encyclopedia and Document Collection [4 volumes]: A Social, Political, and Cultural Encyclopedia and Document Collection. ABC-CLIO. p. 731. ISBN 978-1-61069-430-8. Retrieved September 15, 2022.
  67. ^ Joaquin, Nick (1990). Manila My Manila. Vera-Reyes, Inc. p. 137, 178.
  68. ^ Moore 1921, p. 162.
  69. ^ Moore 1921, p. 162B.
  70. ^ Moore 1921, p. 180.
  71. ^ Torres, Cristina Evangelista (2010). The Americanization of Manila, 1898-1921. UP Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-971-542-613-8.
  72. ^ "Japanese Bombs Fire Open City Of Manila; Civilian Toll Heavy; Invaders Gain In Luzon". The New York Times. XCI (30, 654): 1. December 28, 1941.
  73. ^ Horner, David (January 15, 2010). World War II: The Pacific. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-4358-9133-3. Retrieved March 27, 2022.
  74. ^ Stich, Rodney (2010). Japanese and U.S. World War II Plunder and Intrigue. Silverpeak Enterprises. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-932438-70-6. Retrieved September 15, 2022.
  75. ^ White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Man-made Megadeaths of the 20th Century". Retrieved August 1, 2007.
  76. ^ Boldorf, Marcel; Okazaki, Tetsuji (March 24, 2015). Economies under Occupation: The hegemony of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan in World War II. Routledge. pp. 194. ISBN 978-1-317-50650-8. Retrieved March 28, 2022.
  77. ^ Synott, John P. (November 22, 2017). Teacher Unions, Social Movements and the Politics of Education in Asia: South Korea, Taiwan and the Philippines. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-73424-0. Retrieved March 28, 2022.
  78. ^ "Milestone in History" Archived March 7, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Quezon City Official Website. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
  79. ^ Hancock 2000, p. 16
  80. ^ Kahlon, Swarn Singh (September 13, 2016). Sikhs in Asia Pacific: Travels Among the Sikh Diaspora from Yangon to Kobe. Taylor & Francis. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-351-98741-7. Retrieved March 28, 2022.
  81. ^ Jones, Gavin W.; Douglass, Mike (2008). Mega-urban Regions in Pacific Asia: Urban Dynamics in a Global Era. NUS Press. p. 154. ISBN 978-9971-69-379-4. Retrieved March 28, 2022.
  82. ^ Yearbook of Philippine Statistics. Philippines Bureau of the Census and Statistics. 1994. p. 18. Retrieved March 28, 2022.
  83. ^ "Presidential Decree No. 940 June 24, 1976". Chan C. Robles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
  84. ^ Lico, Gerard. Edifice Complex: Power, Myth, and Marcos State Architecture. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2003.
  85. ^ "Edsa people Power 1 Philippines". Angela Stuart-Santiago. Retrieved December 3, 2007.
  86. ^ Mundo, Sheryl (December 1, 2009). "It's Atienza vs. Lim Part 2 in Manila". ABS-CBN News. Manila. Archived from the original on December 3, 2009. Retrieved March 3, 2014. Environment Secretary Jose 'Lito' Atienza will get to tangle again with incumbent Manila Alfredo Lim in the coming 2010 elections.
  87. ^ Legaspi, Amita (July 17, 2008). "Councilor files raps vs Lim, Manila execs before CHR". GMA News. GMA Network. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
  88. ^ "Mayor Lim charged anew with graft over rehabilitation of public schools". The Daily Tribune. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
  89. ^ Ranada, Pia (August 4, 2014). "Pia Cayetano to look into Torre de Manila violations". Rappler. Retrieved April 28, 2017.
  90. ^ Dario, Dethan (April 28, 2017). "Timeline: Tracking the Torre De Manila case". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on April 28, 2017. Retrieved April 28, 2017.
  91. ^ "Duterte says 'comfort woman' statue a 'constitutional right'". ABS-CBN News. January 18, 2018. Retrieved January 21, 2018.
  92. ^ "Japan voices regret to Duterte over 'comfort women' statue". ABS-CBN Corporation. January 10, 2018. Retrieved January 21, 2018.
  93. ^ Lopez, Tony (June 10, 2016). "Erap's hairline victory". The Standard Philippines. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
  94. ^ "10 Heritage Sites in Manila That Need Your Attention". SPOT.PH.
  95. ^ "NHCP stops Erap's demolition of postwar Santa Cruz Building in Escolta". Philippine Daily Inquirer. June 2, 2019.
  96. ^ "Almost already gone: Santa Cruz Bldg. in Escolta saved from demolition". June 3, 2019.
  97. ^ Rola, Alyssa. "Rizal Memorial saved from demolition by NHCP". Rappler.
  98. ^ "Estrada declares Manila City government 'debt-free' after paying off GSIS arrears". Manila Bulletin.
  99. ^ Tomacruz, Sofia. "Erap leaves Manila in debt by P4.4 billion – COA". Rappler.
  100. ^ Modesto, Catherine A. (May 14, 2019). "Isko Moreno is new Manila mayor, defeats 'Goliaths' in politics". The Manila Times. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
  101. ^ Esguerra, Christian V. (May 14, 2019). "Ex-scavenger beats ex-president: Moreno in, Estrada out as Manila mayor". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
  102. ^ Maru, Davinci (May 14, 2019). "End of an era for Estrada-Ejercito political clan?". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
  103. ^ Cabico, Gaea Katreena (July 10, 2019). "Recto: Isko's efforts to fix Manila show charter change not sole solution". The Philippine Star. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
  104. ^ "Perks and privileges for Manila senior citizens". BusinessMirror. September 28, 2019. Retrieved March 22, 2020.
  105. ^ "Moreno signs ordinance granting monthly allowance for qualified PLM, UdM students". CNN Philippines. July 31, 2019. Retrieved March 22, 2020.
  106. ^ "Students of PLM, UdM start receiving P1,000 allowance from Manila gov't". Philippine Daily Inquirer. January 28, 2020. Retrieved March 22, 2020.
  107. ^ "The 53 best cities in the world in 2022". Time Out. July 11, 2022. Retrieved July 16, 2022.
  108. ^ "Manila adjudged as one of world's best cities". Philippine News Agency. July 11, 2022. Retrieved July 16, 2022.
  109. ^ "Geography of Manila". HowStuffWorks. Archived from the original on February 2, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
  110. ^ "Environment – Manila". City-Data. Retrieved February 26, 2017.
  111. ^ a b "An Update on the Earthquake Hazards and Risk Assessment of Greater Metropolitan Manila Area" (PDF). Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. November 14, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 24, 2016. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
  112. ^ a b "Enhancing Risk Analysis Capacities for Flood, Tropical Cyclone Severe Wind and Earthquake for the Greater Metro Manila Area Component 5 – Earthquake Risk Analysis" (PDF). Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology and Geoscience Australia. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
  113. ^ Guidelines for Settlement Planning In Areas Prone To Flood Disasters. UN-HABITAT. p. 77. ISBN 978-92-1-131296-6. Retrieved August 21, 2022.
  114. ^ Cabuenas, Jon Viktor D. (October 26, 2017). "Waterfront Manila to develop man-made island in Manila Bay". GMA News. GMA Network. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
  115. ^ "4 Manila Bay reclamation projects get greenlight as gov't dispels flooding fears". ABS-CBN News. December 12, 2019. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
  116. ^ Talabong, Rambo (May 12, 2017). "Manila to relocate 7,000 families in esteros". Rappler. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  117. ^ Rambo Talabong (June 6, 2017). "Estrada approves building 3 islands at Manila Bay for new commercial district". Rappler. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  118. ^ See, Aie Balagtas (June 7, 2017). "Erap OKs fourth reclamation project in Manila Bay". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  119. ^ "Philippines, Netherlands Sign MOU on Manila Bay Development". National Economic and Development Authority. January 22, 2018. Retrieved January 29, 2018.[permanent dead link]
  120. ^ "2015 Annual Financial Reports for Local Government Units (Volume III)". Commission on Audit. Archived from the original on December 1, 2016. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
  121. ^ Santos, Reynaldo Jr. (October 24, 2013). "Barangay in numbers". Rappler. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
  122. ^ Macairan, Evelyn (August 15, 2007). "Manila councilor wants fewer barangays". The Philippine Star. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
  123. ^ a b c d e f "Population Counts by Legislative District (Based on the 2015 Census of Population)". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved November 2, 2017.[permanent dead link]
  124. ^ "Temperatures drop further in Baguio, MM". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on October 25, 2014. Retrieved October 12, 2014.
  125. ^ "Metro Manila temperature soars to 36.2C". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved October 12, 2014.
  126. ^ "Manila". Jeepneyguide. Archived from the original on August 22, 2016. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
  127. ^ "Port Area Manila (MCO) Climatological Normal Values 1991–2020" (PDF). Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 2, 2022. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  128. ^ "Port Area (MCO) Manila Climatological Extremes" (PDF). Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 7, 2022. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  129. ^ Cappelen, John; Jensen, Jens. "Filippinerne – Manila, Luzon" (PDF). Climate Data for Selected Stations (1931–1960) (in Danish). Danish Meteorological Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 27, 2013. Retrieved December 17, 2019.
  130. ^ Lozada, Bong (March 27, 2014). "Metro Manila is world's second riskiest capital to live in–poll". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
  131. ^ Nelson, Alan R.; Personius, Stephen F.; Rimando, Rolly E.; Punongbayan, Raymundo S.; Tungol, Norman; Mirabueno, Hannah; Rasdas, Ariel (2000). "Multiple Large Earthquakes in the Past 1500 Years on a Fault in Metropolitan Manila, the Philippines". Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 90 (1): 84. Bibcode:2000BuSSA..90...73N. doi:10.1785/0119990002. Archived from the original on August 20, 2017. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
  132. ^ Rimando, Rolly; Rolly E. Rimando; Peter L.K. Knuepfer (February 10, 2004). "Neotectonics of the Marikina Valley fault system (MVFS) and tectonic framework of structures in northern and central Luzon, Philippines". Tectonophysics. 415 (1–4): 17–38. Bibcode:2006Tectp.415...17R. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2005.11.009.
  133. ^ "Fire and Quake in the construction of old Manila" Archived February 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. The Frequency of Earthquakes in Manila. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
  134. ^ a b "The City of God: Churches, Convents and Monasteries" Discovering Philippines. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
  135. ^ Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. "Frequently Asked Questions: What are the upcoming tropical cyclone names?". NOAA. Retrieved December 11, 2006.
  136. ^ Tharoor, Ishaan (September 29, 2009). "The Manila Floods: Why Wasn't the City Prepared?". TIME. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
  137. ^ "Situation Report: Ondoy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 30, 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2009.
  138. ^ "City Profiles:Manila, Philippines". United Nations. Archived from the original on August 15, 2010. Retrieved March 4, 2010.
  139. ^ Alave, Kristine L. (August 18, 2004). "Metro Manila Air Polluted Beyond Acceptable Levels". Clean Air Initiative – Asia. Manila: Archived from the original on December 3, 2005. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
  140. ^ "Pollustion Adversely Affects 98% of Metro Manila Residents". Hong Kong: January 31, 2005. Archived from the original on April 27, 2006. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
  141. ^ "Air quality in Manila". IQAir. Archived from the original on February 12, 2022. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
  142. ^ de Guzman, Lawrence (November 11, 2006). "Pasig now one of world's most polluted rivers". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on May 30, 2012. Retrieved June 18, 2010.
  143. ^ Badilla, Nelson (December 28, 2017). "Quezon City, Manila, Caloocan biggest waste producers". The Manila Times. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
  144. ^ Santelices, Menchit. "A dying river comes back to life". Philippine Information Agency. Archived from the original on March 16, 2008.
  145. ^ "Estero de San Miguel: The great transformation". Yahoo! Philippines. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
  146. ^ Mayuga, Jonathan (January 14, 2019). "DENR, 12 agencies to craft Manila Bay rehab plan". BusinessMirror. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  147. ^ Santos G., Tina (February 1, 2019). "Manila Bay Still Unsafe For Bathers". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
  148. ^ Adams, Thomas (November 2004). Early Urban Planning. Taylor & Francis. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-415-16094-0. Retrieved March 28, 2022.
  149. ^ "Republic Act No. 409". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
  150. ^ Alcazaren, Paulo (June 30, 2012). "Sta. Mesa: Manila's northeastern edge". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on December 10, 2021. Retrieved August 21, 2022.
  151. ^ World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia. Marshall Cavendish. 2007. p. 1261. ISBN 978-0-7614-7642-9. Retrieved August 12, 2022.
  152. ^ Byrne, Denis Richard (2007). Surface Collection: Archaeological Travels in Southeast Asia. Rowman Altamira. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-7591-1018-2. Retrieved August 12, 2022.
  153. ^ Wernstedt, Frederick L.; Spencer, Joseph Earle (January 1, 1967). The Philippine Island World: A Physical, Cultural, and Regional Geography. University of California Press. p. 388. ISBN 978-0-520-03513-3. Retrieved August 18, 2022.
  154. ^ "Manila : : Architecture". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 29, 2015.
  155. ^ Art: Perception & Appreciation. Goodwill Trading Co., Inc. p. 292. ISBN 978-971-11-0933-2. Retrieved September 15, 2022.
  156. ^ Harper, Bambi L. (January 2, 2001). "An architect named Roxas". Philippine Daily Inquirer. p. 9. Retrieved September 15, 2022 – via Google News.
  157. ^ Martinez, Melanio L. Jr. (May 10, 2022). "Juan Arellano and the Bulacan Provincial Capitol Building". The Manila Times. Archived from the original on May 9, 2022. Retrieved September 15, 2022.
  158. ^ Ronquillo, Aaron (August 30, 2022). "Tomas Mapua — first Philippine architect". The Manila Times. Archived from the original on August 29, 2022. Retrieved September 15, 2022.
  159. ^ Deocampo, Nick (November 9, 2017). Film: American Influences on Philippine Cinema. Anvil Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-971-27-2896-9. Retrieved September 8, 2022.
  160. ^ "Escolta Street tour shows retro architecture and why it's worth reviving as a gimmick place". News5. Archived from the original on March 2, 2015. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
  161. ^ Jenny F. Manongdo (June 13, 2016). "Culture agency moves to restore 'Manila, Paris of the East' image". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  162. ^ "Let's bring back the glory days of Manila with the rehabilitation of the Met!". Coconuts Manila. June 17, 2016. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  163. ^ Lila Ramos Shahani (May 11, 2015). "Living on a Fault Line: Manila in a 7.2 Earthquake". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
  164. ^ Census of Population (2015). "National Capital Region (NCR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  165. ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). "National Capital Region (NCR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
  166. ^ Censuses of Population (1903–2007). "National Capital Region (NCR)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. NSO.
  167. ^ "Province of Metro Manila, 1st (Not a Province)". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  168. ^ Census of Population (2015). Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population. PSA. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  169. ^ "Manila – The city, History, Sister cities" (PDF). Cambridge Encyclopedia. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 21, 2008. Retrieved April 4, 2010. (from Webcite archive)
  170. ^ "The Philippines: The Spanish Period". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved April 8, 2017.
  171. ^ Being Indian in Post-colonial Metro Manila: Ethnic Identities, Class, Race and the Media By Jozon A. Lorenzana. In Philippine Sociological Review Vol. 56 (January–December 2008), pp. 56-79 (24 pages) Published By: Philippine Sociological Society
  172. ^ Barrows, David (2014). "A History of the Philippines". Guttenburg Free Online E-books. 1: 229. Reforms under General Arandía.—The demoralization and misery with which Obando's rule closed were relieved somewhat by the capable government of Arandía, who succeeded him. Arandía was one of the few men of talent, energy, and integrity who stood at the head of affairs in these islands during two centuries. He reformed the greatly disorganized military force, establishing what was known as the "Regiment of the King," made up very largely of Mexican soldiers. He also formed a corps of artillerists composed of Filipinos. These were regular troops, who received from Arandía sufficient pay to enable them to live decently and like an army.
  173. ^ Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society Vol. 22, No. 2 (June 1994), pp. 82
  174. ^ Hedman, Eva-Lotta; Sidel, John (2005). Philippine Politics and Society in the Twentieth Century: Colonial Legacies, Post-Colonial Trajectories. Routledge. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-134-75421-2. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
  175. ^ Steinberg, David Joel (2018). "Chapter – 3 A SINGULAR AND A PLURAL FOLK". THE PHILIPPINES A Singular and a Plural Place. Routledge. p. 47. doi:10.4324/9780429494383. ISBN 978-0-8133-3755-5. The cultural identity of the mestizos was challenged as they became increasingly aware that they were true members of neither the Indio nor the Chinese community. Increasingly powerful but adrift, they linked with the Spanish mestizos, who were also being challenged because after the Latin American revolutions broke the Spanish Empire, many of the settlers from the New World, Caucasian Creoles born in Mexico or Peru, became suspect in the eyes of the Iberian Spanish. The Spanish Empire had lost its universality.
  177. ^ "Population estimates for Metro Manila, Philippines, 1950–2015".
  178. ^ "Profile of Makati City" (PDF). Makati City Government.
  179. ^ Mercurio, Richmond S. "Philippine cities with over 1M population to nearly triple by 2025". The Philippine Star. Retrieved April 8, 2017.
  180. ^ "More than 3 million Chinese allowed entry into Philippines since 2016 – Immigration data". The Philippine Star. Retrieved October 4, 2018.
  181. ^ Ranada, Pia (January 5, 2016). "A look at the state of crime, drugs in the Philippines". Rappler. Rappler. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
  182. ^ "Top 15 cities with highest index crimes". ABS-CBN News. April 1, 2016. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  183. ^ Aberia, Jaimie Rose (October 2, 2017). "Crime rate in Manila drops by 38% for past 12 months". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  184. ^ Casas, Bill (August 22, 2017). "MPD is top NCR police district". Manila Standard. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
  185. ^ a b "Manila ("Maynila")" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 25, 2011. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
  186. ^ "Manila churches under tight guard". The Manila Times. December 15, 2016. Retrieved December 21, 2016.
  187. ^ "Wow Philippines: Manila-Cosmopolitan City of the Philippines". Department of Tourism. Archived from the original on July 30, 2008. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
  188. ^ Madarang, Rhea Claire (April 15, 2014). "8 beautiful Metro Manila churches for Visita Iglesia". Rappler. Archived from the original on July 2, 2022. Retrieved August 12, 2022.
  189. ^ "Baroque Churches of the Philippines". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on August 8, 2022. Retrieved August 12, 2022.
  190. ^ "House Honors Iglesia Ni Cristo on 108th Founding Anniversary". House of Representatives of the Philippines. August 8, 2022. Archived from the original on August 8, 2022. Retrieved August 18, 2022.
  191. ^ Veer, Peter van der (May 19, 2015). Handbook of Religion and the Asian City: Aspiration and Urbanization in the Twenty-First Century. Univ of California Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-520-28122-6. Retrieved September 9, 2022.
  192. ^ "World Heritage: San Sebastian Church". Tentative List for the World Heritage List. UNESCO. Retrieved April 20, 2008.
  193. ^ Calvelo, George (January 27, 2022). "Seng Guan temple prepped for Lunar New Year". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on January 27, 2022. Retrieved August 18, 2022.
  194. ^ Saludes, Mark (June 25, 2019). "Manila tour promotes closer Muslim-Christian ties - UCA News". Union of Catholic Asian News. Archived from the original on August 18, 2022. Retrieved August 18, 2022.
  195. ^ "Poverty incidence (PI):". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved December 28, 2020.
  196. ^; publication date: 29 November 2005; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  197. ^; publication date: 23 March 2009; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  198. ^; publication date: 3 August 2012; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  199. ^; publication date: 31 May 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  200. ^; publication date: 10 July 2019; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  201. ^; publication date: 4 June 2020; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  202. ^ Macapagal, Tony (February 8, 2017). "Manila dads hail fast CTO service". The Standard. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  203. ^ "Rankings". Cities and Municipalities Competitiveness Index. Archived from the original on January 10, 2017. Retrieved January 9, 2017.
  204. ^ Richmond Mercurio (July 15, 2016). "Quezon City emerges as most competitive city". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on August 29, 2016. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
  205. ^ Rex Remitio (July 17, 2015). "Manila is Philippines' most competitive city – NCC". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on August 18, 2016. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
  206. ^ "International Container Terminal Services Inc". Philippine Stock Exchange. Archived from the original on February 29, 2008. Retrieved October 22, 2008.
  207. ^ "Asia's 200 Best Under A Billion: International Container Terminal Services". Forbes. September 27, 2007. Retrieved October 22, 2008.
  208. ^ "Plan to turn Chinatown into BPO hub gains ground". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved March 1, 2013.
  209. ^ "Tutuban Center may become Manila's busiest transfer station". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
  210. ^ "Estrada: Oil depot closed by July 15". Philippine Daily Inquirer. December 16, 2014. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
  211. ^ "Pandacan oil depot 'decontamination' pushed after Big 3 exit". Philippine Daily Inquirer. December 21, 2014. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
  212. ^ "Finally, Pandacan oil depot dismantled". The Manila Times. August 17, 2015. Archived from the original on September 15, 2022. Retrieved September 15, 2022.
  213. ^ Lectura, Lenie (June 5, 2019). "SMC wants to turn Pandacan oil depot into bus, food terminal". BusinessMirror. Archived from the original on October 12, 2019. Retrieved September 15, 2022.
  214. ^ a b MSN Encarta: Manila. MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on October 28, 2009. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
  215. ^ "MB Website". Manila Bulletin.
  216. ^ Andrade, Jeannette (December 1, 2007). "Lino Brocka, 3 others installed on remembrance wall". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved July 28, 2013.
  217. ^ "BSP Website". Central Bank of the Phils.
  218. ^ "Unilever Philippines". Unilever.
  219. ^ "10 Best Places to Visit in Manila with Kids". Gofamgo.
  220. ^ "Republic Act No. 9593 otherwise known as Tourism Act of 2009 and Its Implementing Rules and Regulations" (PDF). Department of Tourism. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 30, 2015. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
  221. ^ Gwen de la Cruz (January 12, 2015). "FAST FACTS: Rizal Park". Rappler. Archived from the original on March 7, 2016. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
  222. ^ "Rizal Park". WordTravels. Archived from the original on April 20, 2009. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
  223. ^ Aning, Jerome (January 1, 2012). "Vatican City can fit in Rizal Park". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on January 7, 2012. Retrieved August 19, 2022.
  224. ^ Jovic Lee (July 20, 2014). "Intramuros cocheros: Hooves, history and hope for a fare hike". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  225. ^ Cortés, Carlos E. (August 15, 2013). Multicultural America: A Multimedia Encyclopedia. SAGE Publications. p. 485. ISBN 978-1-4522-7626-7. Retrieved August 19, 2022.
  226. ^ "Medical Tourism, Treatments and Surgery in Manila". World Guides. Retrieved October 27, 2014.
  227. ^ Edgardo S. Tugade (June 1, 2014). "Challenges to PH medical tourism". The Manila Times. Retrieved October 27, 2014.
  228. ^ "Manila 11th most attractive shopping destination in Asia Pacific –study – Yahoo! News Philippines". November 1, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2013.
  229. ^ Arveen, Kim (October 30, 2012). "Manila outperforms 15 Asian cities in 'shopping' index – Yahoo! News Philippines". Retrieved March 12, 2013.
  230. ^ "More cops on Manila streets". Tempo. November 27, 2017. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
  231. ^ "Quiapo: "Old Downtown" Manila". Pulitzer Center. August 12, 2011. Archived from the original on September 8, 2022. Retrieved September 8, 2022.
  232. ^ "Manila". Robinsons Malls. Archived from the original on March 8, 2013. Retrieved March 12, 2013.
  233. ^ "Miss Earth candidates visits 100 Revolving Restaurant". Retrieved January 12, 2012.
  234. ^ "Sanso mural hails 70-year friendship with Henry Sy". Philippine Daily Inquirer. November 4, 2007. Retrieved August 21, 2022 – via Google News.
  235. ^ Layug, Benjamin (November 26, 2021). "The Museum of the Filipino People reopens its doors". BusinessMirror. Archived from the original on November 26, 2021. Retrieved August 18, 2022.
  236. ^ Nicolas, Jino (May 17, 2018). "National Museum of Natural History: A focus on biodiversity". BusinessWorld. Archived from the original on May 7, 2022. Retrieved August 18, 2022.
  237. ^ "Philippines". Simmons University. Archived from the original on January 22, 2022. Retrieved August 20, 2022.
  238. ^ "Other Executive Offices (OEOs); National Library of the Philippines; Strategic Objectives" (PDF). Department of Budget and Management. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 27, 2021. Retrieved August 20, 2022.
  239. ^ Villafuerte, Din M. (March 2, 2019). "Water runs deep at Museo El Deposito". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on March 2, 2019. Retrieved August 20, 2022.
  240. ^ "About Us". Museum of Contemporary Art and Design. Archived from the original on February 3, 2021. Retrieved August 20, 2022.
  241. ^ "Home". UST Museum. Archived from the original on August 15, 2022. Retrieved August 20, 2022.
  242. ^ "About Us". UP Museum of a History of Ideas. Archived from the original on August 20, 2022. Retrieved August 20, 2022.
  243. ^ Mawis, Arch Vittoria Lou (February 10, 2018). "The house that Tsinoys built". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on July 9, 2021. Retrieved August 18, 2022.
  244. ^ Rocamora, Joyce Ann L. (June 13, 2019). "Visita Intramuros: Reintroducing Manila's tourism belt". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on August 18, 2022. Retrieved August 18, 2022.
  245. ^ "Metropolitan Museum of Manila". ASEF culture360. Asia-Europe Museum Network. Archived from the original on January 23, 2021. Retrieved August 20, 2022.
  246. ^ "Contact Information". Museo Pambata. Archived from the original on May 2, 2017. Retrieved August 20, 2022.
  247. ^ "Museo Pambata". ASEF culture360. Asia-Europe Museum Network. Archived from the original on December 4, 2020. Retrieved August 20, 2022.
  248. ^ "2021 Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) of Presidential Decree No. 1616, as Amended" (PDF). Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Intramuros Administration. p. 49. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 25, 2022. Retrieved August 20, 2022.
  249. ^ "Built Heritage Tradition of the Sta. Ana Church". National Museum of the Philippines. October 28, 2021. Archived from the original on July 31, 2022. Retrieved August 20, 2022.
  250. ^ Godinez, Bong (February 27, 2021). "Catch a Lenten exhibit at the reopened San Agustin Museum in Intramuros, Manila". GMA Entertainment. Archived from the original on February 27, 2021. Retrieved August 20, 2022.
  251. ^ Soliman, Michelle Anne P. (May 7, 2019). "Filipino faith and artistry at the Museo de Intramuros". BusinessWorld. Archived from the original on August 20, 2022. Retrieved August 20, 2022.
  252. ^ "Manila: Sports". Retrieved January 15, 2010.
  253. ^ Terrado, Reuben (June 7, 2020). "Remembering that grand slam-winning Stag team in the PBL". Retrieved September 9, 2022.
  254. ^ "Manila routes Cebu, 96-70". Manila Standard. March 8, 1998. Retrieved September 17, 2022 – via Google News.
  255. ^ "Manila is 1999 MBA Champion". December 9, 1999. Archived from the original on September 23, 2004. Retrieved September 17, 2022.
  256. ^ Talao, Tito (March 10, 2004). "Baseball loses no time in preparing for SEAG". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
  257. ^ "World Cup of Pool begins". ABS-CBN News. September 7, 2010. Retrieved July 4, 2011.
  258. ^ Fenix, Ryan (June 4, 2011). "All systems go for Azkals' World Cup qualifier at Rizal Memorial". Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved July 4, 2011.
  259. ^ "Teams ready for RWC Qualifiers in Manila". April 14, 2012. Archived from the original on April 17, 2012. Retrieved April 14, 2012.
  260. ^ Roque, EJ (June 6, 2019). "Palace declares June 24 holiday in Manila". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on September 6, 2019. Retrieved August 12, 2022.
  261. ^ "Living in Manila". InterNations. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
  262. ^ Nicolas, Jino (June 25, 2018). "A blend of old and new Manila". BusinessWorld. Archived from the original on August 12, 2022. Retrieved August 12, 2022.
  263. ^ "Jan 9 is holiday in Manila due to Traslacion". ABS-CBN News. January 2, 2017. Archived from the original on January 2, 2017. Retrieved August 12, 2022.
  264. ^ Luci-Atienza, Charissa; Cahiles-Magkilat, Bernie (January 20, 2019). "Feast of Sto. Niño de Tondo". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on August 12, 2022. Retrieved August 12, 2022.
  265. ^ Marquez, Oliver (January 15, 2017). "Viva Sto. Nino De Pandacan". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on August 12, 2022. Retrieved August 12, 2022.
  266. ^ Siytangco, AJ; Hermoso, Christina (May 11, 2019). "Feast of Our Lady of the Abandoned, Saint Pancras". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on May 14, 2021. Retrieved August 12, 2022.
  267. ^ "Manila Hotel holds Flores de Mayo procession". BusinessWorld. April 28, 2019. Archived from the original on May 20, 2022. Retrieved August 12, 2022.
  268. ^ "Proclamation No. 1105, s. 2015". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. August 20, 2015. Archived from the original on June 23, 2017. Retrieved August 12, 2022.
  269. ^ "Income Classification Per DOF Order No. 23-08, dated July 29, 2008" (PDF). Bureau of Local Government Finance. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 31, 2016. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  270. ^ "Position Classification and Compensation Scheme in Local Government Units" (PDF). Department of Budget and Management.
  271. ^ a b c "2019 Annual Audit Reports". Commission on Audit. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
  272. ^ "Manila may no longer be the PH capital under federal gov't: Cha-cha panel member". ABS-CBN News. June 19, 2018. Retrieved June 21, 2018.
  273. ^ Aurelio, Julie M. (June 19, 2018). "Roque: No problem if Manila no longer capital under federal gov't". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 21, 2018.
  274. ^ "Lacuna to be first woman mayor of Manila". Philippine News Agency. May 10, 2022. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
  275. ^ Ramos, Marjaleen (July 1, 2018). "Careful now: Catcalling is banned in Manila". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
  276. ^ Caliwan, Christopher Lloyd (September 25, 2017). "SC okays curfew for minors in QC, but not in Manila, Navotas". News5. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
  277. ^ Aberia, Jaimie Rose (September 27, 2017). "Manila city council planning to revise existing curfew ordinance". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
  278. ^ "Homes of the Senate of the Philippines". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on June 3, 2017. Retrieved August 19, 2022.
  279. ^ Lopez, Virgil (April 25, 2017). "SC picks PHL flag-inspired design for new 'green' building in Taguig". GMA News. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  280. ^ "Quezon City, Makati richest cities in RP". Philippine Today US. Archived from the original on October 24, 2011. Retrieved April 18, 2011.
  281. ^ United States Congressional Serial Set. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1932. pp. 74-75. Retrieved August 12, 2022.
  282. ^ Poppellwell, Teresa (1994). Slum Upgrading Revisited: An Evaluation of the Tondo Foreshore Urban Development Project. Open Collections - UBC Library Open Collections (M.A.). University of Regina. pp. 8–11. Archived from the original on February 9, 2020. Retrieved September 17, 2022.
  283. ^ "Aquino admin winds down with Manila housing project". Philippine Daily Inquirer. June 30, 2016. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
  284. ^ "Mayor Isko wants to improve Manila's old tenements, relocate residents". GMA News. GMA News Online. July 10, 2019. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
  285. ^ "Manila gov't working on vertical housing projects for illegal settlers". GMA News. GMA Network. January 7, 2020. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  286. ^ "Isko on 2020 focus: Tondominium, reviving Manila". ABS-CBN News. January 7, 2020. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
  287. ^ Moaje, Marita (August 30, 2021). "Manila's 5th housing project begins construction". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  288. ^ Moaje, Marita (August 9, 2021). "Manila's 5th housing project breaks ground". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  289. ^ "Transportation in the Philippines". Retrieved April 24, 2010.
  290. ^ Clapano, Jose Rodel (September 18, 2016). "Manila: No more trikes, pedicabs next month". The Philippine Star. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
  291. ^ Coconuts Manila (September 18, 2016). "Manila will say goodbye to old school tricycles and pedicabs on Oct 15". Retrieved September 19, 2016.
  292. ^ "City of Manila to remove old, rusty tricycles from city streets". Manila Bulletin. January 23, 2018. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
  293. ^ Republic of the Philippines. Office of the President. (July 21, 2005). "SONA 2005 Executive Summary". Archived from the original on May 13, 2010.
  294. ^ Philippine Yearbook. Republic of the Philippines, National Economic and Development Authority, National Census and Statistics Office. 1979. p. 763. Retrieved August 20, 2022.
  295. ^ "Help & Contacts". Philippine National Railways. Archived from the original on February 24, 2021. Retrieved August 20, 2022.
  296. ^ Sustainable Port Development and Improving Port Productivity in ESCAP Member Countries (PDF). United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. February 2020. p. 39. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 4, 2020. Retrieved August 20, 2022.
  297. ^ Dela Cruz, Raymond Carl (October 16, 2020). "Pasig River Ferry Service resumes operation". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on November 19, 2020. Retrieved August 20, 2022.
  298. ^ Facility, Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory (January 1, 2000). Private Solutions for Infrastructure: Opportunities for the Philippines. World Bank Publications. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-8213-4873-4. Retrieved August 20, 2022.
  299. ^ "The 'trolley boys' who dance with death on Manila's railway carts". South China Morning Post. November 25, 2018. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  300. ^ "'Trolley boys' cheat death to make a living". Manila Standard. November 25, 2018. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  301. ^ "Manila's 'trolley boys'". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  302. ^ "The trolley boys of Manila – in pictures". The Guardian. November 26, 2018. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  303. ^ Alcabaza, Gail (February 5, 2020). "Manila Ranks 2nd Worst Traffic Congestion in the World". Yahoo! News Philippines. Archived from the original on August 20, 2022. Retrieved August 20, 2022.
  304. ^ "Waze – Official Blog: Global Driver Satisfaction Index". Retrieved August 12, 2016.
  305. ^ "World's Densest Cities". Forbes. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
  306. ^ "Lacson-España flyover takes off despite protests". Philippine Daily Inquirer. August 6, 2012. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
  307. ^ Tomas S. Noda III (January 28, 2015). "DMCI gets $51.5m rail contract in PH". Retrieved February 1, 2015.
  308. ^ Rodis, Rodel (October 23, 2014). "Manila's traffic jams cost $57 million a day". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved March 20, 2015.
  309. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: (The Philippines) Mega Manila Infrastructure Roadmap (Long Version). JICAChannel02: The Official Global Channel of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), National Economic Development Authority (NEDA). June 10, 2014.
  310. ^ Main Points of the Roadmap (PDF) (Report). Japan International Cooperation Agency. September 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 11, 2014.
  311. ^ Orozco, G; Zafaralla, M (2011), Socio-Economic Study of Two Major Metro Manila Esteros (PDF), Makati, Philippines: Journal of Environmental Science and Management, archived from the original (PDF) on October 23, 2016, retrieved December 3, 2014
  312. ^ Inocencio, A; David, C (2001), Public-Private-Community Partnerships in Management and Delivery of Water to Urban Poor: The Case of Metro Manila (PDF), Makati, Philippines: Philippine Institute for Development Studies, archived from the original (PDF) on October 23, 2016, retrieved December 3, 2014
  313. ^ "Manila Water completes individualization project in Rizal". The Philippine Star. August 18, 2015. Archived from the original on September 12, 2018. Retrieved August 12, 2022.
  314. ^ Valderrama, Helena Agnes S.; Bautista, Carlos C. "Efficiency Analysis of Electric Cooperatives in the Philippines". Philippine Management Review 2011. Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines: University of the Philippines, College of Business Administration. 19: 2. Archived from the original on August 12, 2022. Retrieved August 12, 2022.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: location (link)
  315. ^ Joel E. Surbano (January 3, 2016). "Manila hospital going for upgrade". The Standard. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
  316. ^ Jaime Rose R. Aberia (August 6, 2017). "World-class hospital to rise in Manila for cleft lip, palate patients". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved August 7, 2017.
  317. ^ Rosabell C. Toledo (August 6, 2017). "Manila mayor eyes founding of PHL's first 'world-class' cleft-palate facility". BusinessMirror. Retrieved August 7, 2017.
  318. ^ Tianco, Minka Klaudia (February 28, 2020). "First children's surgical hospital in Southeast Asia to be built in Manila". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved February 29, 2020.
  319. ^ "Manila Doctors Hospital (MDH)". Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Association of the Philippines. Archived from the original on August 22, 2013. Retrieved August 21, 2022.
  320. ^ Fabonan III, Epi (November 24, 2014). "Chinese General Hospital's Dr. James Dy: Fulfilling a vow of service". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on August 21, 2022. Retrieved August 21, 2022.
  321. ^ "Our History". Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center. Archived from the original on February 18, 2017. Retrieved August 21, 2022.
  322. ^ "About Us". Metropolitan Medical Center. Archived from the original on September 22, 2020. Retrieved August 21, 2022.
  323. ^ "Our History". Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital - Manila. Archived from the original on August 4, 2020. Retrieved August 21, 2022.
  324. ^ "University of Santo Tomas Hospital". About USTH. Archived from the original on September 12, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2022.
  325. ^ Gonzalez, Joaquin L. (October 26, 2018). Development Sustainability Through Community Participation: Mixed Results from the Philippine Health Sector. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-429-86819-1. Retrieved August 21, 2022.
  326. ^ "DOH Hospitals". Department of Health. Archived from the original on October 4, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2022.
  327. ^ "Where we work". WHO Western Pacific. World Health Organization. Archived from the original on October 7, 2018. Retrieved August 21, 2022.
  328. ^ Odronia, Cris G. (February 25, 2017). "Manila intensifies free immunization program". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved February 25, 2017.
  329. ^ Toledo, Rosabell C. (July 10, 2017). "UN lauds free dialysis center in Manila". BusinessMirror. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
  330. ^ Cabalza, Dexter (July 9, 2017). "Dialysis center for Manila's poor cited by UN body". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
  331. ^ Lalu, Gabriel Pabico (October 24, 2019). "Manila opens country's largest free dialysis facility". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
  332. ^ "Isko opens Philippine's largest dialysis center". The Philippine Star. October 26, 2019. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
  333. ^ a b Ricklefs, M. C.; Lockhart, Bruce; Lau, Albert (November 19, 2010). A New History of Southeast Asia. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 224. ISBN 978-1-137-01554-9. Retrieved August 18, 2022.
  334. ^ "List of PACU Member Schools – Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities". Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities. Archived from the original on October 31, 2019. Retrieved August 18, 2022.
  335. ^ Bolido, Linda (December 29, 2008). "On hallowed ground". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on September 20, 2009. Retrieved September 8, 2022.
  336. ^ Montemayor, Ma. Teresa (July 31, 2019). "PLM, UDM students to get P1-K monthly allowance from Manila LGU". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on November 24, 2021. Retrieved September 8, 2022.
  337. ^ "About UP Manila". University of the Philippines Manila. Archived from the original on February 6, 2013. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
  338. ^ "PUP: Profile". Polytechnic University of the Philippines. March 30, 2011. Archived from the original on June 21, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
  339. ^ Cabayan, Itchie G. (April 7, 2010). "Good education a right, not privilege – Lim". City Government of Manila. Archived from the original on February 23, 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2010. NO one should be deprived of a sound education for being poor
  340. ^ "A Brief History of Manila Science High School". Manila Science High School. Archived from the original on January 9, 2018. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
  341. ^ a b c d e f g h "About Manila: Sister Cities". City of Manila. Archived from the original on June 11, 2016. Retrieved November 24, 2016.
  342. ^ Jaimie Rose Aberia (August 16, 2017). "Manila, Bacoor sign sister city accord". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
  343. ^ "Relationship with Sister Cities: Manila". Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
  344. ^ "Beijing's Sister Cities". eBeijing. Archived from the original on February 16, 2010. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
  345. ^ a b "Overview of China-Philippines Bilateral Relations: III. Exchanges and Cooperation in the Fields of Culture, Education, Science and the Military, etc". Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the Republic of the Philippines. March 5, 2009. Retrieved February 4, 2015. There are 24 pairs of sister-cities or sister-provinces between China and the Philippines, namely: Hangzhou and Baguio City, Guangzhou and Manila City, Shanghai and Metro Manila, Xiamen and Cebu City, Shenyang and Quezon City, Fushun and Lipa City, Hainan and Cebu Province, Sanya and Lapu-Lapu City, Shishi and Naya City, Shandong and Ilocos Norte Province, Zibo and Manduae City, Anhui and Nueva Ecija Province, Hubei and Leyte Province, Liuzhou and Muntinlupa City, Hezhou and San Fernando City, Harbin and Cagayan de Oro City, Laibin and Laoag City, Beijing and Manila City, Jiangxi and Bohol Province, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Davao City, Lanzhou and Albay Province, Beihai and Puerto Princessa City, Fujian Province and Laguna Province, Wuxi and Puerto Princessa City.
  346. ^ "Sisterhood Agreement With Democratic Republic Of Timor Leste". City of Manila. Archived from the original on July 14, 2015.
  347. ^ "Manila, Bacoor forge sisterhood pact". Philippine News Agency.
  348. ^ "Twin Cities". Hello Haifa. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
  349. ^ "Sister Cities – Ho Chi Minh City". Ho Chi Minh City. Retrieved February 7, 2015.
  350. ^ "Sister and Friendship Cities". Archived from the original on February 6, 2015. Retrieved February 7, 2015.
  351. ^ "About Manila: Sister Cities". City of Manila. Archived from the original on June 11, 2016. Retrieved September 2, 2009.
  352. ^ "Sister cities, towns and villages of Kyoto Prefecture". Kyoto Prefecture Website. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
  353. ^ "Business Partner Cities (BPC), the official website of Osaka city". Archived from the original on January 20, 2013. Retrieved August 5, 2009.
  354. ^ Todeno, Junhan B. (June 17, 2012). "Flores forges sister city ties with Manila". Marianas Variety. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
  355. ^ "Shanghai Foreign Affairs". Archived from the original on May 18, 2011. Retrieved November 24, 2016.
  356. ^ "International Sister Cities". Taipei City Council. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
  357. ^ "Manila-Takatsuki sisterpact". City of Manila. Archived from the original on January 8, 2015. Retrieved January 8, 2015.
  358. ^ a b "List of Sister City Affiliations with Japan (by country): Philippines". Singapore: Japan Council of Local Authorities for International Relations (CLAIR, Singapore). February 29, 2012. Archived from the original on October 23, 2016. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
  359. ^ "How the Filipino hero found his samurai wife in Yokohama". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved January 8, 2015.
  360. ^ "Twin Cities plan will boost Malacca". New Straits Times. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
  361. ^ "Hermanamientos y Acuerdos con ciudades". Ayuntamiento de Madrid. Retrieved November 24, 2016.
  362. ^ "Villes jumelées avec la Ville de Nice" (in French). Ville de Nice. Archived from the original on October 29, 2012. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
  363. ^ "Sister Cities" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on March 7, 2016. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
  364. ^ "Manila, Philippines". Sister Cities International. Archived from the original on October 27, 2014. Retrieved October 27, 2014.
  365. ^ "Sister Cities". Maui County, HI - Official Website. Archived from the original on May 17, 2016. Retrieved August 12, 2022.
  366. ^ "Relaciones internacionales" (in Spanish). Intendencia Municipal de Montevideo. Archived from the original on November 8, 2011. Retrieved December 12, 2011.
  367. ^ Foreign Relations (June 24, 2005). "Manila-Montreal Sister City Agreement Holds Potential for Better Cooperation". The Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on December 5, 2009. Retrieved October 2, 2009.
  368. ^ "NYC's Partner Cities". New York City Global Partners. Archived from the original on August 14, 2013. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
  369. ^ "Declaración de Hermanamiento múltiple y solidario de todas las Capitales de Iberoamérica (12–10–82)" (PDF). October 12, 1982. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 10, 2013. Retrieved March 12, 2015.
  370. ^ "SF Mayor London Breed Fetes San Francisco-Manila Sister City Committee on 60th Anniversary". Philippine Consulate General in San Francisco. May 5, 2021. Archived from the original on August 12, 2022. Retrieved August 12, 2022.
  371. ^ "Winnipeg's Sister Cities: Manila (Maynila), Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas)". Archived from the original on June 4, 2015. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
  372. ^ "Contact us". U.S. Embassy in the Philippines. Archived from the original on April 9, 2022. Retrieved August 12, 2022.
  373. ^ "Vietnam Visa For Filipino; Vietnam Embassy in Philippines". Vietnam-Immigration.Org.Vn. Archived from the original on August 12, 2022. Retrieved August 12, 2022.
  374. ^ "Foreign Consulates". Department of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on August 11, 2022. Retrieved August 18, 2022.


Preceded byIloilo City Capital of the Philippines 1571–1948 Succeeded byQuezon City Preceded byQuezon City Capital of the Philippines 1976–present Incumbent