Manila, the capital city and largest metropolitan area in the Philippines, is known by a number of nicknames, aliases, sobriquets and slogans, both officially and unofficially, now and in the past.

The city is most popularly referred to as the Pearl of the Orient. This nickname appears in the lyrics of the city's official hymn and is also depicted in the city's coat of arms.[1]

Manila is also frequently shortened to Mla or MNL (the IATA code for Ninoy Aquino International Airport).

Nicknames

See also

References

  1. ^ "About Manila". Manila City Government. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  2. ^ a b Halili, Christine N. (2004). Philippine History. Rex Bookstore. ISBN 9789712339349. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  3. ^ Evans, Lawton B. & Winter, Milo (June 2007). America First. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 9781599152097. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  4. ^ Corpuz, Onofre D. (2005). The Roots of the Filipino Nation. Aklahi Foundation. ISBN 9789715424615. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  5. ^ Irving, D.R.M. (3 June 2010). Colonial Counterpoint: Music in Early Modern Manila. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199703012. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  6. ^ "Salvador Rueda en sus cartas (1886-1933)" (PDF). Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  7. ^ "Bradstreet Journal". Bradstreet Company. 1902. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  8. ^ "Manila: Queen City of the Pacific". IMDb. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  9. ^ Busuego-Pablo, Lourdes. "Tropical Baroque: Four Manileño Theatricals by Nick Joaquín". Ateneo de Manila University. JSTOR 42632514. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  10. ^ Tan, Chee-Beng (11 February 2013). Routledge Handbook of the Chinese Diaspora. Routledge. ISBN 9781136230950. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  11. ^ Michel, Boris. "Going Global, Veiling the Poor: Global City Imaginaries in Metro Manila" (PDF). Ateneo de Manila University. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  12. ^ "Manila depicted as 'capital of fun'". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  13. ^ "History". LonelyPlanet.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 19 February 2022.