Muntinlupa is known as the location of the national insular penitentiary, the New Bilibid Prison, where the country's most dangerous criminals are incarcerated, as well as the location of Ayala Alabang Village, one of the country's biggest and most expensive residential communities, where many of the wealthy and famous live.
There are three plausible origins of the name of the city: First, is its association with the thin topsoil in the area; second, residents, purportedly replying to a question by Spaniards in the 16th century what the name of their place was, said “Monte sa Lupa”—apparently mistaking the question for what card game they were playing; third, the topographical nature of the area, where the term Monte or mountain was expanded to Muntinlupa or mountain land. Based on the 1987 Philippine constitution, it is spelled as Muntinglupa, instead of Muntinlupa.
1601: Some 88 years after the arrival of Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan in the Visayas islands, the original lands constituting Muntinlupa could be deduced to have been friar lands administered by the Augustinians, then sold and assigned to the Sanctuary of Guadalupe.
1869: The lands were transferred to the state and large individual landholders. In an effort by the Spanish Government to bring under closer administrative control the people living in the contiguous sitios, as well as those in Alabang, Tunasan, Sucat, and Cupang, the municipality was created upon the recommendation of Don Eduardo de Canizares.
August 6, 1898: The town supported the Philippine Revolution against the Spaniards and formally joined the revolutionary government headed by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo.
Aerial view of Muntinlupa, 1941
June 1, 1901: The Philippine Commission promulgated Rizal Province on June 11, 1901, through Act No. 137. Muntinlupa becomes part of the new province after being a part of the defunct province of Manila.
October 12, 1903: Muntinlupa, alongside Taguig, were merged with Pateros by virtue of Act No. 942.
November 25, 1903: Muntinlupa was incorporated under Act No. 1008 and included within the boundary of the province of La Laguna under the municipality of Biñan. Muntinlupa residents protested this Executive Act, and through their town head, Marcelo Fresnedi, filed a formal petition to the Governor for the return of the municipality to the province of Rizal.
March 22, 1905: Act No. 1308 paved the way for Muntinlupa's return to Rizal province to become a part of Taguig, along with Pateros. However, it was eventually separated from Taguig due to its physical distance.
January 1, 1918: Governor-General Francis Burton Harrison's Executive Order 108 dated December 19, 1917, which grants the petition of residents for an independent status of their municipality, takes effect. Vidal Joaquin, a native of Alabang, served as the first appointed mayor in 1918-1919 followed by Primo Ticman, native of Poblacion 1919-1922 while the first elected mayor was Melencio Espeleta (1922-1924).
January 22, 1941: The historic New Bilibid Prison, the national penitentiary, was established in the hills of Muntinlupa.
June 13, 1986: Following the EDSA Revolution in February that year, President Corazón C. Aquino appoints Ignacio R. Bunye, Officer-In-Charge of Muntinlupa as part of a nationwide revamp of local government units. In the ratification of the 1987 Constitution, Muntinlupa together with Las Piñas formed one political district.
December 6, 1988: President Corazon C. Aquino by Proclamation 351 declares December 19 as "Municipality of Muntinlupa Day".
February 16, 1995: House Bill No. 14401 converting the Municipality of Muntinlupa into a highly urbanized city was approved by the House of Representatives.
March 1, 1995: Muntinlupa became the 65th city in the Philippines as signed into law by President Fidel V. Ramos, its conversion into a highly urbanized city by virtue of Republic Act No. 7926. Per Section 62 of R.A. 7926 Muntinlupa and Las Piñas were to constitute separate congressional districts, with each district electing its separate representative in the 1998 elections. This separation was additionally confirmed in the city charter of Las Piñas (R.A. 8251) which was approved by plebiscite on March 26, 1997.
June 30, 1998: Former mayor Ignacio Bunye assumed office as the first congressman representing the city.
March 1, 2001: Republic Act No. 9191 declaring the 1st day of March of every year as a Special Non-working Holiday in the City of Muntinlupa to be known as "The Muntinlupa City Charter Day" by virtue of Senate Bill No. 2165.
August 3, 2007: The city hall of Muntinlupa was completely damaged and later abandoned due to a fire. The fire started from a slum area behind the city hall. Almost all files, important documents and other references of Muntinlupa were burned.
Photo of Muntinlupa along Laguna de Bay and nearby cities captured by the Copernicus Sentinel-2A satellite on May 8, 2016
Muntinlupa's terrain is relatively flat to sloping towards the east along the lake. Gentle rolling hills occupy the western part of the city, with elevation increasing up to 60 meters (200 ft) and above towards its southwest portion.
While majority of the land area in the city is highly urbanized, the NBP Reservation in barangay Poblacion is relatively free of urbanization but there are ongoing discussions to move the national penitentiary to Nueva Ecija.
Aerial view of Muntinlupa with Filinvest City development in the center right.
Alabang is the business district of the city where the tallest structures in the city are located. It used to be the location of Alabang Stock Farm.Land reclamation is also done along the Laguna Lake for further developments in the city. During the dry season, the water level in the lake subsides, exposing the soil that is then used for farming.
The dry season rungs through the months of November to April, while the wet season starts in May and lasts to November. The wet season reaches its peak in the month of August. Maximum rainfall in Muntinlupa usually occurs from the month of June to September. The average annual of rainfall is 2,014.8 millimeters (79.32 in) with a peak of 420.0 millimeters (16.54 in) in July and a low 26.9 millimeters (1.06 in) in April. The highest temperature occurs during the month of April and May (34 degrees Celsius) while the lowest occurs during the months of January & February (24 degrees Celsius).
Muntinlupa is composed of a lone congressional district, and two legislative districts which are politically subdivided into nine barangays. The 1st legislative district includes barangays Bayanan, Putatan, Poblacion and Tunasan in the southern half of the city, while the 2nd legislative district are barangays Alabang, Buli, Ayala Alabang, Cupang and Sucat in the northern portion of the city.
Other zip codes include Muntinlupa Central Post Office 1770, Ayala Alabang Village 1780, Pleasant Village 1777, Susana Heights 1774, and Filinvest City 1781.
Etymology of barangays
The barangays of the city is named after the botanical characteristics, topographical features, and historical events that had been observed in the area when it was named. Tunasan from the plant tunas. Putatan got its name from a tree called putat. Cupang is likewise named after the cupang tree. Buli is named after the buri palm. Alabang is named after the river that passes through the barangay. Ayala Alabang was created by Batas Pambansa Bilang 219 and was originally a part of Barangay Alabang. Sucat got its name from the vernacular word "sukat" which means “measurement” since during the Spanish era was always measured.
While Barangays are the administrative divisions of the city, and are legally part of the addresses of establishments and homes, many residents indicate their Subdivision (village) instead of their Barangay.
Barangay Alabang, part of the second district of Muntinlupa, has undergone tremendous growth mainly due to a development boom in the late 1990s. The development of two large-scale commercial real estate projects namely; the Filinvest Corporate City and Ayala Land's Madrigal Business Park, changed the landscape of Muntinlupa from what was once vast fields of cow pasture in the late 1980s, into a supercity that houses new residential, business, industrial and commercial establishments.
The Muntinlupa "Business One-Stop-Shop" is recognized in the 2014 World Cities Summit in Singapore in its effectiveness in reducing the number of steps in acquiring a Business Permit.
Northgate Cyberzone is the information technology park within Filinvest Corporate City in Alabang. The 18.7-hectare (46-acre), PEZA registered IT zone is designed, mastered-planned and built around the needs of technology-based companies engaged in Business Process Outsourcing (BPO), Knowledge Process Outsourcing (KPO), education, learning and firm, software design and multimedia, call centers, e-commerce, banking and financial services, as well as other IT support businesses and the like. It is home to Capital One Philippines Support Services Corp., Convergys Philippines Corp, HSBC Electronic Data Processing (Philippines), Inc., Genpact, Verizon Business and many more.
There are multiple car dealerships located in Muntinlupa and most of them are along the Alabang–Zapote Road in Alabang. Ford Motors Alabang has a five-floor facility covering a floor area of nearly 13,000 square meters (140,000 sq ft) including a 2-floor, 23-vehicle showroom and a 4-floor, and an 80-bay service center. Toyota Alabang also constructed a facility with a showroom, parts warehouse, office & service facilities in a 5,000-square-meter (54,000 sq ft) lot. Audi Alabang, Chevrolet Alabang, Chrysler Alabang, Mitsubishi Motors Alabang, Nissan and Suzuki Alabang are also located within the area, most of which are along the Alabang–Zapote Road. Still in Alabang–Zapote Road but located in barangay Ayala Alabang are Hyundai Alabang, Isuzu Alabang and Honda Alabang.
Muntinlupa City Hall
Muntinlupa is governed primarily by the city mayor, the vice mayor and the city councilors. The mayor acts as the chief executive of the city, while the city councilors act as its legislative body. The vice mayor, besides taking on mayoral responsibilities in case of a temporary vacancy, acts as the presiding officer of the city legislature. The legislative body is composed of 16 regular members (8 per district) and representatives from the barangay and the youth council.
Muntinlupa is the first city in the Philippines to ban the use of plastic bags and styrofoam for packaging. The Muntinlupa city government encourages to "Bring your own Bag" or "BYOB" when shopping to reduce the use of plastic bags that would otherwise clog the waterways.
ISO Certification on Quality Management System or ISO 9001:2000 has initially been acquired on 2004 and is valid for 3 years. Muntinlupa has re-acquired its ISO Certification on QMS in April 2015, ISO 9001:2008, together with Ospital ng Muntinlupa and Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa as certified by BRS Rim of the World Operations, California.
Designed by Manuel Amorsolo, son of a national artist Fernando Amorsolo, the city seal features the Philippine Eagle, the biggest, the strongest and the highest flying bird of the Philippine Republic, a bird that symbolizes the city's mission to become the Premiere Emerald City of the 21st Century. It is composed of:
The Philippine Eagle - Symbolizes the City of Muntinlupa soaring into new heights in terms of progress and prosperity; the characteristics properly enlikened to a mother, that is caring, loving and nurturing her children to become good and responsible citizens of the country; and Muntinlupa's hope, vision and dream of becoming a premiere city of the nation.
Bamboo Surrounding the Seal - Symbolizes the ability of the citizens of Muntinlupa to cope up with the fast changing times; that we can withstand the trials that come our way and stand still and ready to triumph again.
Lakas, Talino at Buhay - These are words taken from the lyrics of the Muntinlupa March, the city's official anthem. These are values that will guide the city in achieving its goals and visions.
1917 and 1995 - The year 1917 marks the time when Muntinlupa became an independent town (although it was effective January 1, 1918, by virtue of Executive Order 108) while the year 1995 was the time when Muntinlupa became a city.
Plaza Central Building, where the Muntinlupa Public Library is located
Muntinlupa City Public Library is located at the recently constructed Plaza Central Building at Muntinlupa Poblacion. Plaza Central was inaugurated on October 6, 2017. It is located at the previous site of the Contessa Building (Old City Hall).
Sports and recreation
Muntinlupa has 10 swimming pools, 14 billiard halls, 11 tennis courts, 8 resorts, 7 country clubs, 9 Dance/Fitness/Slimming Centers, 41 open basketball courts, 59 covered basketball courts and 11 parks & playgrounds. The Muntinlupa Sports Complex is used for a variety of activities such as concerts, conferences, reunions and graduations, the sports complex has 3,500 seating capacity and has two separate multipurpose rooms. The Muntinlupa Aquatic Center also hosts an Olympic-sized swimming pool, the first of its kind in the Philippines. Both the Sports Complex and Aquatic Center are located on a reclaimed area in Barangay Tunasan; it also has an open area which local residents enjoy their morning exercise and leisure time.
Since 2017, the site of Karpos' Wanderland Music and Arts Festival has been hosted annually in Muntinlupa. The location of this venue is in the Filinvest City Events Grounds, situated in the heart of the Alabang district. The event hosts various bands, that range from international to homegrown artists, and live art performances.
Muntinlupa is also home to 19 East, a premier live music venue that features the country's top artists. Gigs usually occur on a daily basis, suggesting that any given day would guarantee customers a lively experience.
Water in Muntinlupa is provided by Maynilad Water Services (also known as Maynilad), which also serves western Metro Manila and some parts of Cavite. It is one of the two concessionaires that provide water to Metro Manila in the Philippines; the other one is Manila Water which serves the eastern Metro Manila.
"360 Eco-loop" is Filinvest City's fully integrated electric-powered public transport system operated by Filinvest as the main mode of transportation around Filinvest City. "electric-Jeepney Ride for Free," launched by the City Government of Muntinlupa on March 30, 2015, is composed of an initial fleet of 10 e-jeepneys produced in the Philippines.
Philippine National Railways has 3 stations in the city: Sucat, Alabang, and Muntinlupa (Barangay Poblacion) stations. There used to be a 4th and 5th stations in Barangay Tunasan and Barangay Buli; however, both were discontinued and demolished in 2009. Alabang station is the terminus of the Metro Commuter services; so, only the Provincial Commuter services that goes to Calamba stops in the Muntinlupa station which is currently two northbound trips in the morning and two southbound trips in the evening. Service southward to Alabang has resumed, but limited to Mamatid station in Cabuyao, Laguna.
View of a portion of South Luzon Expressway (SLEX) in Putatan, looking towards Alabang.
Muntinlupa is served by expressways, national highways, and arterial roads, usually crowded.
National highways serving the city include Maharlika Highway, which parallels the South Luzon Expressway and functions as the city's main artery and Alabang-Zapote Road, formerly known as "Real Street". Daang Hari Road, opened in 2003, lies on the boundary with Las Piñas near Ayala Alabang, Katarungan Village, and New Bilibid Prisons.
Arterial roads serve as the main route from the national roads to the barangays and its residential and commercial areas. Few examples of those roads include Commerce Avenue between Alabang and Ayala Alabang, Corporate Avenue in Filinvest City, Alabang, E. Rodriguez Sr. Avenue in Poblacion, E. Rodriguez Jr. Avenue in Tunasan, San Guillermo Street in Putatan, and Manuel L. Quezon Avenue from Alabang to Sucat and to the Taguig city boundary. The arterial roads are usually narrow, crowded with tricycles, pedestrians, and parked vehicles, and has few or no sidewalks, while a few, like Commerce Avenue, which has wide divided roads with traffic lights and sidewalks.
Muntinlupa has 18 health centers, 1 public hospital, and 8 private hospitals. The sole public hospital of the city is the Ospital ng Muntinlupa while the Asian Hospital and Medical Center and the Medical Center Muntinlupa are among the city's private hospital. The Food and Drug Administration, tasked to ensure the health and safety of food and drugs, has its headquarters located at Alabang, Muntinlupa. The Research Institute for Tropical Medicine a research facility dedicated to infectious and tropical diseases in the Philippines is also based in Muntinlupa.
Schools providing public education in Muntinlupa is administered by Division of City Schools – Muntinlupa, a local division of the Department of Education.
Muntinlupa has 89 child development centers (including day care centers, nursery schools and kindergarten schools), 20 public elementary schools, 8 public high schools, 1 public tertiary school, 1 public vocational/technical school, 88 private schools, 10 private tertiary schools and 9 private vocational/technical schools. The "Iskolar ng Bayan" program has been able to give financial assistance to 3,567 students with an allocated budget of thirteen million pesos. The city search for the Ten Muntinlupa Outstanding Students (MOST) is conducted annually to give recognition and honor to talented and academically excellent students in all public and private high schools of Muntinlupa.
Public secondary schools
Muntinlupa National High School is a public high school located at Poblacion, Muntinlupa. MNHS also has a special curriculum, the Science Technology and Engineering or STE (formerly ESEP), that prepares students for careers in Science and Technology, Math, and Communication Arts.
Muntinlupa Science High School or MunSci, is a special public high school in the City of Muntinlupa, Philippines that provides a technical and science curriculum that aims to prepare students for careers in Science and Technology, Math, and Communication Arts.Nihongo and French classes are also offered to students. Classes are taught by teachers from the Japanese and French embassies.
Pedro E. Diaz High School, formerly Annex of Fort Bonifacio College (FBC), is a public high school located at UP Side Subd., Alabang, Muntinlupa.
Muntinlupa Business High School, formerly known as Pedro E. Diaz High School Annex, is located at Espeleta St., Buli, Muntinlupa. The school makes education more accessible to students residing at Barangay Buli, Cupang and Sucat. MBHS offers a curriculum focused on preparing its graduates into vocational and collegiate degree.
Tunasan National High School, also known as Muntinlupa National High School-Tunasan Annex, is the newest public high school, established in 2012 which caters Technical Vocational Courses, TVL Maritime and Humanities and Social Sciences under Academic Track and Grades 7-10 of K-12 curriculum.
Public tertiary school
Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa is a local university in the city that started as a dream of former Mayor Ignacio Bunye who viewed education as potent tool for transforming society for the better. Upon his assumption of office in 1986, he included the objective of organizing and establishing an institution of higher learning in the Ten Point Agenda of his administration. Former Dean Enrico Vivar led the movement to convert the Muntinlupa Polytechnic College into a local university. Atty. Raul R. Corro, then Councilor and Chairman of the Committee on Education, sponsored City Ordinance No. 03-089 converting the Muntinlupa Polytechnic College to a Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa (PLMun) in March 2003 during the 67th session. The Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa is now ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED by the BRS Rim of the World Operations in California, USA. PLMun was awarded its Certification on April 27, 2015, at the City Hall Quadrangle of the City Government of Muntinlupa.
Colegio De Muntinlupa is a local government school and CHED-recognized free higher education institution, Colegio de Muntinlupa (CDM) was established to help fill the gap in the science and technology sector of the Philippines. It is Situated in Posadas Avenue in Barangay Sucat and was founded in 2018 with Mayor Jaime Fresnedi overseeing its founding. With its complete and brand-new facilities that meet international standards and high-caliber professors, CDM aims to produce competent nation builders who will be the drivers of sustainable development in the country. Currently, CDM offers five (5) Engineering programs, namely Civil Engineering, Computer Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Electronics Engineering, and Mechanical Engineering. It is also set to offer 5 new programs namely Architecture, Construction Engineering and Management, Environmental Engineering, Industrial Engineering, and Robotics Engineering this coming Academic year 2022-2023. The college is also expecting their first batch of Graduates this 2022.
Technical and vocational training
Muntinlupa City Technical Institute MCTI offers technical vocational-training of TESDA Accredited Courses. Courses offered in MCTI are Automotive Servicing NC II, Building Wiring Installation NC II, Dressmaking NC II, Food & Beverage Services NC II and Massage Therapy NC II.
Alternative learning system
ALS Center Bayanan, formerly Bayanan Elementary School Unit I, conducts Alternative Learning System classes during Saturdays and uses modules that students can answer at home. This program will help them finish secondary education to make them eligible to take courses offered by TESDA or be a college graduate. They will be given certificates by the Department of Education (DepEd) once they finish the program in five months. The project is being implemented by the local DepEd office in coordination with the city government.
NBP Alternative Learning System is 10-month course offered by the Department of Education (DepEd). Convicts are given a chance to overcome illiteracy or acquire livelihood skills behind bars. This program is made possible by the coordination of Bureau of Corrections with the Department of Education.
^ ab"'Big One' Is Possible But Metro Is Unprepared". Quezon City, Philippines: Bulatlat. August 14, 2004. Retrieved February 3, 2010. If a major earthquake were to hit Metro Manila today, the devastation would be so big even disaster response authorities cannot simply cope with it. And it even looks like disaster preparedness occupies a low priority among officials down to the municipal level.