Muntinlupa
City of Muntinlupa
Muntinlupa-alabang-2012-01.jpg
6651National Roads Muntinlupa City Barangays Church 29.jpg
5490Tunasan Muntinlupa City Landmarks 03.jpg
Sucat Thermal Power Plant (closed) (Sucat, Muntinlupa)(2017-05-25).jpg
6081Sucat Muntinlupa Park Covered Court Laguna de Bay 13.jpg
NBPtoday.jpg
(From top, left to right: Alabang • Our Lady of the Abandoned Church • Muntinlupa City Hall of Justice • Sucat Thermal Power Plant • Sucat People's ParkNew Bilibid Prison)
Official seal of Muntinlupa
Nickname(s): 
Munti, The Emerald City
Motto(s): 
Lakas, Talino at Buhay
(Strength, Wisdom and Life)
Anthem: Martsa ng Muntinlupa (Muntinlupa March)
Map of Metro Manila with Muntinlupa highlighted
Map of Metro Manila with Muntinlupa highlighted
OpenStreetMap
Muntinlupa is located in Philippines
Muntinlupa
Muntinlupa
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 14°23′N 121°03′E / 14.38°N 121.05°E / 14.38; 121.05Coordinates: 14°23′N 121°03′E / 14.38°N 121.05°E / 14.38; 121.05
CountryPhilippines
RegionNational Capital Region
Provincenone
District Lone district
Founded1601
Annexation to PaterosOctober 12, 1903
Annexation to BiñanNovember 25, 1903
Annexation to TaguigMarch 22, 1905
CharteredJanuary 1, 1918
Cityhood and HUCMay 8, 1995
Barangays9 (see Barangays)
Government
[1]
 • TypeSangguniang Panlungsod
 • MayorRozzano Rufino Biazon (One Muntinlupa)
 • Vice MayorArtemio Simundac
(One Muntinlupa)
 • RepresentativeJaime Fresnedi
(Liberal Party)
 • Councilors
List
 • Electorate341,511 voters (2019)
Area
 • Total39.75 km2 (15.35 sq mi)
Elevation
26 m (85 ft)
Highest elevation
136 m (446 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (2020 census) [3]
 • Total543,445
 • Density14,000/km2 (35,000/sq mi)
 • Households
115,515
Demonym(s)Muntinlupeño
Economy
 • Income class1st city income class
 • Poverty incidence1.15% (2018)[4]
 • Revenue₱5,860,127,167.00 (2020)
 • Assets₱12,537,849,855.00 (2020)
 • Expenditure₱4,514,367,299.00 (2020)
 • Liabilities₱3,213,721,567.00 (2020)
Service provider
 • ElectricityManila Electric Company (Meralco)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
1770–1777, 1780, 1799
PSGC
IDD:area code+63 (0)02
Native languagesTagalog
Websitewww.muntinlupacity.gov.ph

Muntinlupa, officially known as the City of Muntinlupa (Tagalog: Lungsod ng Muntinlupa), is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the National Capital Region of the Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 543,445 people. [3]

It is classified as a highly urbanized city,[5] it is bordered on the north by Taguig; to the northwest by Parañaque; by Las Piñas to the west; to the southwest by Bacoor; by San Pedro and Laguna de Bay to the east, the largest lake in the country. It is given the nickname "Emerald City" by the tourism establishment[6] and also known as the "Gateway to Calabarzon" as it is the southernmost city of the National Capital Region.

Muntinlupa is known as the location of the national insular penitentiary, the New Bilibid Prison, where the country's most dangerous criminals are incarcerated, as well as the location of Ayala Alabang Village, one of the country's biggest and most expensive residential communities, where many of the wealthy and famous live.

Etymology

There are three plausible origins of the name of the city: First, is its association with the thin topsoil in the area; second, residents, purportedly replying to a question by Spaniards in the 16th century what the name of their place was, said “Monte sa Lupa”—apparently mistaking the question for what card game they were playing; third, the topographical nature of the area, where the term Monte or mountain was expanded to Muntinlupa or mountain land. Based on the 1987 Philippine constitution, it is spelled as Muntinglupa, instead of Muntinlupa.[7]

History

Early history

20th century

Aerial view of Muntinlupa, 1941
Aerial view of Muntinlupa, 1941

21st century

Geography

Topography

Photo of Muntinlupa along Laguna de Bay and nearby cities captured by the Copernicus Sentinel-2A satellite on May 8, 2016
Photo of Muntinlupa along Laguna de Bay and nearby cities captured by the Copernicus Sentinel-2A satellite on May 8, 2016

It is bordered on the north by Taguig; to the northwest by Parañaque; by Las Piñas to the west; to the southwest by the city of Bacoor in Cavite; by the city of San Pedro, Laguna; and by Laguna de Bay to the east, the largest lake in the country.

Muntinlupa's terrain is relatively flat to sloping towards the east along the lake. Gentle rolling hills occupy the western part of the city, with elevation increasing up to 60 meters and above towards its southwest portion.

While majority of the land area in the city is highly urbanized, the NBP Reservation in barangay Poblacion is relatively free of urbanization but there are ongoing discussions to move the national penitentiary to Nueva Ecija.[19]

Cityscape

Alabang with Filinvest City development in the center right.
Alabang with Filinvest City development in the center right.

Alabang is the business district of the city where the tallest structures in the city are located. It used to be the location of Alabang Stock Farm.[20] Land reclamation is also done along the Laguna Lake for further developments in the city. During the dry season, the water level in the lake subsides, exposing the soil that is then used for farming.

Climate

The dry season rungs through the months of November to April, while the wet season starts in May and lasts to November. The wet season reaches its peak in the month of August. Maximum rainfall in Muntinlupa usually occurs from the month of June to September. The average annual of rainfall is 2,014.8 millimeters (79.32 in) with a peak of 420.0 millimeters (16.54 in) millimeters in July and a low 26.9 millimeters (1.06 in) in April. The highest temperature occurs during the month of April and May (34 degrees Celsius) while the lowest occurs during the months of January & February (24 degrees Celsius)

Climate data for Muntinlupa
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29
(84)
30
(86)
32
(90)
34
(93)
32
(90)
31
(88)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
30
(86)
30
(86)
29
(84)
30
(87)
Average low °C (°F) 21
(70)
20
(68)
21
(70)
22
(72)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
23
(73)
22
(72)
21
(70)
23
(73)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 10
(0.4)
10
(0.4)
12
(0.5)
27
(1.1)
94
(3.7)
153
(6.0)
206
(8.1)
190
(7.5)
179
(7.0)
120
(4.7)
54
(2.1)
39
(1.5)
1,094
(43)
Average rainy days 5.2 4.5 6.4 9.2 19.7 24.3 26.9 25.7 24.4 21.0 12.9 9.1 189.3
Source: Meteoblue[21]

Natural hazards

The west segment of the Marikina Valley Fault System, the West Valley Fault (WVF) cuts through parts of Muntinlupa[22] and moves in a predominantly dextral strike-slip motion.[23] The West Valley Fault is capable of producing large scale earthquakes on its active phases with a magnitude of 7 or higher.[22]

Districts and barangays

Muntinlupa is composed of a lone congressional district, and two legislative districts which are politically subdivided into nine barangays.[24] The 1st legislative district includes barangays Bayanan, Putatan, Poblacion and Tunasan in the southern half of the city, while the 2nd legislative district are barangays Alabang, Buli, Ayala Alabang, Cupang and Sucat in the northern portion of the city.

Barangay map of Muntinlupa
Barangay map of Muntinlupa
Barangays District Population[25] Area (km2) Density (/km2) Zip Code
Alabang 2nd 71,075 8.064 7,038 1781
Ayala Alabang 2nd 25,115 6.949 2,928 1799
Bayanan 1st 39,150 0.784 45,143 1772
Buli 2nd 13,341 0.437 16,748 1771
Cupang 2nd 57,196 5.370 10,617 1771
Poblacion 1st 120,115 6.131 16,817 1776
Putatan 1st 99,725 6.746 12,158 1772
Sucat 2nd 56,354 2.623 21,484 1770
Tunasan 1st 61,374 9.596 5318 1773

Other zip codes include Muntinlupa Central Post Office 1770, Ayala Alabang Village 1780, Pleasant Village 1777, Susana Heights 1774, and Filinvest City 1781.

Etymology of barangays

The barangays of the city is named after the botanical characteristics, topographical features, and historical events that had been observed in the area when it was named. Tunasan from the plant tunas. Putatan got its name from a tree called putat. Cupang is likewise named after the cupang tree. Buli is named after the buri palm. Alabang is named after the river that passes through the barangay. Ayala Alabang was created by Batas Pambansa Bilang 219 and was originally a part of Barangay Alabang. Sucat got its name from the vernacular word "sukat" which means “measurement” since during the Spanish era was always measured.

Subdivisions

While Barangays are the administrative divisions of the city, and are legally part of the addresses of establishments and homes, many residents indicate their Subdivision (village) instead of their Barangay.

Demographics

Population census of Muntinlupa
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 3,128—    
1918 4,712+2.77%
1939 9,288+3.28%
1948 18,444+7.92%
1960 21,893+1.44%
1970 65,057+11.49%
1975 94,563+7.79%
1980 136,679+7.64%
1990 278,411+7.38%
1995 399,846+7.02%
2000 379,310−1.12%
2007 452,943+2.48%
2010 459,941+0.56%
2015 504,509+1.78%
2020 543,445+1.47%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[26][27][28][29]
The Diocesan Shrine of Our Lady of the Abandoned Parish, a Catholic church in Poblacion, Muntinlupa
The Diocesan Shrine of Our Lady of the Abandoned Parish, a Catholic church in Poblacion, Muntinlupa

Demonym

People on from Muntinlupa are referred to as Muntinlupeño as an adaptations from the standard Spanish suffix -(eñ/n)o.

Language

The native language of Muntinlupa is Tagalog, but the majority of the residents can understand and speak English.

Religion

See also: Religion in the Philippines and List of Roman Catholic churches in Metro Manila

People in Muntinlupa are mainly Roman Catholic. Catholic churches in Muntinlupa fall under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Parañaque with about 11 parishes within Muntinlupa.

Other religions in Muntinlupa includes various Protestant denominations, Iglesia ni Cristo, Members Church of God International, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Hinduism, Buddhism and Islam.


Economy

Filinvest skyline at night as seen from Commerce Avenue in Alabang, Muntinlupa
Filinvest skyline at night as seen from Commerce Avenue in Alabang, Muntinlupa

Barangay Alabang, part of the second district of Muntinlupa, has undergone tremendous growth mainly due to a development boom in the late 1990s. The development of two large-scale commercial real estate projects namely; the Filinvest Corporate City and Ayala Land's Madrigal Business Park, changed the landscape of Muntinlupa from what was once vast fields of cow pasture in the late 1980s, into a supercity that houses new residential, business, industrial and commercial establishments.

The Muntinlupa "Business One-Stop-Shop" is recognized in the 2014 World Cities Summit in Singapore in its effectiveness in reducing the number of steps in acquiring a Business Permit.[37]

Industry

Northgate Cyberzone is the information technology park within Filinvest Corporate City in Alabang. The 18.7 hectare, PEZA registered IT zone is designed, mastered-planned and built around the needs of technology-based companies engaged in Business Process Outsourcing (BPO), Knowledge Process Outsourcing (KPO), education, learning and firm, software design and multimedia, call centers, e-commerce, banking and financial services, as well as other IT support businesses and the like. It is home to Capital One Philippines Support Services Corp., Convergys Philippines Corp, HSBC Electronic Data Processing (Philippines), Inc., Genpact, Verizon Business and many more.[38]

Kawasaki Motors Philippines Corporation is in charge of production and distribution of Kawasaki Motors in the Philippines. KMPC, having been in the country for over 40 years, is hailed today as one of the top manufacturers in the Philippine motorcycle industry. Amkor Technology is a semiconductor product packaging and test services provider. Pepsi-Cola Products Philippines has a plant located at Tunasan, Muntinlupa. Zuellig Pharma is within the city.

Commerce

Shopping centers in Muntinlupa include Alabang Town Center and Ayala Malls South Park, both owned by Ayala Malls, Festival Alabang owned and operated by Filinvest Development Corporation, Starmall Alabang (formerly known as Metropolis Star Alabang), SM Center Muntinlupa owned by SM Prime Holdings, and Commercenter Alabang.

There are multiple car dealerships located in Muntinlupa and most of them are along the Alabang-Zapote Road in Alabang. Ford Motors Alabang has a five-floor facility covering a floor area of nearly 13,000 square meters (140,000 sq ft) including a 2-floor, 23-vehicle showroom and a 4-floor, and an 80-bay service center. Toyota Alabang also constructed a facility with a showroom, parts warehouse, office & service facilities in a 5,000-square-meter (54,000 sq ft) lot. Audi Alabang, Chevrolet Alabang, Chrysler Alabang, Mitsubishi Motors Alabang, Nissan and Suzuki Alabang are also located within the area, most of which are along the Alabang - Zapote Road. Still in Alabang-Zapote Road but located in barangay Ayala Alabang are Hyundai Alabang, Isuzu Alabang and Honda Alabang.

Government

Muntinlupa City Hall
Muntinlupa City Hall

Local government

Muntinlupa is governed primarily by the city mayor, the vice mayor and the city councilors. The mayor acts as the chief executive of the city while the city councilors act as its legislative body. The vice mayor, besides taking on mayoral responsibilities in case of a temporary vacancy, acts as the presiding officer of the city legislature. The legislative body is composed of 16 regular members (8 per district) and representatives from the barangay and the youth council.[39]

The Bureau of Corrections has its headquarters in the New Bilibid Prison Reservation in Muntinlupa.[40]

"Most Business Friendly City" on 2001, 2002 & 2006 as awarded by the Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industry[41][42]

Muntinlupa is the first city in the Philippines to ban the use of plastic bags and Styrofoam for packaging.[43] The Muntinlupa city government encourages to "Bring your own Bag" or "BYOB" when shopping to reduce the use of plastic bags that would otherwise clog the waterways.

ISO Certification on Quality Management System or ISO 9001:2000 has initially been acquired on 2004 and is valid for 3 years.[44] Muntinlupa has re-acquired its ISO Certification on QMS in April 2015, ISO 9001:2008, together with Ospital ng Muntinlupa and Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa as certified by BRS Rim of the World Operations, California.[45]

City seal

Muntinlupa city seal

Designed by Manuel Amorsolo, son of a national artist Fernando Amorsolo, the city seal features the Philippine Eagle, the biggest, the strongest and the highest flying bird of the Philippine Republic, a bird that symbolizes the city's mission to become the Premiere Emerald City of the 21st Century.[46] It is composed of:

City hymn

Muntinlupa has its official hymn, called "Martsa ng Muntinlupa", composed by Renato Dilig. It was adopted in 1989, during its time as municipality.[47]

List of former chief executives

Municipal Mayors:

City Mayors:

Culture

Museum

See also: List of museums in Metro Manila

Muntinlupa Museum is a five-story structure which is set to contain items of historical value to the city. The exterior is designed to look like a traditional fishtrap.[48]

Libraries

See also: List of libraries in Metro Manila

Plaza Central Building where the Muntinlupa Public Library is located
Plaza Central Building where the Muntinlupa Public Library is located

Muntinlupa City Public Library is located at the recently constructed Plaza Central Building at Muntinlupa Poblacion. Plaza Central was inaugurated on October 6, 2017. It is located at the previous site of the Contessa Building (Old City Hall).[49]

Sports and recreation

Muntinlupa has 10 swimming pools, 14 billiard halls, 11 tennis courts, 8 resorts, 7 country clubs, 9 Dance/Fitness/Slimming Centers, 41 open basketball courts, 59 covered basketball courts and 11 parks & playgrounds.[50] The Muntinlupa Sports Complex is used for a variety of activities such as concerts, conferences, reunions and graduations, the sports complex has 3,500 seating capacity and has two separate multipurpose rooms. Located on a reclaimed area in Barangay Tunasan, it has an open area which local residents enjoy their morning exercise and leisure time.

Music

Since 2017, the site of Karpos' Wanderland Music and Arts Festival has been hosted annually in Muntinlupa. The location of this venue is in the Filinvest City Events Grounds, situated in the heart of the Alabang district. The event hosts various bands, that range from international to homegrown artists, and live art performances.

Muntinlupa is also home to 19 East, a premier live music venue that features the country's top artists.[51] Gigs usually occur on a daily basis, suggesting that any given day would guarantee customers a lively experience.

Public utilities

Electricity

The Sucat Thermal Power Plant in 2015.

The sole distributor of electricity in Metro Manila is the Manila Electric Company, also known as Meralco.

The de-commissioned Sucat Thermal Power Plant is located at Sucat.

Water and sewage

Water is provided Maynilad Water Services also known as Maynilad is a water and waste water services provider of cities and municipalities of the National Capital Region that forms the West Zone and some parts of Cavite. It is one of the two concessionaires that provide water to Metro Manila in the Philippines, the other one is Manila Water which serves the East Zone.

Telecommunication

Majority of the land-line connection is provided by phone carrier Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company. Mobile telecommunication services are mostly provided by Globe Telecom, Smart Communications, and Dito Telecommunity.

Transportation

Muntinlupa can be accessed through private vehicles, buses, jeepneys, taxis, and tricycles. Electric vehicles by both private and public sectors operate within the borders of the city.

Public utility vehicles

A jeepney on National Road (Manila South Road) in Putatan. Jeepneys serve as a main mode of transportation in Muntinlupa.
A jeepney on National Road (Manila South Road) in Putatan. Jeepneys serve as a main mode of transportation in Muntinlupa.

City buses with routes plying EDSA to Quezon City, Navotas, or Valenzuela serve the two terminals at Alabang, the Alabang Integrated Bus Terminal at Starmall Alabang, and South Station at Filinvest City. Provincial buses to Batangas City, Lucena, Quezon, and Bicol Region also depart from Alabang.

Jeepneys routes to General Mariano Alvarez, Calamba, and Pasay, including express services, also use the terminals at Alabang.

Tricycles and pedicabs serve the interior of barangays and residential areas.

"360 Eco-loop" is Filinvest City's fully integrated electric-powered public transport system operated by Filinvest as the main mode of transportation around Filinvest City.[52] "electric-Jeepney Ride for Free," launched by the City Government of Muntinlupa on March 30, 2015, is composed of an initial fleet of 10 e-jeepneys produced in the Philippines.[53][54]

Rail

Philippine National Railways has 3 stations in the city: Sucat, Alabang, and Muntinlupa (Barangay Poblacion) stations. There used to be a 4th and 5th stations in Barangay Tunasan and Barangay Buli; however, both were discontinued to be used and demolished in 2009. Alabang station is the terminus of the Metro Commuter services; so, only the Provincial Commuter services that goes to Calamba stops in the Muntinlupa station which is currently two northbound trips in the morning and two southbound trips in the evening. Service southward to Alabang has resumed, but limited to Mamatid station in Cabuyao, Laguna.

Roads

View of a portion of South Luzon Expressway (SLEX) in Putatan, looking towards Alabang.
View of a portion of South Luzon Expressway (SLEX) in Putatan, looking towards Alabang.

Muntinlupa is served by expressways, national highways, and arterial roads, usually crowded.

National highways serving the city include Maharlika Highway, which parallels the South Luzon Expressway and functions as the city's main artery and Alabang-Zapote Road, formerly known as "Real Street". Daang Hari Road, opened in 2003, lies on the boundary with Las Piñas near Ayala Alabang, Katarungan Village, and New Bilibid Prisons.

Expressways passing through Muntinlupa include South Luzon Expressway, a part of the Pan-Philippine Highway (AH26) Luzon route, the elevated Skyway, and the Muntinlupa–Cavite Expressway. A proposed expressway, Laguna Lakeshore Expressway Dike, is being planned to run along Laguna de Bay from Taguig in Metro Manila to Calamba and Los Baños in Laguna.

Arterial roads serve as the main route from the national roads to the barangays and its residential and commercial areas. Few examples of those roads include Commerce Avenue between Alabang and Ayala Alabang, Corporate Avenue in Filinvest City, Alabang, E. Rodriguez Sr. Avenue in Poblacion, E. Rodriguez Jr. Avenue in Tunasan, San Guillermo Street in Putatan, and Manuel L. Quezon Avenue from Alabang to Sucat and to the Taguig city boundary. The arterial roads are usually narrow, crowded with tricycles, pedestrians, and parked vehicles, and has few or no sidewalks, while a few, like Commerce Avenue, which has wide divided roads with traffic lights and sidewalks.

Healthcare

See also: List of hospitals in Metro Manila

City Health Center at Southville 3
City Health Center at Southville 3

Muntinlupa has 18 health centers, 1 public hospital, and 8 private hospitals.[50] The sole public hospital of the city is the Ospital ng Muntinlupa while the Asian Hospital and Medical Center and the Medical Center Muntinlupa are among the city's private hospital. The Food and Drug Administration, tasked to ensure the health and safety of food and drugs, has its headquarters located at Alabang, Muntinlupa. The Research Institute for Tropical Medicine a research facility dedicated to infectious and tropical diseases in the Philippines is also based in Muntinlupa.

Education

See also: List of schools in Muntinlupa

Schools providing public education in Muntinlupa is administered by Division of City Schools – Muntinlupa, a local division of the Department of Education.

Muntinlupa has 89 child development centers (including day care centers, nursery schools and kindergarten schools), 20 public elementary schools, 8 public high schools, 1 public tertiary school, 1 public vocational/technical school, 88 private schools, 10 private tertiary schools and 9 private vocational/technical schools. The "Iskolar ng Bayan" program has been able to give financial assistance to 3,567 students with an allocated budget of thirteen million pesos.[50] The city search for the Ten Muntinlupa Outstanding Students (MOST) is conducted annually to give recognition and honor to talented and academically excellent students in all public and private high schools of Muntinlupa.

Public secondary schools

Public tertiary school

Technical and vocational training

Alternative learning system

Notable personalities

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Architecture:

Entertainment personalities:

Pageants:

Sports people:

Politicians:

Sister cities

International

See also: List of sister cities in the Philippines

Japan Takasaki, Gunma, Japan[66] United States Carson, California, USA[67] Romania Piteşti, Romania[68]
China Liuzhou, China[69] Sweden Staffanstorp, Sweden[citation needed] Portugal Madeira, Portugal
Romania Craiova, Romania

National

Siruma, Camarines Sur Calabanga, Camarines Sur Santa Cruz, Marinduque
Calauag, Quezon Bangued, Abra Ozamiz
Pagadian Iloilo City

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ City of Muntinlupa | (DILG)
  2. ^ "2015 Census of Population, Report No. 3 – Population, Land Area, and Population Density" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. Quezon City, Philippines. August 2016. ISSN 0117-1453. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 25, 2021. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  3. ^ a b Census of Population (2020). "National Capital Region (NCR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  4. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Table%202a.%20Updated%20Annual%20Per%20Capita%20Poverty%20Threshold%2C%20Poverty%20Incidence%20and%20Magnitude%20of%20Poor%20Population%20with%20Measures%20of%20Precision%2C%20%20by%20Region%2C%20Province%20and%20HUC_2018.xlsx; publication date: 4 June 2020; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  5. ^ "Philippine Republic Act No. 7926". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
  6. ^ "Muntinlupa City". Department of Tourism. Archived from the original on January 27, 2013. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
  7. ^ Based on the 1987 constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, it is spelled as Muntinglupa (instead of Muntinlupa).
  8. ^ "An Act Reducing the Thirty-Two Municipalities of the Province of Rizal to Fifteen". Act No. 942 of October 12, 1903. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  9. ^ Act No. 1008 of November 25, 1903. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  10. ^ a b "About the City". City Government of Muntinlupa. Retrieved April 15, 2022.
  11. ^ Act No. 1308 of October 12, 1903. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  12. ^ "Historical Background". DENR - Environment Management Bureau - National Capital Region. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  13. ^ Presidential Decree No. 824 (November 7, 1975), Creating the Metropolitan Manila and the Metropolitan Manila Commission and for Other Purposes, archived from the original on March 12, 2016, retrieved July 10, 2020
  14. ^ Presidential Proclamation No. 351, s. 1988 (December 6, 1988), Declaring Monday, December 19, 1988, as “Municipality of Muntinlupa Day”, retrieved April 24, 2022
  15. ^ Republic Act No. 7926 (March 1, 1995), An Act Converting the Municipality of Muntinlupa into a Highly Urbanized City to be Known as the City of Muntinlupa, retrieved April 24, 2022
  16. ^ Republic Act No. 8251 (February 12, 1997), An Act Converting the Municipality of Las Piñas into a Highly-Urbanized City to be Known as the City of Las Piñas, retrieved April 24, 2022
  17. ^ Republic Act No. 9191 (March 1, 2021), An Act Declaring the First Day of March of Every Year as a Special Nonworking Holiday in the City of Muntinlupa to be Known as the Muntinlupa City Charter Day, retrieved April 24, 2022
  18. ^ "Muntinlupa's city hall burns down". The Manila Times. Archived from the original on January 6, 2008. Retrieved August 4, 2007.
  19. ^ "DoJ pressed on Bilibid prison transfer to Nueva Ecija". BusinessWorld.
  20. ^ Salazar, Tessa R. "44-hectare Alabang sprawl home to global business community". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  21. ^ "Muntinlupa: Average Temperatures and Rainfall". Meteoblue. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
  22. ^ a b "'Big One' Is Possible But Metro Is Unprepared". Quezon City, Philippines: Bulatlat. August 14, 2004. Retrieved February 3, 2010. If a major earthquake were to hit Metro Manila today, the devastation would be so big even disaster response authorities cannot simply cope with it. And it even looks like disaster preparedness occupies a low priority among officials down to the municipal level.
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