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Santa Rosa
City of Santa Rosa
Flag of Santa Rosa
Official seal of Santa Rosa
Map of Laguna with Santa Rosa highlighted
Map of Laguna with Santa Rosa highlighted
OpenStreetMap
Map
Santa Rosa is located in Philippines
Santa Rosa
Santa Rosa
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 14°19′N 121°07′E / 14.32°N 121.12°E / 14.32; 121.12
CountryPhilippines
RegionCalabarzon
ProvinceLaguna
District Lone district
FoundedJanuary 18, 1792
CityhoodJuly 10, 2004
Named forSt. Rose of Lima
Barangays18 (see Barangays)
Government
[1]
 • TypeSangguniang Panlungsod
 • MayorArlene B. Arcillas (Lakas-CMD)
 • Vice MayorArnold B. Arcillas (Lakas-CMD)
 • RepresentativeDanilo Ramon S. Fernandez
(NUP)
 • City Council
Members
 • Electorate222,046 voters (2022)
Area
 • Total54.84 km2 (21.17 sq mi)
Elevation
70 m (230 ft)
Highest elevation
392 m (1,286 ft)
Lowest elevation
2 m (7 ft)
Population
 (2020 census)[3]
 • Total414,812
 • Rank2 out of 30 (in Laguna)
 • Density7,600/km2 (20,000/sq mi)
 • Households
122,458
Economy
 • Income class1st city income class
 • Poverty incidence
1.29
% (2018)[4]
 • Revenue₱ 4,427 million (2020)
 • Assets₱ 12,113 million (2020)
 • Expenditure₱ 3,691 million (2020)
 • Liabilities₱ 1,929 million (2020)
Service provider
 • ElectricityManila Electric Company (Meralco)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
4026
PSGC
IDD:area code+63 (0)49
Native languagesTagalog
Websitewww.santarosacity.gov.ph

Santa Rosa, officially the City of Santa Rosa (Filipino: Lungsod ng Santa Rosa), is a 1st class component city in the province of Laguna, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, its population was 414,812 people.[3]

It is the second largest local government unit in Laguna after Calamba.[3] On August 28, 2019, President Rodrigo Duterte signed Republic Act No. 11395,[5] which separated the city from the province's first district and granted the city its own congressional district to elect a representative in 2022. However, for the purposes of electing Sangguniang Panlalawigan members, Santa Rosa remains part of the province's first Sangguniang Panlalawigan District.

Santa Rosa was initially known for the Coca-Cola and Toyota manufacturing plants in its industrial estates. It later became popular as the site of local theme park Enchanted Kingdom and several housing and commercial developments.

Etymology

Santa Rosa is derived from Spanish for Saint Rose of Lima, its patron saint to whom it is consecrated to.[6]

History

2017 stamp of the Philippines dedicated to the 225th anniversary of Santa Rosa

In 1571, Spanish conquistador Juan de Salcedo, the grandson of Miguel López de Legazpi, founded the town of Biñan which was annexed as a barrio to Tabuco (now Cabuyao) while exploring the region of Laguna de Bay.

In 1688, Biñan, together with Barrio Bukol, separated from Cabuyao. After a series of renaming and separating barrios to become independent towns, Barrio Bukol was politically emancipated as the municipality of Santa Rosa, founded on January 18, 1792.

During the revolutionary period in 1898, the town was instrumental in the proclamation of Philippine independence from Spain when the country signed the Act of Independence on June 12, 1898. Later on, the town's local revolutionaries fought alongside the forces of Pío del Pilar during the Philippine–American War.

The present-day Gusaling Museo served as the municipal hall of Santa Rosa from 1828 to 1954.

On February 5, 1945, the town was abandoned by Japanese soldiers when the local guerrilla resistance movement, with support from the American and Filipino military contingent, entered the town, where skirmishes, torture, and deaths occurred.[clarification needed]

During the postwar era up until the 1970s, the townspeople primarily depended on basic agriculture and family-owned enterprises for their livelihood. The influence of industrialization grew in the 1980s with the entry of local and foreign investors who were responsible for the fast-paced economic and social transformation of the town and the province.

Cityhood

Main article: Cities of the Philippines

On July 10, 2004, Santa Rosa was converted into a city by Republic Act No. 9264,[7] which was approved by voters in the plebiscite. Leon Arcillas, who began his third and final term ten days before, became its first city mayor.

Contemporary

Arcillas was assassinated at the former city hall by three assailants.[8] They were convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment in 2013.[9] Jose Catindig Jr., who served as vice mayor, became mayor to serve out the remainder of his term. On May 14, 2007, Catindig, who ran for his full term as mayor, was defeated by Arcillas' daughter Arlene.

Geography

Santa Rosa aerial view

Santa Rosa's land area is approximately 54.13 square kilometers (20.90 sq mi). It is located west of Laguna de Bay.

The western half of the city occupies the numerous commercial, industrial, and business establishments, while the other is primarily composed of residential areas and subdivisions, schools, industrial zones, and various business establishments.

Santa Rosa is 47 kilometers (29 mi) from Santa Cruz and 40 kilometers (25 mi) from Manila.

Barangays

Political map of Santa Rosa, Laguna

Santa Rosa is politically subdivided into 18 barangays. Each barangay consists of puroks and some have sitios.

Climate

Climate data for Santa Rosa City, Laguna
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 29
(84)
30
(86)
32
(90)
34
(93)
32
(90)
31
(88)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
30
(86)
30
(86)
29
(84)
30
(87)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 21
(70)
20
(68)
21
(70)
22
(72)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
23
(73)
22
(72)
21
(70)
23
(73)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 10
(0.4)
10
(0.4)
12
(0.5)
27
(1.1)
94
(3.7)
153
(6.0)
206
(8.1)
190
(7.5)
179
(7.0)
120
(4.7)
54
(2.1)
39
(1.5)
1,094
(43)
Average rainy days 5.2 4.5 6.4 9.2 19.7 24.3 26.9 25.7 24.4 21.0 12.9 9.1 189.3
Source: Meteoblue[10]

Demographics

Santa Rosa downtown

The population of Santa Rosa is fast-growing with an intercensal growth rate of 7% from 1990 to 1995, exponentially increasing in subsequent decades (except between the 2007 and 2010 censuses).

Population census of Santa Rosa
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 7,339—    
1918 10,557+2.45%
1939 15,069+1.71%
1948 17,259+1.52%
1960 26,583+3.66%
1970 41,335+4.51%
1975 47,639+2.89%
1980 64,325+6.19%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1990 94,719+3.95%
1995 138,257+7.34%
2000 185,633+6.52%
2007 266,943+5.14%
2010 284,670+2.37%
2015 353,767+4.23%
2020 414,812+3.18%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[11][12][13]
Graphs are unavailable due to technical issues. There is more info on Phabricator and on MediaWiki.org.
Population density
Year Density
1990 1,730/km2
1995 2,520/km2
2000 3,400/km2
2007 4,900/km2
2010 5,200/km2
2015 6,500/km2
2020 7,600/km2

Some inhabitants of Santa Rosa today erroneously refer to themselves as "Rosanians"; since Santa Rosa is a Spanish name, the correct demonym should be "Rosaños".

Ethnic groups

Like other places in Metro Manila, the original settlers in Santa Rosa are Tagalogs. Throughout the centuries, there has been constant migration of Spaniards, Visayans, Bikolanos, Ilokanos, Chinese, and Americans.

Languages

The main language is Filipino, which is based on Tagalog. In addition, due to continuous development of the city, English is used in education, business and information technology.

Religion

Santa Rosa de Lima Parish Church, located at the city proper

Most people are Roman Catholics. Other religious groups represented include the Aglipayans (members of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente – a breakout group from the Catholic Church in 1902 headed by the Union Obrera Democratica), the Church of God International, the United Church of Christ in the Philippines, Jesus Is Lord Church, Baptist, Jehovah's Witness, and Iglesia Evangelica Unida de Cristo (Unida Evangelical Christian Church). In 1994, some migrants and expatriates have formed the Saint Nicholas Orthodox Church (under the canonical jurisdiction of The Orthodox Metropolitanate of Hong Kong/Philippines-Ecumenical Patriarchate) in Golden City Subdivision.

Economy

Santa Rosa is considered to be the premier city and hub of South Luzon. It is also known as the Lion City of South Luzon. According to the 2013 Annual Financial Report by the Commission on Audit, the city has an annual income of 2.3 billion, surpassing the income of Calamba and Batangas City. Santa Rosa became the richest city in Luzon outside of Metro Manila in terms of annual income.

Special economic zones and industrial parks in Santa Rosa include:

Banking

Major commercial banks in the Philippines operate in the city. Currently, the city hosts banking institutions that offer banking services to businesses and residents. Most of these are concentrated in barangays Balibago, Don Jose, Macabling, Pulong Santa Cruz, Santo Domingo, and Tagapo.

Car dealerships

Hyundai Santa Rosa in 2018

A number of car brands have put up dealerships in Santa Rosa. Prominent car dealerships include Toyota, Chevrolet, Ford (Borromeo), Foton, Honda (ANC), Hyundai, Isuzu (Gencars), JMC, Kia, Mazda (Borromeo), MG Motor (Greenfield), Mitsubishi (Amcar), Nissan (Greenfield), Subaru (ANC), and Volkswagen (Greenfield).

Furthermore, the Borromeo's Ford and Mazda have recently set up shops while two of the six ANC Group brands, Honda and Subaru, have branches in Santa Rosa.

Shopping malls

SM City Santa Rosa

The city host various shopping malls: SM City Santa Rosa, Robinsons Sta. Rosa, Ayala Malls Solenad, Walter Mart Santa Rosa, Walter Mart Santa Rosa Bel-Air, Victory Mall Santa Rosa, Target Mall, Vista Mall Sta. Rosa, Paseo Outlets (formerly and still commonly known as Paseo de Santa Rosa), Laguna Central, Arcadia, Eton City Square, and Sta. Rosa Town Center. As of 2023, a new branch of CityMall in the city and the Toplite Town Center are currently under construction.

Industries and manufacturing

Dubbed as the "Motor City of the Philippines" or "Detroit City of the Philippines", Santa Rosa is host to multinational automotive giants Nissan, Toyota, and Mitsubishi – all contributing 95% of the country's automotive production. It is also the location for the headquarters of Santarosa Motor Works, Inc.

Food conglomerate Monde Nissin Corporation, which manufactures Lucky Me! instant noodles and Monde biscuits, has a 14-hectare (35-acre) manufacturing facility in barangay Balibago. San Miguel Brewery and Magnolia also have a plant in barangay Pulong Santa Cruz. Santa Rosa is also home to the largest plant of The Coca-Cola Company in the Philippines, situated next to the Santa Rosa Exit of South Luzon Expressway. In 2018, Santa Rosa became the new home of HAMBURG Trading Corporation's 7,000-square-meter (75,000 sq ft) facility that houses the company's warehouse, administration office, and state-of-the-art demo kitchen – all in one roof.

Information technology

Santa Rosa is aiming to be the next hub for the BPO industry. It is currently[as of?] ranked 82nd in the world for its competitiveness in the Information Technology and Business Process Outsourcing services (IT-BPO) by the leading strategic advisory firm, THOLONS. BPO companies present in Santa Rosa are IQor, KGB, Teletech, IBM and Concentrix.

Education

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2023)

See also: Category:Schools in Santa Rosa, Laguna and Category:Education in Santa Rosa, Laguna

Santa Rosa Elementary School Central I

Santa Rosa holds many schools, facilities and tutorial centers. There are 18 public elementary schools and 10 public high schools in the city, all overseen by the Schools Division Office (SDO) of Santa Rosa City,[21] as well as 84 private schools as of 2023.[22] The Canossians built their first Canossian school in the Philippines in Santa Rosa.

Several higher education institutions headquartered outside the city have established branch or satellite campuses in Santa Rosa. Polytechnic University of the Philippines has one campus in Santa Rosa, as well as STI College, Citi Global College, Ateneo de Manila University (Ateneo Professional Schools), and Our Lady of Fatima University. Under-construction and planned satellite campuses include those of University of Santo Tomas, University of the East, and National University, respectively.[23]

Infrastructure

Transportation

A jeepney plying the Santa Rosa Commercial Complex in Balibago

Santa Rosa is serviced by South Luzon Expressway (SLEX) and Cavite–Laguna Expressway (CALAX). Two exits of SLEX are located in the city: Santa Rosa Exit and Eton City (Malitlit) Exit. The city is also accessible through Greenfield City (Mamplasan) Exit in Biñan, which provides access to CALAX, SM City Santa Rosa, and the Santa Rosa city proper. Two exits of CALAX directly serve the city, namely: Santa Rosa–Tagaytay Exit (located in Barangay Carmen, Silang, Cavite) and Laguna Boulevard Exit (located within the city). The Manila South Road from Alabang, Muntinlupa up to Calamba, Laguna passes through the city. Another road, Santa Rosa–Tagaytay Road, acts as the main route for people going up to Tagaytay from Metro Manila, especially on weekends and vacation periods.

Public transportation within the city, like in most of the urban areas in the Philippines, is facilitated mostly using inexpensive jeepneys. Tricycles are also used for short distances. Free rides are also offered by Toyota Motor Philippines, based in the city, at various key points through its partnership with the city government, starting in December 2023 for a duration of one year.[24] The Santa Rosa railway station is located in barangay Labas, near the city center. The city is also the location of the Santa Rosa Commercial Complex, a well-known intermodal transport and commercial hub in barangay Balibago, and the Santa Rosa Integrated Terminal, a provincial bus station at SM City Santa Rosa in barangay Tagapo serving Metro Manila and eventually other parts south of Metro Manila. Point-to-point (P2P) bus terminals are also located at Nuvali Transport Terminal in barangay Santo Domingo for buses bound for Makati and Bonifacio Global City, respectively, and in front of Robinsons Santa Rosa in barangay Tagapo for buses bound for Ninoy Aquino International Airport.

Utilities and communication

An aqueduct in Pulong Santa Cruz

Santa Rosa's source of electricity is partly from Meralco. Its water supply is provided by the Laguna Water Inc., except for Vista Land Developments (including Sta. Elena City), which is provided by its sister company, Primewater Infrastructure Corporation. Santa Rosa's communication system is powered by Philippine Long Distance Telephone (PLDT) and Globe Telecom, and the cellular network in the Philippines, particularly in metropolitan areas, is increasing due to the low cost of calls and text messaging. Globe Telecom, Smart Communications (PLDT), and Dito Telecommunity provide cellular networks in Santa Rosa. Cable and satellite television access is provided by SkyCable, G Sat, Cignal Digital TV, and Royal Cable. Internet Digital Subscriber Line or DSL coverage is provided by PLDT, cable internet is serviced by SkyCable's ZPDee and Global Destiny. Fiber Internet Wireless broadband is provided by Globelines Broadband and Smart Communications.

Health

The Santa Rosa Community Hospital is the primary public hospital of Santa Rosa. The city also hosts at least seven other private hospitals: New Sinai MDI Hospital and Medical Center, Marian Hospital, Balibago Polyclinic and Hospital, St. James Hospital in Dita, Sta. Rosa Hospital and Medical Center along RSBS Boulevard in Balibago, The Medical City South Luzon in Greenfield City, and Healthway QualiMed Hospital – Sta. Rosa in Nuvali.

Government

Local government

Main article: Sangguniang Panglungsod

Santa Rosa City Hall

Santa Rosa City is governed primarily by the city mayor, the vice mayor, and the city councilors. The mayor acts as the chief executive of the city while the city councilors act as its legislative body. The vice mayor, besides taking on mayoral responsibilities in case of a temporary vacancy, acts as the presiding officer of the city legislature. The legislative body is composed of 12 regular members and representatives from the barangay and the youth council.

Elected officials

Santa Rosa city officials (2022–2025)
Name Party
House of Representatives
Danilo Ramon S. Fernandez NUP
City Mayor
Arlene B. Arcillas Lakas
City Vice Mayor
Arnold B. Arcillas Lakas
City Councilors
Jose Joel L. Aala Lakas
Ma. Theresa C. Aala Lakas
Sonia U. Algabre Lakas
Manuel G. Alipon Lakas
Laudemer A. Carta Lakas
Ina Clariza B. Cartagena Lakas
Wilfredo A. Castro Lakas
Jose B. Catindig Jr. Independent
Mythor C. Cendaña Lakas
Roy M. Gonzales Lakas
Rodrigo B. Malapitan Lakas
Antonio M. Tuzon, Jr. Lakas
Ex Officio City Council Members
ABC President Godofredo Z. Dela Rosa (Dita)
SK President Domel Jenson Ian M. Barairo (Ibaba)

List of mayors

The following is the list of chief executives of Santa Rosa, Laguna.[25]

  1. Francisco Arambulo (1890–1894)
  2. Basilio B. Gonzales (1899–1900)
  3. Pedro Teaño Perlas (1900–1901)
  4. Pablo Monsod Manguerra Sr. (1900–1901)
  5. Celerino Castillo Tiongco (1905–1907)
  6. Feliciano Arambulo Gomez (1908–1911)
  7. Honorio Tiongco (1912–1916)
  8. Lorenzo Cartagena Tatlonghari (1916–1922)
  9. Jose Vallejo Zavalla (1922–1925)
  10. Aquilino Carballo (1925–1926)
  11. Felixberto Castro Tiongco (1926–1928)
  12. Benito Lijauco delos Reyes (1928–1931)
  13. Hermenegildo Regalado delos Reyes (1931–1937)
  14. Celso Gonzaga Carteciano (1938–1940)
  15. Valentin Regalado delos Reyes (1941–1942)
  16. Jose Alumno Alinsod (1942 – August 1943)
  17. Valentin Regalado delos Reyes (August–December 1943)
  18. Eduardo de Leon Marcelo (1944)
  19. Angel Z. Tiongco (1944 – March 6, 1945)
  20. Jose Alumno Alinsod (March 7, 1945)
  21. Francisco Gomez Arambulo Jr. (1946–1947)
  22. Felimon delos Trinos de Guzman (1948–1951)
  23. Gervacio Almira de Guzman (1952–1955)
  24. Angel Z. Tiongco (1960–1978)
  25. Cesar E. Nepomuceno (February 3, 1978 – December 3, 1987)
  26. Zosimo B. Cartaño (February 3 – December 3, 1987)
  27. Leo T. Bustamante (OIC, December 3, 1987 – February 2, 1988)
  28. Roberto R. Gonzales (1988 – June 30, 1998)
  29. Leon C. Arcillas (June 30, 1998 – May 10, 2005)
  30. Jose B. Catindig, Jr. (May 11, 2005 – June 30, 2007)
  31. Arlene B. Arcillas (June 30, 2007 – June 30, 2016)
  32. Danilo Ramon S. Fernandez (June 30, 2016 – June 30, 2019)
  33. Arlene B. Arcillas (June 30, 2019 – present)

List of vice-mayors

  1. Antonio B. Dictado (June 30, 1988 – June 30, 1995)
  2. Jose B. Catindig, Jr. (June 30, 1995 – June 30, 1998)
  3. Octavio Ramon L. Lijauco (June 30, 1998 – June 30, 2001)
  4. Jose B. Catindig, Jr. (June 30, 2001 – May 11, 2005)
  5. Arlene B. Arcillas (May 11, 2005 – June 30, 2007)
  6. Manuel G. Alipon (June 30, 2007 – June 30, 2010)
  7. Arnel D.C. Gomez (June 30, 2010 – June 30, 2016)
  8. Arnold B. Arcillas (June 30, 2016 – June 30, 2019)
  9. Arnel D.C. Gomez (June 30, 2019 – June 30, 2022)
  10. Arnold B. Arcillas ( June 30, 2022 – present)


Notable personalities

References

  1. ^ City of Santa Rosa | (DILG)
  2. ^ "2015 Census of Population, Report No. 3 – Population, Land Area, and Population Density" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. Quezon City, Philippines. August 2016. ISSN 0117-1453. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 25, 2021. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  3. ^ a b c Census of Population (2020). "Region IV-A (Calabarzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  4. ^ "PSA Releases the 2018 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. December 15, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  5. ^ Republic Act No. 11395 (August 28, 2019), An Act Separating the City of Santa Rosa from the First Legislative District of the Province of Laguna to Constitute the Lone Legislative District of Santa Rosa (PDF), Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines
  6. ^ "About Us". Santa Rosa. Retrieved July 7, 2023.
  7. ^ Republic Act No. 9264 (March 10, 2004), An Act Converting the Municipality of Santa Rosa in the Province of Laguna into a Component City to be Known as the City of Santa Rosa, The Corpus Juris
  8. ^ G.R. No. 229678 (June 20, 2018), People of the Philippines, Plaintiff-appellee, V. Herminio Vidal, Jr. Y Uayan @ "Pato," Arnold David Y Cruz @ "Anot," Cipriano Refrea, Jr. Y Almeda @ "Cobra," Ricardo H. Pineda @ "Peter," Edwin R. Barqueros @ "Marvin," and Daniel Yason@ "Ace," Accused.; Herminio Vidal, Jr. Y Uayan @ "Pato," and Arnold David Y Cruz @ "Anot," Accused-appellants., Supreme Court E-Library, retrieved April 6, 2023
  9. ^ Cinco, Maricar (April 24, 2013). "2 convicted in ex-Sta. Rosa mayor's slay; masterminds at large". Inquirer.net. Retrieved April 6, 2023.
  10. ^ "Santa Rosa: Average Temperatures and Rainfall". Meteoblue. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
  11. ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region IV-A (Calabarzon)" (PDF). Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. National Statistics Office. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
  12. ^ Censuses of Population (1903–2007). "Region IV-A (Calabarzon)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. National Statistics Office.((cite encyclopedia)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  13. ^ "Province of Laguna". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  14. ^ "Poverty incidence (PI):". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved December 28, 2020.
  15. ^ "Estimation of Local Poverty in the Philippines" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. November 29, 2005.
  16. ^ "2003 City and Municipal Level Poverty Estimates" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. March 23, 2009.
  17. ^ "City and Municipal Level Poverty Estimates; 2006 and 2009" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. August 3, 2012.
  18. ^ "2012 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. May 31, 2016.
  19. ^ "Municipal and City Level Small Area Poverty Estimates; 2009, 2012 and 2015". Philippine Statistics Authority. July 10, 2019.
  20. ^ "PSA Releases the 2018 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. December 15, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  21. ^ "School Directory updated as of March 01, 2023". Schools Division of Santa Rosa City. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  22. ^ "LIST OF PRIVATE SCHOOLS WITH PERMIT/ RECOGNITION IN SANTA ROSA CITY". Schools Division of Santa Rosa City. Retrieved September 30, 2023.
  23. ^ "2022 SEC Form 20-IS Definitive" (PDF). SM Prime. March 10, 2023. Retrieved March 18, 2023.
  24. ^ "Toyota's libreng sakay program in Santa Rosa and Pasay City is now operational". TopGear Philippines. December 3, 2023. Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  25. ^ "Local Chief Executive". City Government of Santa Rosa.
  26. ^ "9 Kickass Women in Philippine History You've Never Heard Of". FilipiKnow. June 3, 2018. Retrieved February 6, 2021.
  27. ^ Pa-a, Saul. "Sta. Rosa, Laguna honors 1st Filipino soprano recording artist". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved February 6, 2021.