MERALCO
Company typePublic
PSEMER
IndustryPower distributor
PredecessorCompañía Electricista de Manila
Compañía de Tranvías y Ferrocarriles de Filipinas
FoundedMarch 24, 1903; 120 years ago (1903-03-24)
HeadquartersMeralco Center, Ortigas Avenue, Pasig, Metro Manila, Philippines
Key people
Manuel V. Pangilinan, Chairman
Atty. Ray C. Espinosa, President and CEO
Ownersee list
Websitewww.meralco.com.ph

The Manila Electric Company (PSEMER), also known as Meralco (/mɜːrɑːlk/, Tagalog: [mɛˈɾalkɔ], stylized in uppercase), is an electric power distribution company in the Philippines. It is Metro Manila's only electric power distributor and holds the power distribution franchise for 22 cities and 89 municipalities, including the whole of Metro Manila and the exurbs that form Mega Manila.

The name "Meralco" is an acronym for Manila Electric Railroad and Light Company, which was the company's official name until 1919.

History

La Electricista

Organized in 1891 and beginning operations in late 1900, La Electricista was the first electric company to provide electricity to Manila towards the close of the Spanish era. La Electricista had built a central power plant on Calle San Sebastian (now Hidalgo Street[1][2]) in Quiapo, Manila.[3] On January 17, 1895, its streetlights were turned on for the first time and by 1903, it had about 3,000 electric light customers.

Founding of the Manila "Electricity", "Railroad" and "Lighting" Company (MERaLCo)

On October 20, 1902, during the American Colonial Period, the Second Philippine Commission began accepting bids to operate Manila's electric company, and by extension, providing public lighting to the city and its suburbs. Detroit entrepreneur Charles M. Swift was the sole bidder and on March 24, 1903, was granted the original basic franchise of the Manila Electric Company.[4] March 24 thus is marked annually as the company's anniversary.

The Manila Electric Company acquired both La Electricista and the Compañía de los Tranvías de Filipinas, a firm that ran Manila's horse-drawn tramways which was founded in 1882.[5] Construction on the railed tramway began that same year. In addition to acquiring La Electricista's Calle San Sebastian power plant, the company built its own turbine rotated by water steam generating electricity plant on Isla Provisora (later becoming the Manila Thermal Power Plant), which lighted the railed tram system and eventually also provided the electric service. By 1906, the Manila Suburb Railway were founded and later merged with the Manila Electric Company. Forming the Manila Electric, Railway and Lighting Company. The name Manila Electricity, Lighting and Railroad Company (MELARCo) was also considered.[citation needed]

Manila Suburban Railways Company

Swift was awarded another franchise in 1906 to operate a 9.8 kilometres (6.1 mi) extension line from Paco to Fort McKinley and Pasig and founded the Manila Suburban Railway to operate this franchise.[4] In 1919 this company merged with the Manila Electric Company.[4] This extension was one of the most profitable of MERALCO's lines.[4]

By the 1920, MERALCO invested on transportation and owned a 170-strong fleet of streetcars, before switching over to buses later in that decade.

The company operated 52-miles of trams until World War II. The equipment and tracks of the system was severely damaged during the war and had to be removed.[6]

Power generation and distribution

Aerial view of Manila Electric Company Main Power Plant (foreground), 1940

By 1915, electricity generation and distribution became the main MERALCO's main income generator, overtaking its public transportation operations in terms of revenue. In 1919, it changed its official name to Manila Electric Company. By 1920, the company's power capacity had grown to 45 million kWh.

In 1925, MERALCO was acquired by the utility holding company Associated Gas and Electric, which had begun a massive expansion throughout the United States and Canada. With AGECO's financial backing, MERALCO began acquiring a number of existing utility companies in the Philippines, enabling the company to expand beyond Manila.

By 1930, MERALCO had completed construction of the Philippine's first hydroelectric power plant, the 23MW Botocan Hydro Station.[citation needed] At the time, this plant was one of the largest engineering projects in Asia[citation needed] and constituted the largest single private capital investment in the Philippines.[citation needed] The additional capacity allowed the company to begin hooking up customers throughout the metropolitan area.

Meralco office (Malolos City Cultural and Heritage House)

To drive demand for more power, MERALCO also opened a retail store in order to sell electric home appliances.[citation needed]

World War II

During the Second World War, the Japanese occupying forces forcibly transferred all of MERALCO's assets and holdings to the Japanese-controlled Taiwan Power Company.

Postwar

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (November 2022)

By war's end, most of the former Meralco facilities had been destroyed. AGECO was reorganized as General Public Utilities Corporation or GPU in 1946. MERALCO's autobus franchise was sold to Halili Transport.

Acquisition by the López group

Meralco (López) Building along Ortigas Avenue, Pasig, Metro Manila.

In 1962, Eugenio López, Sr. of the influential López family of Iloilo put together Meralco Securities Corporation (MSC), which acquired MERALCO, making it wholly Filipino-owned.[7] During 1962-72, he increased MERALCO's power generating capacity by five times with the building of additional power stations in the Manila area with two more planned in Rizal Province.[citation needed]

The Meralco Building, designed by National Artist of the Philippines for Architecture José María Zaragoza, was built during this period. The Meralco Theater within it was inaugurated shortly thereafter, in March 1969.[8]

Martial law and Romualdez takeover

In September 1972, President Ferdinand Marcos, who had begun feuding with the Lopezes,[9] declared Martial Law, acquiring and consolidating power and effectively extending his beyond the constitutional term limit which would have forced him to step down in 1973.[10][11] A few weeks later in November 1972, he issued Presidential Decree № 40, which nationalized the country's electric generation and transmission. A few more weeks after that, Marcos had Lopez' son and namesake, Eugenio "Geny" Lopez, Jr. arrested without formal charges, claiming that the younger Lopez had been involved in an alleged assassination attempt against him.[9]

Geny's arrest became a bargaining chip which eventually compelled the Lopezes to sell their controlling share of Meralco Securities Corporation to Marcos' associates late in 1973.[9] Ownership of Meralco Securities Corporation was placed under a newly created shell company called the Meralco Foundation, Inc., controlled by Marcos' brother-in-law Benjamin Romualdez,[9] which made a downpayment of about $1,500 for a "very minimal" total sale price of about $28 million (200 million pesos at the prevailing rate). Installment payments were supposed to be due starting two years later.[12]

The Meralco Foundation takeover was immediately followed by a 100% increase in electric rates, with continuous increases throughout Romualdez' management.[13] A rate adjustment clause, which allowed MERALCO to adjust its rates depending on crude oil increase or higher dollar exchange rates, was also introduced.[13]

In 1977, MSC was renamed First Philippine Holdings Corporation.[7]

By 1978, all of the Philippines' major power plants were owned and operated by Napocor, including the Metro Manila plants that MERALCO had built beforehand in the 1960s.[citation needed] By the end of the Martial Law period in 1981, MERALCO expanded even further into Cavite and western parts of Laguna, Rizal and Quezon provinces, as well as parts of southern Bulacan.[citation needed]

Meralco Foundation's control of MERALCO lasted until the People Power Revolution in 1986 when it defaulted on its payments under the terms of the original turnover of shares in 1973,[14] although it took a five year period before the shares were eventually reverted to the Lopezes in 1991.[14]

After martial law

This section is missing information about the sequestration process of the Presidential Commission on Good Government. Please expand the section to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. (November 2022)

President Corazon Aquino reverted company ownership to the López Group.[citation needed] She also enacted an executive order that allowed the company to directly compete with Napocor.[15]

On March 18, 1989, MERALCO unveiled its new and current corporate logo.[16]

In 1990, MERALCO acquired the electric facilities and other assets of the Communications and Electric Development Authority, the company that distributed power in Cavite Province.[17]

Entry of First Pacific and JG Summit groups

Between 2009 and 2012, the López Group would reduce its 33.4% holdings in MERALCO by selling most of its shares to the First Pacific Group.[18][19][20] By 2012, the López Group's holdings in MERALCO would be reduced to 3.95%.[21]

The First Pacific Group, through Beacon Electric Asset Holdings Inc. and Metro Pacific Investment Corporation, currently holds 45.46% share in MERALCO,[19] followed by the JG Summit Group with 29.56%,[22][23][24] for a combined 75.02% control of MERALCO.

Early renewal initiatives during the 16th Congress

See also: 16th Congress of the Philippines

In 2014 and 2015, MERALCO requested the 16th Congress to tackle the extension of its franchise early, although its renewal was not due until six years later, in 2020.

Controversies

2008 legislative investigation on high power rates

Meralco is facing a Philippine legislative inquiry/investigation for alleged excessive pricing.[25] The government has considered a plan to take over Meralco, to reduce electricity bills. Meralco and National Transmission Corporation (TransCo) blamed each other for the high power rates.[26] Meralco also blames high power generation costs, high transmission costs and government taxes imposed on the electricity sector from power generation to distribution. Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) President Winston García, however, blamed Meralco's inefficiency, its "bloated bureaucracy" and its sourcing of power from independent power producers (IPPs) also owned by the López Family, and the need to amend the Electric Power Industry Reform Act (EPIRA) of 2001. Oscar López said that if the GSIS would buy the Meralco shares, they must buy in whole cash, while many businessmen also said that taking over Meralco is not the way to reduce electrical price, which depends on the national government and the President. The issue was also seen as a purposeful diversion from the then-ongoing ZTE NBN scandal and other government issues.[27] A perceived lack of general understanding regarding the issue of system loss, inherent in the business of utilities prompted Meralco's former holding company, First Philippine Holdings, to issue advertisements explaining systems loss.

Syndicated estafa and bribery case

The Department of Justice (Philippines) filed syndicated (fraud) charges against Meralco in its August 22, 2008 31-page resolution, filed with the Pasig Regional Trial Court. The May 29 National Association of Electricity Consumers for Reform (Nasecore) complaint accused Meralco of "illegally declaring as income ₱889 million in consumers' money, which represents interest from meter and bill deposits consumers had been paying since 1995."[28] No bail was recommended for all the accused, 2006 officers of Meralco, to wit: Meralco chairman and CEO Manuel Lopez, executive vice president and chief financial officer Daniel Tagaza, first Vice-resident and treasurer Rafael Andrada, vice president and corporate auditor and compliance officer Helen De Guzman, vice president and assistant comptroller Antonio Valera, and senior assistant vice president and assistant treasurer Manolo Fernando; 2006 Meralco directors Arthur Defensor Jr., Gregory Domingo, Octavio Victor Espiritu, Christian Monsod, Federico Puno, Washington Sycip, Emilio Vicens, Francisco Viray and former Prime Minister Cesar Virata.

Nasecore's complaint accusing Meralco of "illegally declaring as income 889 million pesos in consumers' money, which represents interest from meter and bill deposits consumers had been paying since 1995," was immediately refuted by the accused company as the alleged ₱889 million only stemmed from a generally accepted accounting principle of reversing Meralco's earlier provision for meter deposit interests which, earlier set at 10% per annum was deemed too high and was set to the recommended 6%.[29] Meralco also questioned how a syndicated estafa case can arise when it has already announced and committed that it will be refunding to customers who paid meter deposit principals plus interest months ahead of the ERC prescribed schedule and has allocated enough funds for the said refund.

Meralco is also involved in the GSIS-Meralco bribery case.[30]

Dismissal of syndicated estafa case

On October 6, 2008, the Pasig Regional Trial Court Branch 71 dismissed the syndicated estafa case filed against the Meralco board of directors, for the prosecution failed to establish all the elements of syndicated estafa.

Presiding Judge Franco Falcon, pointed out in the ruling that the board is not the kind described by the law as being formed to perpetrate an illegal act for the board of directors were elected by stockholders. The court explained, "Therefore, the accused can never be charged of taking part in the commission of syndicated estafa not only because they are not part of a syndicate as contemplated by law in PD 1689, but more so, because there was absolutely no estafa committed."

According to Philippine law, to constitute syndicated estafa, the subject money or property must be received by the offenders. The money represents the accrued interests on the bill and meter deposits, which were paid by Meralco customers, not directly to the board, but to the various Meralco business centers where the customers transacted. Meralco expressed elation over the dismissal.[31]

Judiciary's decision on 1999 disconnection incident

A complaint was filed by Lucy Yu against Meralco which, on December 9, 1999, its representatives, forcibly entering her office at the New Supersonic Industrial Corp. in Valenzuela, shut off the electricity in the factory and Yu's residence.

The Court of Appeals later ruled that Meralco violated the law when it cut off the electric supply of a consumer without notice; the decision later upheld by the Supreme Court in late June 2023, with Yu being entitled to ₱150,000 in damages. The court said that a written notice must be given to the consumer at least 48 hours prior to Meralco's disconnection of its electric service on grounds cited under Section 4(a) of Republic Act No. 7832; in that case, a consumer's right to due process was violated.

Spokesperson Joe Zaldarriaga, in a statement, said that Meralco will respect and abide by the said decision; however, he said that the incident occurred when Meralco was already implementing a policy of serving prior disconnection notice.[32]

Service area

Meralco's franchise area.
Meralco's franchise area.
Balagtas 115 kilovolts (kV)-34.5 kV Substation

Meralco serves Metro Manila, where it is the sole electricity distributor, as well as some nearby provinces, like Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal, Quezon. Bulacan, Cavite, and Rizal are solely served by Meralco, but on some provinces, it only serves some parts, like in Laguna, Batangas, and Quezon, where most or some areas are served by electric cooperatives. In Laguna and Quezon, most part of those provinces are served by the company, but other areas, mostly rural municipalities, are served by electric cooperatives. In Batangas, only Santo Tomas, the First Philippine Industrial Park and First Industrial Township SEZ both in Tanauan, Batangas City, San Pascual and parts of Laurel (Barangays of Niyugan and Dayap Itaas) and Calaca (parts of Barangay Cahil) which facing Tagaytay–Nasugbu Highway are served by Meralco, and the rest of the province are franchise areas of electric cooperatives. In Pampanga, some barangays in Candaba are served by the company.

A Meralco service truck
City/Municipality Province/Metropolitan Area
Caloocan Metro Manila
Las Piñas Metro Manila
Makati Metro Manila
Malabon Metro Manila
Mandaluyong Metro Manila
Manila Metro Manila
Marikina Metro Manila
Muntinlupa Metro Manila
Navotas Metro Manila
Parañaque Metro Manila
Pasay Metro Manila
Pasig Metro Manila
Pateros Metro Manila
Quezon City Metro Manila
San Juan Metro Manila
Taguig Metro Manila
Valenzuela Metro Manila
Angat Bulacan
Balagtas Bulacan
Bocaue Bulacan
Bulacan Bulacan
Bustos Bulacan
Calumpit Bulacan
Guiguinto Bulacan
Hagonoy Bulacan
Malolos Bulacan
Marilao Bulacan
Meycauayan Bulacan
Norzagaray Bulacan
Obando Bulacan
Pandi Bulacan
Paombong Bulacan
Plaridel Bulacan
Pulilan Bulacan
San Ildefonso Bulacan
San Jose Del Monte Bulacan
San Miguel Bulacan
San Rafael Bulacan
Santa Maria Bulacan
Candaba Pampanga
Batangas Batangas
San Pascual Batangas
Santo Tomas Batangas
Alfonso Cavite
Amadeo Cavite
Bacoor Cavite
Carmona Cavite
Cavite Cavite
Dasmariñas Cavite
General Emilio Aguinaldo Cavite
General Mariano Alvarez Cavite
General Trias Cavite
Imus Cavite
Indang Cavite
Kawit Cavite
Magallanes Cavite
Maragondon Cavite
Mendez Cavite
Naic Cavite
Noveleta Cavite
Rosario Cavite
Silang Cavite
Tagaytay Cavite
Tanza Cavite
Ternate Cavite
Trece Martires Cavite
Alaminos Laguna
Bay Laguna
Biñan Laguna
Cabuyao Laguna
Calamba Laguna
Calauan Laguna
Liliw Laguna
Los Baños Laguna
Luisiana Laguna
Magdalena Laguna
Majayjay Laguna
Nagcarlan Laguna
Pila Laguna
Rizal Laguna
San Pablo Laguna
San Pedro Laguna
Santa Cruz Laguna
Santa Rosa Laguna
Victoria Laguna
Candelaria Quezon
Dolores Quezon
Lucban Quezon
Lucena Quezon
Mauban Quezon
Pagbilao Quezon
Sampaloc Quezon
San Antonio Quezon
Sariaya Quezon
Tayabas Quezon
Tiaong Quezon
Angono Rizal
Antipolo Rizal
Baras Rizal
Binangonan Rizal
Cainta Rizal
Cardona Rizal
Jalajala Rizal
Morong Rizal
Pililla Rizal
Rodriguez Rizal
San Mateo Rizal
Tanay Rizal
Taytay Rizal
Teresa Rizal

Ownership

Sports teams

See also

References

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  2. ^ Ivan. "Manila then and now". Blog. Ivan Lakwatsero. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
  3. ^ "Calle San Sebastian - Old photos". Flickr. August 22, 2009. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
  4. ^ a b c d Satre, Gary L. (June 1998). "The Metro Manila LRT System— A Historical Perspective" (PDF). No. 16. Japan Railway & Transport Review. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 5, 2006. Retrieved November 18, 2015.
  5. ^ "ELECTRICAL SERVICE IN THE PHILIPPINES; A 40,000 Horsepower Central Station Now Serves Manila and Suburbs. NEW PLAN BUILT IN 1905 Demand for Electric Lighting Grew Rapidly--6,000 Lamps in Streets Now. Pioneers on the Payroll. Nipa Hut Dwellers". New York Times. February 5, 1928. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
  6. ^ Lexis Nexis (1974). Mass Transit. PTN Pub. Co. p. 58. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
  7. ^ a b "Our History | First Philippine Holdings".
  8. ^ "Meralco Theater turns 40 | Philstar.com". philstar.com. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
  9. ^ a b c d "Rich Family Loses Power in Bitter Feud with Marcos". The New York Times. April 22, 1975.
  10. ^ N., Abinales, P. (2005). State and society in the Philippines. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7425-1023-4. OCLC 57452454.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ Celoza, Albert F. (1997). Ferdinand Marcos and the Philippines: The Political Economy of Authoritarianism. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-94137-6.
  12. ^ Branigin, William (August 16, 1984). "'Crony Capitalism' Blamed for Economic Crisis". Washington Post. Retrieved November 15, 2022.
  13. ^ a b Ricardo., Manapat (1991). Some are smarter than others: the history of Marcos' crony capitalism. New York: Aletheia Publications. ISBN 971-91287-0-4. OCLC 28428684.
  14. ^ a b Pascual, Federico D. Jr (June 13, 2002). "Lopezes didn't get back Meralco on silver platter". The Philippine Star. Retrieved June 2, 2018.
  15. ^ Bello, Walden; De Guzman, Marissa; Malig, Mary Lou; Docena, Herbert (2005). The Anti-development State: The Political Economy of Permanent Crisis in the Philippines. Zed Books. p. 293. ISBN 1-84277-631-2. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
  16. ^ "New Meralco logo unveiled". Manila Standard. Kagitingang Publications, Inc. March 20, 1989. p. 12. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
  17. ^ "Acquisition by MERALCO of the electric facilities and other assets of the Communications and Electricity Development Authority of Cavite". Department of Justice. Retrieved November 8, 2023.
  18. ^ "Lopez says wants out of Meralco". Reuters. May 8, 2008. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  19. ^ a b "PLDT buys 20% Lopez stake in Meralco". The Philippine Star. March 14, 2009. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  20. ^ "Metro Pacific, Piltel to form holding firm for Meralco shares". GMA News. February 8, 2010. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  21. ^ dela Pena, Zinnia (February 1, 2012). "Lopez completes sale of 2.66% Meralco stake". The Philippine Star. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  22. ^ Dumlao, Doris (September 30, 2013). "Gokongwei buys 27% stake in Meralco". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  23. ^ Dumlao, Doris (October 1, 2013). "JG Summit pays P72B for Meralco". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  24. ^ Gonzales, Iris (June 22, 2017). "JG Summit raises stake in Meralco". The Philippine Star. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  25. ^ "House panel begins probe into high power rates". GMA News Online. May 13, 2008.
  26. ^ "Napocor, Meralco eye higher power rates". ABS-CBN News. June 21, 2010.
  27. ^ Dizon, David (May 13, 2008). "High power rates blamed on Meralco, gov't, IPPs". ABS-CBN News.
  28. ^ "DOJ charges Meralco with syndicated estafa". GMA News Online. August 22, 2008.
  29. ^ Frialde, Mike (August 23, 2008). "DOJ files estafa raps vs Meralco". Philstar.
  30. ^ Torres, Tetch (August 22, 2008). "DoJ files syndicated fraud raps vs Meralco execs". Inquirer.net. Archived from the original on September 16, 2008.
  31. ^ http://balita.ph/2008/10/15/meralco-exec-expresses-elation-for-dismissal-of-estafa-case-filed-by-doj/[permanent dead link]
  32. ^ Sy Cua, Aric John; Cueto, Francis Earl (July 1, 2023). "Meralco won't challenge Supreme Court ruling". The Manila Times. Retrieved July 13, 2023.