City of Malolos
(From top, left to right): New Malolos City Hall, Bulacan Provincial Library, Robinsons Place Malolos, Bulacan Provincial Capitol, Barasoain Church
Flag of Malolos
Official seal of Malolos
Cradle of the Philippines
Carabao Capital of the World
Renaissance City of Central Luzon
Map of Bulacan with Malolos highlighted
Map of Bulacan with Malolos highlighted
Malolos is located in Philippines
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 14°50′37″N 120°48′41″E / 14.8436°N 120.8114°E / 14.8436; 120.8114
RegionCentral Luzon
District 1st district
Settled10th century CE
(part of the kingdom of Ma-i)
CityhoodDecember 18, 1999
Founded by
Barangays51 (see Barangays)
 • TypeSangguniang Panlungsod
 • MayorChristian D. Natividad
 • Vice MayorMiguel Alberto T. Bautista
 • RepresentativeDanilo A. Damingo
 • City Council
 • Electorate127,246 voters (2022)
 • Total67.25 km2 (25.97 sq mi)
 • Land67.25 km2 (25.97 sq mi)
9.0 m (29.5 ft)
Highest elevation
105 m (344 ft)
Lowest elevation
−4 m (−13 ft)
 (2020 census)[3]
 • Total261,189
 • Density3,900/km2 (10,000/sq mi)
 • Households
 • Income class3rd city income class
 • Poverty incidence
% (2018)[4]
 • Revenue₱ 1,292 million (2020)
 • Assets₱ 1,967 million (2020)
 • Expenditure₱ 920.6 million (2020)
 • Liabilities₱ 902.7 million (2020)
 • ElectricityMeralco
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
IDD:area code+63 (0)44
Native languagesTagalog
Catholic dioceseDiocese of Malolos

Malolos [maˈlɔlɔs], officially the City of Malolos (Filipino: Lungsod ng Malolos), is a 3rd class component city and capital of the province of Bulacan, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 261,189 people.[3] It is the capital city of the province of Bulacan as the seat of the provincial government.[5]

Malolos is the historical site of the constitutional convention of 1898 that led to the establishment of the First Philippine Republic, led by Emilio Aguinaldo. Malolos was the site of the constitutional convention of 1898, known as the Malolos Convention, that led to the establishment of the First Philippine Republic, at the sanctuary of the Barasoain Church. The convent of the Malolos Cathedral served as the presidential palace at that time.

Malolos gave birth to the First Philippine Republic, sometimes characterized as the first proper constitutional republic in Asia,[6][7][8] although there were several Asian republics predating it – for example, the Mahajanapadas of ancient India, the Lanfang Republic, the Republic of Formosa, or the Republic of Ezo. Aguinaldo himself had led a number of governments prior to Malolos, like those established at Tejeros and Biak-na-Bato which both styled themselves República de Filipinas ("Republic of the Philippines"). Unlike the founding documents of those governments, however, the Malolos Constitution was duly approved by a partially elected congress and called for a true representative democracy.[9][10]


Miguel Lopez de Legazpi conquered the 8 villages along Malolos River and integrated it into one entity dated November 14, 1571, and constituted it as an Encomienda de Malolos[11][12] the Adelantado entrusted the settlements to conquistador Don Marcos de Herrera. On April 5, 1572, Legazpi merges the encomiendas of Malolos and Calumpit into a single entity to form a new town of Calumpit with Juan Moron and Herrera as co-encomenderos.

On April 15, 1572, Legazpi entrusted 6 villages along Atlag River and given it to Don Jeronimo Tirado.[13]

Nine years later, Malolos was officially established as a town and included it in Bulacan and dismembered on Alcaldia de Calumpit on June 11, 1580, and accepted as priory with Fray Matheo de Mendoza as its first minister in an Augustinian Council held in Tondo Convent but the civil administration still belongs to its encomendero at that time, Don Jeronimo Tirado.

The Tagalog constituted the majority of the Malolos populace although it is said that the town had a Kapampangan origin; the name Malolos is a Spanish pronunciation of Kapampangan word maluslús.[14] They were led by prominent families, among them are descendants of the royal clans of Gatbontons, Gatmaitan, Gatsalian (Gatchalian), Dimagiba, Lakandola, Ladia and Lacancale and in the 17th-19th centuries, Chinese Filipino families through Tondo and Binondo, such as Chichioco, Cojuangco, Chiong, Chico, Cunanan, Tantocos, Tanchangco, Tanjosoy, Tengco, Tenjeco, Tiongson, Lomotan, Manahan, joined by Spanish Filipino families of Adriano, Bautista, Jacinto, Reyes, Santos, Rustia, de Leon, Agustin, Vasquez, Valenzuela, Crisostomo and Estrella.

Chinese Filipino traders settled in Malolos starting in 1670 for economic opportunity. The settlers increased, and Malolos began engaging with textile, rice production. However, the Chinese are expelled from the town on June 30, 1755, due to political and social issues.

On August 31, 1859, Malolos was divided into three independent towns; "Malolos", "Barasoain, and "Santa Isabel". These new towns are former districts of Malolos, with own respective Presidente Municipal and Parish priests. With the beginning of American rule in 1903, these towns were again reunited into a single municipality. The two other districts became barangays under the political jurisdiction of Malolos.

A major factor in the progress of Malolos was the opening of the Manila–Dagupan railways in April 1892.

Malolos was first organized into a formal municipal unit in 1822 when the first "alcalde constitucional" or municipal head was appointed. He was Jorge de Victoria, a Filipino, who like all succeeding "alcaldes", served for one year. He was followed by thirty-one other "alcaldes", with Juan Dimagiba as the thirty-first. In 1859, Malolos was subdivided into three administrative districts; Malolos, Barasoain and Santa Isabel. Juan Dimagiba became the first "alcalde" of the down-scaled Malolos. There were 12 others who served as "alcaldes" from 1859 to 1879, the first one being Mariano C. Cristobal and the second being Capitan Tomas Tanchanco, whose term marked the start of civil turmoil in the town.[15]

Philippine Republic

The Barasoain Church
The Malolos Congress of 1899 in session
Filipino soldiers in Malolos, 1899

Malolos is the historical site of the constitutional convention of 1898 that led to the establishment of the First Philippine Republic, the first republic in Asia, led by Emilio Aguinaldo. Malolos served as the capital of the short-lived republic from 1898 to 1899. In 1899, after the Malolos Constitution was ratified, the Universidad Scientifico Literaria de Filipinas was established in Malolos, Bulacan. It offered Law as well as Medicine, Surgery and Notary Public; Academia Militar,(the Philippine's First Military School) which was established on October 25, 1898; and The Burgos Institute, (the Philippine's first law school) and an exclusive school for boys.

The Congress of the Revolutionary Government of the Philippines convened in Barasoain Church in Malolos on September 15, 1898. On the 18th, Aguinaldo proclaimed Malolos as the capital of the Philippines. The first important act of the Congress was the ratification on September 29, 1898, of the independence proclamation at Kawit, Cavite of June 12, 1898. On October 19, 1898, by virtue of an act of Congress, the Universidad Literaria de Filipinas was established. It was in Malolos on December 20, 1898, when Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo declared December 30 of every year as a day of national mourning. The greatest achievement and for which the Malolos Congress was known was the framing of the Malolos Constitution, prepared by a committee headed by Felipe Calderón, was approved by the congress after amendments have been made on January 20, 1899, sanctioned by Aguinaldo the next day and promulgated on January 22. The last congressional act of the Malolos Congress was the inauguration of the Philippine Republic with Aguinaldo as the President on January 23, 1899, amidst the people's jubilation.

On March 31, 1899, at the height of the Philippine–American War, Aguinaldo ordered Gen. Antonio Luna to set the Malolos Church including its huge silver altar on fire as part of their strategy called "Scorched-earth Policy" where everything will be rendered useless. Malolos was totally destroyed when the Americans captured the capital. Aguinaldo escaped to San Fernando, Pampanga before the American Forces arrived at Malolos.

Malolos as the capital of Bulacan

More than a year after the 1899 Battle of Malolos and the victory of and occupation by American forces, the national seat of power was officially conferred again to Manila and on February 27, 1901, by the virtue of Act No. 88 of the Philippine Commission, the commission officially transferred the provincial seat from the heavily damaged town of Bulakan to the nearby town of Malolos and it became the capital of Bulacan.[16] On January 12, 1904, by virtue of Act No. 1038, the former municipalities of Barasoain and Santa Isabel were merged with Malolos, with Barasoain designated as the municipal seat.[17]

The Casa Presidencia de Malolos was converted as the new Casa Real of Bulacan (became Casa Real Shrine) making it as the new Official Office and Residence of Governor until 1930 when the new Provincial Capitol Building in Barrio Guinhawa, also in Malolos was built.

Bulacan Provincial Capitol in Malolos, built in 1930

Governments of Malolos after the Philippine–American War

Contemporary history

On June 30, 1998, Malolos was the site again for another presidential inauguration, this time of Joseph Estrada when he was inaugurated at Barasoain Church as the 13th President of the Philippines. Estrada, whose real surname is Ejercito, traced his ancestry to the Ejercitos who were prominent in the history of Malolos.

The Malolos Steel Flyover

The construction of the Malolos flyover in summer of 2004 marked a new milestone being the first in the city. The structure, part of the former Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo's Bridge Program, was constructed in a record-breaking 60 days only according to the Department of Public Works and Highways. The structure was built to solve daily traffic jams, which have become a bane to motorists and to employees in both private and government offices in the city. This remarkable feat hastened not only the city's development in commerce and trade but also that of its neighboring municipalities as well.

On July 28–30, 2008, the city hosted the first National Conference for Philippine-Spanish Relations. This is a project of both the Province of Bulacan's research arm, the Center for Bulacan Studies of Bulacan State University, and by the Samahang Pangkasaysayan ng Bulacan, Incorporated.

City hall at night 2023


Main article: Cities of the Philippines

In February 1999, Bulacan's 1st congressional district representative Wilhelmino Sy-Alvarado authored a bill converting the then-municipality of Malolos into a component city, which was approved as Republic Act No. 8754 on November 4.[19] The plebiscite for the ratification, along with that for Tuguegarao, Cagayan (whose cityhood was approved through RA No. 8755), was scheduled on December 18.[20]

A plebiscite was conducted in 402 precincts in 51 barangays; wherein residents rejected the cityhood bid.[21] However, it was marred by a number of alleged irregularities[22] including improper counting of votes; the reason mayor Restituto Roque, along with two other individuals, on December 29, filed an electoral protest before the Commission on Elections, seeking the nullification of the plebiscite results and asking for a recount.[21][23]

Malolos cityhood plebiscite
Choice 1999 plebiscite 2002 recount
Votes % Votes %
Yes 9,321 44.69% 10,746 56.12%
No 11,535 55.31% 8,402 43.88%
Result No Yes
Valid votes 20,856 100% 19,148 100%
Voter turnout Around 20%–25%[22] of an estimated 80,000 registered voters.[24]
Source: [23]

After a recount, on October 8, 2002, the COMELEC Second Division, favoring the petition,[23] declared the ratification of the charter and reversed the earlier official vote count,[25] through its Resolution on Election Protest Case No. 99–2.[26][27] It was said that several ballots were written by a person, while others were missing.[23]

Malolos eventually became the second town in Bulacan to be a city, following San Jose del Monte. Danilo Domingo, who had opposed the cityhood and defeated Roque in the 2001 elections, became the first city mayor.[25]

In 2010, the city government, through the City Ordinance No. 24-2010, declared December 18 of every year to be the celebration of the cityhood.[28]

Invalidation of the Lone District of Malolos Act

Legislative bills were filed in the 14th Congress in 2007 to create a separate, lone legislative district for Malolos.[29][30] House Bill No. 3162 was filed on November 27, 2007 by Bulacan first district representative Ma. Victoria Sy-Alvarado; it was converted to HB No. 3693,[31] filed on March 4, 2008, also by Sy-Alvarado, and was passed by the House of Representatives on April 29.[29] Meanwhile, Senate Bill No. 1986, filed on December 19, 2007 by Senator Mar Roxas. On October 6, 2008, the same day the committee report was issued, the bill was sponsored by Senator Benigno Aquino III and co-sponsored by Senators Roxas and Richard Gordon. The bill was passed by the Senate on February 16, 2009.[29]

On May 1, 2009, the bill lapsed into law as Republic Act No. 9591 without the president's signature, amending the city charter (RA No. 8754).[29][30][32]

In August, the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) issued Resolution No. 09-0544, on the allocation of a legislative district for Malolos, concerning the said law.[33]

However, on June 16, four individuals from the city had filed a petition, with the COMELEC as respondent, questioning the constitutionality of RA No. 9591[30] which violated the 1987 Constitution and its Ordinance; both require a population of at least 250,000 for a city to have its own representative in Congress.[30][34]

On January 25, 2010, the Supreme Court voted, 7–6, to grant the petition, nullifying RA No. 9591.[30][35] The court cited the failure to show official records that the city's population would reach that number in time for the May elections.[34]

At the time the legislative bills were filed, the city's population was 223,069. The court explained that HB No. 3693 cited an undated erroneous certification certification on demographic projections, issued by an unauthorized National Statistics Office personnel; while they used the city's annual population growth rate of 3.78% between 1995 and 2000 as basis for the law, their projected population in 2010 would be at least fifty thousand more than what is required,[30][34] contrary to the court's projection that the required number would be reached only by August.[34]

The ruling was affirmed on March 9.[36][37] The city was then reverted to Bulacan's first legislative district, which also currently comprises five municipalities.[30][34] At that time, the province was represented in Congress through four districts.[30]

In 2015, Sy-Alvarado filed another bill, House Bill No. 655. Domingo, currently serving as district representative, expressed his support.[38]


Malolos is 45 kilometers (28 mi) north of Manila, the capital city of the Philippines. It is one of the major suburbs conurbated to Metro Manila, situated in the southwestern part of Bulacan, in the Central Luzon Region (Region 3) in the island of Luzon and part of the Metro Luzon Urban Beltway Super Region.

It is bounded by municipalities of Calumpit on northwest, Plaridel on north, Guiguinto on east, Paombong on west, Bulakan on the southeast and Manila Bay on the south.[39]


Malolos is relatively flat of about 0.81% to a gently sloping of 2.17%. The slope of the land descends towards west, southwest to southern direction. The highest land elevation is at about 6.0 m (19.7 ft) above sea level while the lowest is only 0.5 m (1 ft 8 in) below sea level. A network of natural waterways and rivers of various sizes and importance is traversing through the landscape of the town down south to Manila Bay.[39]

There are three soil types from the major type of Malolos, the soils of the alluvial landscape and these are the Quingua Series, San Manuel Series and the Tagulod Series. Other soil types comprised in the soil map of Malolos are the Matimbo Series and Masantol Series, which belong to the soils of the coastal landscape, Loamy Tidal Swamp and Mucky Tidal Swamp from the miscellaneous soil types.[39]


Malolos belongs to Type 1 category of the Philippine Climate Corona Classification, which has two pronounced seasons, i.e., wet and dry seasons. Wet during the months of June to November and dry from December to May.[39]

The northwest monsoon prevails over the area from October to January bringing in moderate and light rains, the last trade winds predominate from February to April but the high Sierra Madre Mountains interfere with the free circulation of making the area dry with almost no rains during the period, while from May to September the southwest monsoon prevail with strong winds and abundant rainfall, and generally associated with strong typhoon.[39]

Climate data for Malolos, Bulacan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 35
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 28
Average precipitation mm (inches) 4.52
Average rainy days 6 10 13 12 22 27 29 31 27 13 8 16 214
Source: World Weather Online[40]


Malolos is politically subdivided into 51 barangays that are spread over a land area of 7,725 hectares (19,090 acres) consisting of agricultural, commercial, industrial, residential, bodies of water, fishponds, marshes and roads. Many of the name of the barangays were derived from the name of common Philippine trees, because Malolos was once a vast virgin land and forests, before the Spaniards came and Christianized the natives. While others were named in honor of their patron saints.

Each barangay consists of puroks and some have sitios.

Barangays of the City of Malolos
Map Barangay1 Population (2000)2 Population (2007)3 Population (2010)[41] Population (2015)[41] May 1, 2020[42]
Anilao 2,339 4,520 2,999 3,078 3,013
Atlag 4,635 5,028 5,101 5,294 4,675
Babatnin 788 817 969 958 741
Bagna 4,368 5,427 5,061 5,321 4,947
Bagong Bayan 3,055 3,528 3,489 3,688 3,068
Balayong 1,889 2,532 3,059 3,338 3,549
Balite 2,017 2,425 2,579 2,813 3,468
Bangkal 261 8,803 11,030 12,437 12,322
Barihan 4,587 5,660 5,404 5,833 5,852
Bulihan 10,235 12,732 13,134 13,510 15,865
Bungahan 1,983 2,461 2,731 2,965 3,025
Caingin 5,804 7,874 6,867 6,899 7,348
Calero 988 1,131 1,214 1,281 1,316
Caliligawan 211 342 428 302 498
Canalate 3,560 3,719 4,015 4,124 3,632
Caniogan 5,039 5,158 5,239 5,132 5,219
Catmon 1,961 1,828 1,988 3,282 2,248
Cofradia 3,183 4,853 3,815 3,937 4,608
Dakila 4,851 4,288 5,146 5,352 6,806
Guinhawa 1,686 1,446 3,003 4,086 4,217
Ligas 4,354 5,891 6,119 6,624 6,656
Liang 1,248 1,575 1,564 1,661 1,338
Longos 7,700 10,808 11,361 14,864 16,999
Look 1st 4,788 5,922 5,614 6,808 9,611
Look 2nd 1,877 2,485 2,610 3,108 3,081
Lugam 3,012 3,966 4,355 4,711 4,744
Mabolo 4,870 6,202 6,399 6,435 6,281
Mambog 2,384 2,748 2,344 2,673 2,836
Masile 790 744 884 832 772
Matimbo 5,685 6,254 6,455 6,516 6,649
Mojon 12,559 15,541 17,261 18,239 16,169
Namayan 738 856 872 771 712
Niugan 456 556 572 828 715
Pamarawan 2,660 2,861 3,425 3,336 3,094
Panasahan 6,874 8,024 8,612 8,818 9,484
Pinagbakahan 1,617 3,816 5,653 6,087 7,563
San Agustin 1,821 2,090 2,202 2,262 1,945
San Gabriel 1,947 2,578 2,234 2,467 2,012
San Juan 2,897 3,439 4,326 4,388 4,566
San Pablo 4,958 4,954 5,035 5,240 4,991
San Vicente (Poblacion) 1,981 2,007 2,529 2,790 2,402
Santiago 1,771 1,875 1,972 1,973 1,534
Santisima Trinidad 4,658 6,111 6,384 6,524 6,688
Santo Cristo 1,730 1,714 1,929 2,025 2,035
Santo Niño (Poblacion) 641 453 532 561 574
Santo Rosario (Poblacion) 7,065 7,211 7,593 7,633 7,333
Santor 3,285 6,868 8,046 8,646 8,550
Sumapang Bata 1,600 2,087 2,424 2,645 2,442
Sumapang Matanda 6,272 7,696 7,258 7,554 8,719
Taal 1,868 2,101 2,118 2,231 1,677
Tikay 7,745 9,064 8,992 10,094 12,600


  • ^1 Source: Philippine Statistics Authority
  • ^2 From NSO 2000 Census.[43]
  • ^3 From NSO 2007 Census.[44]
  • ^4 Source: Philippine Statistic Authority.


Population census of Malolos
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 27,025—    
1918 26,109−0.23%
1939 33,384+1.18%
1948 38,779+1.68%
1960 48,968+1.96%
1970 73,996+4.21%
1975 83,491+2.45%
1980 95,699+2.77%
1990 125,178+2.72%
1995 147,414+3.11%
2000 175,291+3.78%
2007 225,244+3.52%
2010 234,945+1.55%
2015 252,074+1.35%
2020 261,189+0.70%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[45][41][46][47]

As of 2015, the Philippine Statistics Authority released the official result of 2015 census in which Malolos has a population of 261,189 people,[3] with a density of 3,900 inhabitants per square kilometer or 10,000 inhabitants per square mile, an increase of 17,129 people from the 2010 census. There are 52,547 households in the city. Majority of the Malolos households usually lives along the major roads. It has an average crime rate of 6.28% and has a crime solution efficiency of 97.11%.

Language and ethnicity

The majority of the Maloleños (or Malolenyo in Filipino) traces their roots to Tagalog ethnicity although there are also Kapampangan and other ethnicities who migrated to the city. The vernacular language is Filipino, in the form of Tagalog, while Philippine English is the language most widely used in education and business throughout the city. Although Malolos is the city where the Filipinos established the Spanish as their only official language in the first constitution, the native speakers of Spanish still alive are reduced to the very old members of a handful of families.


Malolos Cathedral-Basilica, the principal church of the city and the Province of Bulacan
Santa Isabel de Hungaria Church, built in 1673 as visita of Malolos and became Parish in 1859

The Christianization of Malolos was done by the Augustinian Order in May 1572 thru the effort of Fray Diego Vivar-Ordonez (parochial vicar of Calumpit, assistant to Fray Diego Herrera and Martin de Rada) and it became one of the visitas of Parish of Nicolas de Tolentino (became San Juan Bautista in 1576). Since 1572 the apostolic administration in Malolos was under the Convent of Calumpit. On June 11, 1580, the mission chapel was accepted by the Augustinians as House of Order and became Iglesia Convento y Malolos with visitas of Paombong, Matimbo, Mambog and Quingua in 1581. Later due to the frequent high tides that submerged the area, the friars moved the church to its present location in Poblacion in 1590 under the curate Fray Cristobal Tarique, where they started to build a church made of light materials and wood. In 1599 Fray Roque de Barrionuevo started to build a church made of stone and it was finished in 1673. The majority of the residents are Christians. Roman Catholic is the predominant religion in the city.

Feast of Sto. Niño de Malolos

Until today, the Roman Catholic faith in Malolos remained intensive. It is evident through the existence of the three stone churches. (Malolos Cathedral, Barasoain Church, and the Santa Isabel Church) Being predominantly Catholic, Malolos, together with the whole province of Bulacan is constituted as Vicaria dela Immaculada Concepcion in which the (Cura de Malolos is the Vicar Forane). It was part of the Archdiocese of Manila until March 11, 1962, when Pope John XXIII created the Diocese of Malolos making the Malolos Church its cathedral. In March 2012 the Diocese of Malolos will celebrate its 50th anniversary. It was highlighted by the Canonical Coronation of the patroness and queen of the city and the whole province, Virgen Inmaculada Concepción de Malolos enshrined at the cathedral's altar.

Other Christian religious groups, such as Methodists, Aglipayans, Adventists, Baptists, Mormons, and other Protestant churches, as well as Nontrinitarian churches (like Members Church of God International, Iglesia ni Cristo, and Jehovah's Witness) can be found in the city.

Islam (Muslims) could also be found in the city.



Robinsons Place Malolos
The Cabanas Malolos

The City of Malolos is quickly becoming commercialized due to its proximity to Metro Manila and for lying between Manila and Clark, Pampanga. Many corporations have put up commercial sites and banking establishments in various places around the city. Many of the businesses and industries in the city include Banking; Business Process Outsourcing; Courier Service; Education; Food Service; Hospitals; Hotels, Resorts & Restaurants; Information and Communications Technology; Insurance; Manpower; ; Realty/Real Property Development; Trade; Transport Services; Travel & Tours; and other services. Robinsons Place Malolos is a major shopping mall owned and operated by Robinsons Malls, the Philippines' second largest mall operator. The mall is located along MacArthur Highway, Barangay Sumapang Matanda.[55] Other shopping malls in Malolos include the Maunlad Malls 1 and 2, both owned and operated by the Union Bank of the Philippines,[56] Graceland Mall, owned and operated by RMR Group of Companies,[57] Vista Mall, Waltermart and Bulacan Eco-Commercial Complex, owned by the Provincial Government of Bulacan.

Chimera Land is an amusement park under construction located in Barangay Sumapang Matanda. Once complete, it will be the first sustainable themed park in the Philippines.[58][59]

Malolos also serves as the Banking Capital of Bulacan, having the highest number of banking institutions in the province (the city hosts around 46[60]), majority of these are located prominent areas of the city, particularly along Paseo del Congreso Avenue.


Due to its close proximity in Manila and its port, Malolos becomes industrialized. Industrial estates, such as First Bulacan Industrial City, where are more than 20 corporations and companies operating their factories inside the estate are a boom. Mighty Corporation, a major player in the Philippine tobacco industry, operates a tobacco factory in the city.

Other industries such as agribusiness, aquaculture, bag making, ceramics, construction, cement making, flowers/ornamentals, furniture, food processing, garments, gifts, houseware making, decor making, jewelry, leather tanning, marble polishing, metallurgy, printing, shoe manufacturing, and textile manufacturing are also present in the city.

Some of the food products produced in Malolos include Empanada de Kaliskis, Ensaymada Malolos, Inipit, Otap Bread, Atsara, and Bagoong.



Public transportation in Malolos is served by buses, jeepneys, and UV Express AUVs. The city is also served by Tricycles, which offer their services on a for-hire basis. A bus stop located in Malolos Crossing is served by provincial buses operated by Baliwag Transit, First North Luzon Transit, and Victory Liner to Cubao and Monumento. Robinsons Place Malolos is the terminus of Point-to-point buses from Trinoma, and modernized jeepneys from San Fernando, Pampanga.

Malolos is known for its Karatig Jeepneys which serves as an intra-city public transportation. The name itself came from the word karatig, which means nearby places or barangays. The Karatig jeepney is the smaller version of the jeepneys which usually have the size of about 3-meters long and can board 8-10 commuters at the back plus 2 passengers in the front seat. Longer models can accommodate about 10–12. Its capacity varies according to the jeep's length and size. There are two Karatig routes around Malolos.[61]

There was a railway service in the city served by the Philippine National Railways (PNR). However, in 1988 the North Main Line of the PNR was closed and train services in Malolos ceased immediately.[62] On November 20, 2003, in an attempt to revive the railway service, North Luzon Railways Corporation and China National Machinery and Equipment Group (CNMEG) executed a Contract Agreement for the construction of Section I, Phase I of the North Luzon Railway System from Caloocan to Malolos on a turnkey basis. The project was worth $421,050,000. However, on February 13, 2006, a controversy arose from the project and the project was placed on halt indefinitely.[63] In 2017, the project was revived and was called North South Commuter Railway with funds sourced from Japan through a loan. On January 5, 2018, the Department of Transportation broke ground for the first phase of the PNR Clark Line.[64][65][66] When re-opened, the Malolos Station will serve as the temporary terminus until the completion of PNR Clark 2.


Water services are provided by the City of Malolos Water District (CMWD). The CMWD also provide water services on some barangays in the neighboring towns of Paombong and Hagonoy. Since 2012, the city is suffering from recurring water shortages.[67][68] Electric services are provided by Meralco, the sole electric power distributor in Malolos.


Local government

Main article: Sangguniang Panglungsod

The city of Malolos is headed by the Mayor of Malolos alongside the vice mayor and the members of the Sangguniang Panlungsod, a 10-member city council whom are all elected once every three years. This is in pursuant of Article 6, Section 8 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution.[69] The mayor and his/her fellow leaders is limited to three-consecutive, three-year terms and is prohibited to seek for re-election a fourth time. However, in certain circumstances, leaders would run for another set of three-consecutive terms after a term-interruption.

The city is led by Mayor Christian D. Natividad, often referred to his nickname "Agila". Natividad previously served as the local chief executive from 2010 to 2019[70] before unsuccessfully running for Governor of Bulacan during the 2019 Philippine general elections. Natividad lost to incumbent governor Daniel Fernando who previously served as vice-governor for three terms.[71] In 2022, he ran for Mayor for his fourth term as a whole, but his first term non-consecutively, defeating former tandem and running-mate Bebong Gatchalian.[72] The vice mayor is Miguel Alberto Bautista. Bautista was a third-party contender among the running mates of the mayoral candidates in the 2022 Philippine general elections.

Danny A. Domingo is the incumbent member of the House of Representatives whom represents Malolos as part of the first district in the 19th Congress of the Philippines. Domingo was the former mayor of the city of Malolos from 2001 to 2010 before beating then-incumbent Jose Antonio Sy-Alvarado in 2022.

New Malolos City Hall
Office Officeholder Term-in-office Party
Mayor of Malolos Atty. Christian "Agila" D. Natividad 30 June 2022 - present PDP–Laban
Vice Mayor of Malolos Miguel Alberto T. Bautista 30 June 2022 - present Aksyon[73]
House of Representative Member Danny "DAD" A. Domingo 30 June 2022 - present National Unity Party
City Council Members (10)
Francisco J. Castro 30 June 2022 - present National Unity Party
John Vincent G. Vitug III National Unity Party
Niño Carlo C. Bautista National Unity Party
Michael M. Aquino Aksyon[73]
Miguel Carlos B. Soto National Unity Party
Edgardo F. Domingo National Unity Party
Therese Cheryll B. Ople Aksyon[73]
Victorino M. Aldaba III PDP–Laban
Emmanuel R. Sacay Aksyon[73]
Dennis D. San Diego Aksyon[73]


Heritage and tourism

See also: Malolos Historic Town Center

Malolos Historic Town Center
The Historic Town Center of Malolos was declared as one of the Philippine Heritage Sites in August 2001.
LocationCity of Malolos, Bulacan, Philippines 3000
Governing bodyNational Historical Commission of the Philippines
Don Antonio Bautista's mansion

Malolos is hailed as the Premiere Heritage City of Bulacan. Many ancestral houses from the Spanish and American periods, Spanish colonial churches and chapels, historical sites and landmarks, and even structures such as walls and bridges with heritage and historical value are found around the city. Some of these were already marked by National Historical Institute while others are marked by the City Government. The historic town center of Malolos was declared National Heritage Landmark on August 15, 2001, under the name of Malolos Heritage Town.[74]

The Barasoain Church, erected in 1885, was the site of the very First Philippine Congress on September 15, 1898, and the inauguration of the First Philippine Republic on January 23, 1899. In this church the Oath of Office of Emilio Aguinaldo and Joseph Estrada as Philippine presidents took place. Within the premises of Barasoain Church, there are other historical markers installed by National Historical Commission, such as the Universidad Literaria y Scienifico de Filipina at Malolos Convent, General Emilio Aguinaldo Monument at Barasoain patio, and First Philippine Republic marker installed at the left side of the main lateral wall of the church.

The Malolos Cathedral, originally a visita of Tondo in 1572 and became town parish on June 11, 1580, serves the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Malolos from 1962. It served as Presidential Palace during First Republic. It was marked by National Historical Institute in 1956.[75]

Casa Real de Malolos, originally built in 1580, served as Casa Tribunal and Casa Presidencia of the town gobernadorcillo. It became the Spanish treasury in 1673. Declared National Shrine on October 4, 1965. Now it is the Museum of Philippine Political History

Gobierno Militar dela Plaza, ancestral house of Doña Gregoria Vasquez Adriano, became headquarters of Gobierno Militar de la Plaza during 1898–1899, marked and declared heritage site in 1998

Other historical heritage landmarks marked by the National Historical Institute are:

(Pook na Sinilangan ni Guillermo Tolentino, ancestral house of National Artist Guillermo Tolentino, marked by National Historical Commission of the Philippines in 2012.

Other sites that possess heritage and historical value but are not currently marked by the National Historical Institute:

Feasts and festivals

Dubbed as the Bulacan's City of Festivals, Malolos boasts with many feasts and festivals every year. Some festivals are civic festivities and most are religious festivals.

Malolos version of Singkaban made in Pulo, Barihan

The four holy processional icons are:

All of these antique and miraculous images are in the custody of the Bisitang Matanda ng Santisima Trinidad and can be visited and seen at the houses of the designated annual Hermano.

Parks and museums

Capitol Mini-Forest and Children's Park.
The Museum of Philippine Political History
Gat Blas F. Ople Sentro ng Kabataan, Sining at Kultura ng Bulacan.


Robinsons Place Malolos is the 35th mall in Robinsons Malls' nationwide chain and its second in Bulacan. This four-storey shopping center with a multi-level parking area, has a department store, a supermarket and a cinema of its own. This mall also offers a wide selection of restaurants and fast-food outlets, fashion boutiques, tech and service stores as well as health and beauty clinics.


Malolos Sports & Convention Center

Malolos has sports venues, such as the Bulacan Sports Complex and Malolos Sports and Convention Center. The Bulacan Sports Complex houses a track field, a football field, basketball courts, an oval, and a lap pool. Both the Bulacan Sports Complex and Malolos Sports & Convention Center had hosted several regional, provincial, and city sports events, such as the 2017 Central Luzon Regional Athletic Association,[79] and the Republica Cup, an invitational sports tournament held annually.[80]


Centro Escolar University Malolos Campus

Malolos is hailed as one of the centers of education in Central Luzon region. It has several universities such as the government-funded Bulacan State University, and privately owned Centro Escolar University at Malolos and La Consolacion University Philippines. There are private tertiary schools. It also houses the most populous high school in Central Luzon, Marcelo H. del Pilar National High School, founded in 1905.

The city has 9 public high schools and 45 public elementary schools under the authority of Department of Education Division of City Schools of Malolos. The city schools are divided into two educational districts for representational purposes. There are also privately owned and church-operated schools established in the city. These private schools are members of Malolos City Private schools Association (MACIPRISA). Technical schools and computer colleges can also be found in the city.

Social services


The Malolos hosts more than 51 residential subdivisions and the Northville 8 Resettlement Project of the Philippine government.


The City Health Office of Malolos is responsible for the planning and implementation of the health care programs provided by the city government. It currently operates seven health centers. The Bulacan Medical Center (formerly Bulacan Provincial Hospital),[81] operated by the provincial government of Bulacan, is also located in the city.

Private hospitals can also be found in the city. Some of the private hospitals that operate in the city are Sacred Heart Hospital, Santos General Hospital, Malolos Maternity Hospital, Malolos San Ildefonso County Hospital, Ofelia Mendoza Maternity and General Hospital, and the Graman Medical and Maternity Hospital.

Sister cities


  1. ^ City of Malolos | (DILG)
  2. ^ "2015 Census of Population, Report No. 3 – Population, Land Area, and Population Density" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. Quezon City, Philippines. August 2016. ISSN 0117-1453. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 25, 2021. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  3. ^ a b c Census of Population (2020). "Region III (Central Luzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  4. ^ "PSA Releases the 2018 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. December 15, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  5. ^ "NSCB – 2003 Factsheet – One City and Eleven Barangays Created". Archived from the original on November 11, 2016. Retrieved March 9, 2012.
  6. ^ "The First Philippine Republic". Philippine Government. September 7, 2012. Archived from the original on October 7, 2021. Retrieved August 18, 2021.
  7. ^ "Asia's First Republic". Mantle. June 12, 2019. Archived from the original on January 18, 2022. Retrieved January 18, 2022.
  8. ^ Saulo, A. B. (1983). Emilio Aguinaldo: Generalissimo and President of the First Philippine Republic--first Republic in Asia. Phoenix Publishing House. ISBN 978-971-06-0720-4. Retrieved January 18, 2022.
  9. ^ Guevara 1972, pp. 104–119 (English translation by Sulpicio Guevara)
  10. ^ Tucker 2009, p. 364
  11. ^ "The Spaniards' First 50 Years in the Philippines, 1565-1615 - A Sourcebook". Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved January 8, 2017.
  12. ^ Blair and Robertson, The Philippine Islands, volume 34, page 304-310, paragraph 3
  13. ^ Historia General Archivo de Sevilla
  14. ^ Crossing a river, their 'itlog' turns to 'ebun' Archived November 1, 2023, at the Wayback Machine on
  15. ^ Malolos Historical Digest, June 2000
  16. ^ Act No. 88 (February 27, 1901), An Act Extending the Provisions of the Provincial Government Act to the Province of Bulacan, archived from the original on October 21, 2023, retrieved June 19, 2023
  17. ^ Act No. 1038 (January 12, 1904), An Act Amending Act Numbered Nine Hundred and Thirty-two, as Amended, So as to Locate the Seat of Municipal Government of the Municipality of Malolos, of the Province of Bulacan, in the Former Municipality of Barasoain, archived from the original on October 21, 2023, retrieved June 19, 2023
  18. ^ Malolos Historical Digest, June 2000
  19. ^ Republic Act No. 8754:
  20. ^ Presidential Proclamation No. 222, s. 1999 (December 17, 1999), (Untitled), archived from the original on June 2, 2023, retrieved November 2, 2023
  21. ^ a b Reyes, Carmela (January 6, 2000). "Malolos officials start new drive for cityhood". Philippine Daily Inquirer. p. 11. Retrieved November 2, 2023 – via Google Books.
  22. ^ a b "Former Mayor Roque to Donate Cityhood Documents". October 26, 2009. Archived from the original on October 26, 2009. Retrieved March 9, 2012.
  23. ^ a b c d Reports by the Philippine Daily Inquirer on the 2002 COMELEC decision:
  24. ^ Reyes, Carmela (September 12, 2000). "Migrant vote: San Jose del Monte Bulacan's 1st city". Philippine Daily Inquirer. p. A12. Archived from the original on November 2, 2023. Retrieved November 2, 2023 – via Google News Archive.
  25. ^ a b Gamos, Ben (October 12, 2002). "Comelec rules Malolos a city". Manila Standard. p. B14. Archived from the original on November 2, 2023. Retrieved November 2, 2023 – via Google News Archive.
  26. ^ Supplement to the Official Gazette. Vol. 99. Quezon City, Philippines: National Printing Office. August 25, 2003. p. 147. ISSN 0115-0421. Retrieved November 3, 2023 – via Google Books.
  27. ^[permanent dead link]
  28. ^ "Executive Order No. 67, s. 2020" (PDF). City Government of Malolos. Government of the Philippines. December 14, 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 4, 2023. Retrieved November 3, 2023.
  29. ^ a b c d "Republic Act No. 9591". Legislative Digital Resources. Senate of the Philippines. Retrieved November 3, 2023.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h G.R. No. 188078 (January 25, 2010), V. Aldaba, C.J. Fajardo, J. Morada, M. Aldaba Morada, petitioners, vs. Commission on Elections, respondent (Supreme Court decision), archived from the original on November 4, 2023, retrieved November 3, 2023
  31. ^ "House Bill No. 3162, 14th Congress of the Republic". Legislative Digital Resources. Senate of the Philippines. Archived from the original on November 4, 2023. Retrieved November 3, 2023.
  32. ^ Republic Act No. 9591 (May 1, 2009), An Act Amending Section 57 of Republic Act No. 8754, otherwise known as the Charter of the City of Malolos (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2010, retrieved March 9, 2012
  33. ^ "Minutes Resolution No. 09-0544". Commission on Elections. Government of the Philippines. Archived from the original on February 22, 2012. Retrieved March 9, 2012.
  34. ^ a b c d e Punay, Edu; Diaz, Jess (January 28, 2010). "Supreme Court: No new Malolos district". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on November 4, 2023. Retrieved November 3, 2023.
  35. ^ "Malolos loses new House seat". Manila Standard Today. January 28, 2010. Archived from the original on January 29, 2010.
  36. ^ "SC nullifies Malolos district with finality". Archived from the original on March 13, 2010. Retrieved December 13, 2010.
  37. ^ Punay, Edu (March 10, 2010). "It's final: No Malolos district". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on November 4, 2023. Retrieved November 3, 2023.
  38. ^ Velez, Freddie (January 24, 2023). "Bulacan Rep. Domingo eyes creation of Malolos legislative district". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on November 4, 2023. Retrieved November 3, 2023.
  39. ^ a b c d e "City Government of Malolos - Basic Socio Economic and Demographic Data". Malolos, Philippines. Archived from the original on January 12, 2018. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  40. ^ "Malolos, Bulacan, Philippines Weather Averages". World Weather Online. Archived from the original on September 10, 2015. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  41. ^ a b c Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region III (Central Luzon)" (PDF). Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. National Statistics Office. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
  42. ^ "2020 Census of Population and Housing (2020 CPH) Population Counts Declared Official by the President | Philippine Statistics Authority". Archived from the original on July 7, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2023.
  43. ^ "Total Population, Household Population and Number of Households by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2000". Philippine Statistics Authority. May 1, 2000. Archived from the original on November 15, 2009. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
  44. ^ "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay as of August 1, 2007" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. August 1, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 14, 2009. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
  45. ^ Census of Population (2015). "Region III (Central Luzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  46. ^ Censuses of Population (1903–2007). "Region III (Central Luzon)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. National Statistics Office.((cite encyclopedia)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  47. ^ "Province of Bulacan". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  48. ^ "Poverty incidence (PI):". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved December 28, 2020.
  49. ^ "Estimation of Local Poverty in the Philippines" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. November 29, 2005.
  50. ^ "2003 City and Municipal Level Poverty Estimates" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. March 23, 2009.
  51. ^ "City and Municipal Level Poverty Estimates; 2006 and 2009" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. August 3, 2012.
  52. ^ "2012 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. May 31, 2016.
  53. ^ "Municipal and City Level Small Area Poverty Estimates; 2009, 2012 and 2015". Philippine Statistics Authority. July 10, 2019.
  54. ^ "PSA Releases the 2018 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. December 15, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  55. ^ "Mall Info Main". Robinsons Malls. Archived from the original on January 12, 2018. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  56. ^ Brion (August 15, 2012). "Union Bank of the Philippines v. Maunlad Homes" (PDF). Philippine Reports (G.R. No. 190071). Archived (PDF) from the original on October 12, 2016. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  57. ^ "Graceland Mall Malolos". RMR Group of Companies. Archived from the original on April 8, 2018. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  58. ^ "International theme park to rise in Malolos City". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
  59. ^ Balbin, Manny D. "Chimera Land Theme Park Sa Malolos, Kauna-unahan sa 'Pinas! - Ronda Balita". Archived from the original on September 17, 2017. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
  60. ^ "Banks in Malolos Bulacan". Archived from the original on January 12, 2018. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  61. ^ "KARATIG JEEPNEY: Little Jeepneys of Malolos". Malolos, Philippines. Archived from the original on January 12, 2018. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  62. ^ "Brief history of PNR". Philippine National Railways (February 27, 2009). Archived from the original on February 27, 2009. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
  63. ^ Carpio (February 7, 2012). "China National Machinery and Equipment Group vs. Santa Maria". G.R. No. 185572. Archived from the original on January 11, 2018. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  64. ^ "Manila-Malolos railway construction to start this year". ABS-CBN News. January 12, 2017. Archived from the original on January 12, 2018. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  65. ^ Estrope, Carmela (January 9, 2018). "Tugade on P105-B railway project: Time to stop talking, start working". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on January 11, 2018. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  66. ^ Talete, Hannibal (January 5, 2018). "TRAIN TO BULACAN:DOTr breaks ground for Tutuban-Malolos segment of PNR Clark project". InterAksyon. InterAksyon. Archived from the original on January 12, 2018. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  67. ^ Balabo, Dino (May 2, 2012). "Bulacan villages run out of water". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on January 12, 2018. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  68. ^ "Kawalan ng suplay ng tubig sa Bulacan, inireklamo". ABS-CBN News. June 24, 2017. Archived from the original on January 12, 2018. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  69. ^ "The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines". January 30, 2024. Archived from the original on August 10, 2019. Retrieved January 30, 2024.
  70. ^ "Resume of Mayor Christian D. Natividad | PDF | Philippines | Government". Scribd. Archived from the original on January 30, 2024. Retrieved January 30, 2024.
  71. ^ Balbin, Manny (May 17, 2019). "Actor Daniel Fernando proclaimed Bulacan guv". Archived from the original on January 30, 2024. Retrieved January 30, 2024.
  72. ^ Silverio, Frederick (July 2, 2022). "New mayor sworn into office by opponent". The Manila Times. Archived from the original on January 30, 2024. Retrieved January 30, 2024.
  73. ^ a b c d e Stylized as Aksyon Malolos during the 2022 campaign.
  74. ^ "Malolos' Kamestisuhan could rival Vigan's Mestizo District as heritage site". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on July 14, 2018. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
  75. ^ Go, Marky. "Malolos City: Of women's libber, freedom fighters and olden days heritage". BusinessMirror. Archived from the original on July 22, 2018. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
  76. ^ "Santisima Trinidad of Malolos, Bulacan « Museo Santisima Trinidad". December 15, 2011. Archived from the original on March 8, 2012. Retrieved March 9, 2012.
  77. ^ "Museo ng Kasaysayang Pampulitika ng Pilipinas". Archived from the original on February 7, 2022. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
  78. ^ "Political history museum binuksan ni Robredo". October 13, 2016. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
  79. ^ "C. Luzon athletes plunge to action in 2017 CLRAA". Manila Bulletin. February 6, 2017. Archived from the original on March 7, 2018. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
  80. ^ "2017 Republica Cup". Archived from the original on March 7, 2018. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
  81. ^ "Newly built Bulacan hospital inaugurated". Manila Bulletin.
  82. ^ "Malolos City Adopts Bayambang as Sister Town". Malolos, Philippines. May 26, 2017. Archived from the original on December 12, 2022. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  83. ^ "Guam, Philippines share long history of sister cities". Pacific Daily News. June 17, 2017. Archived from the original on October 21, 2023. Retrieved January 12, 2018.

Works cited

Preceded byBacoor Capital of the Philippines 1898–1899 Succeeded bySan Isidro, Nueva Ecija Preceded byBulakan Capital of Bulacan 1901–present Incumbent