|Province of Mountain Province|
|Region||Cordillera Administrative Region|
|• Type||Sangguniang Panlalawigan|
|• Governor||Bonifacio C. Lacwasan Jr. (PDP-Laban)|
|• Vice Governor||Francis O. Taulif (PDP-Laban)|
|• Representative||Maximo Y. Dalug Jr. (NP)|
|• Legislature||Mountain Province Provincial Board|
|• Total||2,157.38 km2 (832.97 sq mi)|
|• Rank||58th out of 81|
|2,702 m (8,865 ft)|
(2020 census) 
|• Rank||76th out of 81|
|• Density||73/km2 (190/sq mi)|
|• Rank||75th out of 81|
|• Independent cities||0|
|• Component cities||0|
|• Districts||Legislative district of Mountain Province|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (PHT)|
|IDD : area code||+63 (0)74|
|ISO 3166 code||PH-MOU|
Mountain Province is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is Bontoc. Mountain Province was formerly referred to as Mountain in some foreign references. The name is usually shortened by locals to Mt. Province.
The province was named so for being in the Cordillera Central mountain range found in the upper realms of Luzon island.
Mountain Province was also the name of the historical province that included most of the current Cordillera provinces. This old province was established by the Philippine Commission in 1908, and was later split in 1966 into Mountain Province, Benguet, Kalinga-Apayao and Ifugao.
The province is also known for its mummy caves, which contain naturally mummified bodies, and for its hanging coffins.
The area of the Cordillera mountains proved difficult to control by the Spaniards. During the long Spanish rule, not much was done to bring the province under control. From 1566 to 1665, they sent expeditions to conquer the land but the rugged terrain and hostile indigenous population at the time were major obstacles to complete subjugation. The first serious effort to subjugate them was made in 1785 when soldiers were sent from Cagayan to put down a revolt of the Kalingas. A famous Spanish explorer, Guillermo Galvez, conducted more than 40 forays to the mountainous region.
Formerly called La Montañosa by the Spanish colonizers due to its mountainous terrain, the area was subdivided into 6 comandancias politico-militar.
|Comandancia||Year established||Comandancia||Year established|
On August 19, 1908, during the American rule, the Philippine Commission enacted Act No. 1876, which organized the entire area of the Cordilleras into one large province, named Mountain Province.
The first governor was Samuel Cane, and the town of Bontoc was made the capital. It was originally composed of the sub-provinces of Amburayan, Apayao, Benguet, Lepanto-Bontoc, Ifugao and Kalinga.
Amburayan was later abolished in 1920 and its corresponding territories were transferred to the provinces of Ilocos Sur and La Union. Lepanto was also reduced in size and its towns were integrated into the sub-provinces of Bontoc and Benguet, and to the province of Ilocos Sur. 
|Amburayan||Yes, in 1920||Territories annexed to Ilocos Sur and La Union|
|Benguet||No||Eastern towns annexed to Ilocos Sur and La Union in 1920|
|Lepanto-Bontoc||Yes, in 1920||Territories annexed to Ilocos Sur, Bontoc and Benguet|
The province in 1918
Bontoc sub-province in 1918
Effective on April 7, 1967, Republic Act No. 4695 abolished the old Mountain Province, converting its sub-provinces into 4 independent provinces: Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga-Apayao and Mountain Province (corresponding to the former Bontoc sub-province).
Mountain Province would have been significantly affected by the Chico River Dam Project during the Marcos dictatorship, as the Marcos administration's project would have flooded the municipalities of Sabangan, Sagada, Sadanga, Bontoc, Bauko, and parts of Barlig. However, the indigenous peoples of Kalinga Province and Mountain Province resisted the project and when hostilities resulted in the murder of Macli-ing Dulag, the project became unpopular and was abandoned before Marcos was ousted by the 1986 People Power Revolution.
On June 15, 1987, the Cordillera Administrative Region was established upon the issuance of Executive Order 220 by then-President Corazon Aquino, and Mountain Province was made one of its provinces.
Mountain Province covers a total area of 2,157.38 square kilometres (832.97 sq mi) occupying the central section of the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. The province is bordered on the north by Kalinga, south by Ifugao, southwest by Benguet, west by Ilocos Sur, and northwest by Abra.
Situated within the Cordillera Central, Mountain Province is 83% mountainous while 17% make up hills and levels. The province has many rivers, waterfalls, mountains, and caves. The central and western areas of the province are characterized by rugged mountains and steep cliffs, while the eastern portion has generally sloping terrain.
Mountain Province comprises ten municipalities, all encompassed by a lone legislative district.
Mountain Province has 144 barangays comprising its 10 municipalities. 
As of 2010, the most populous barangay in the province is Poblacion in the municipality of Paracelis, with a total of 5,687 inhabitants. Balintaugan in the municipality of Bauko has the least population with only 144. 
Further information: List of barangays in Mountain Province
The population of Mountain Province in the 2020 census was 158,200 people,  with a density of 73 inhabitants per square kilometre or 190 inhabitants per square mile.
|Source: Philippine Statistics Authority   |
Based on the 2000 census survey, Kankana-ey comprised 51.8% (72,694) of the total provincial population of 140,339. Balangao/Baliwon came in second at 13.46% (18,886), and Bontoc at 12.28% (17,234). Other ethnicities were the Ilocano at 4.97% (6,968), Applai at 2.1% (2,947), Binontok at 1.79% (2,510), and Kalinga at 1.76% (2,468).
Anglicanism predominates in the province with approximately 60% adherence with the other religions such as Roman Catholicism, Seventh-Day Adventist Church, Iglesia Filipina Indepiendente, Iglesia ni Cristo and Free Believers in Christ Fellowship.
Mountain Province is the only predominantly Protestant province in the Philippines.
The province has several rice terraces in seven of its different towns:
The mountainous province also offers excellent mountain climbing experiences with two of its mountains among the top 10 highest points in the Philippines:
((cite book)): External link in
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Benguet was once part of Mountain Province.