Nacionalista Party
Partido Nacionalista
PresidentManny Villar
ChairmanManny Villar
Secretary-GeneralVacant
FounderManuel L. Quezon
Sergio Osmeña
FoundedApril 25, 1907; 115 years ago (1907-04-25)
HeadquartersStarmall EDSA-Shaw 4F, EDSA corner Shaw Boulevard, Mandaluyong, Metro Manila
Youth wingYoung Nacionalistas (YN)
IdeologyConservatism[1][2]
National conservatism[3]
Populism[4][5]
Political positionClaimed:
Big tent[5][1][6]
Traditional spectrum:
Centre-right[7][2][8]
National affiliationUniTeam Alliance
ColorsNational colors:
  Red,   blue, and   white
Customary:
  Light green
  Orange
SloganAng Bayan Higit sa Lahat
(The Nation Above All Else)
Seats in the Senate
4 / 24
Seats in the House of Representatives
36 / 316
Provincial governorships
13 / 81
Provincial vice governorships
10 / 81
Provincial board members
116 / 1,023
Website
nacionalistaparty.com

The Nacionalista Party (Filipino and Spanish: Partido Nacionalista; lit.'Nationalist Party') is the oldest political party in both the Philippines and in Southeast Asia in general. It is responsible for leading the country throughout the majority of the 20th century since its founding in 1907; it was the ruling party from 1935 to 1946 (under Presidents Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmeña), 1953–1961 (under Presidents Ramon Magsaysay and Carlos P. Garcia) and 1965–1972 (under President Ferdinand Marcos).

Ideology

The Nacionalista Party was initially created as a Filipino nationalist party that supported Philippine independence until 1946 when the United States granted independence to the country.[1][9][6] Since then, many scholarly articles that dealt with the history of political parties during the Third Republic agreed that the party has been increasingly populist,[4][5][6][10][11] although some argued they had conservative[1][7] tendencies because of their opposition to the Liberal Party and the Progressive Party. The populist ideology of the party remained to present day as described on their website.

History

The party was organized as a vehicle for Philippine independence, advocating self-rule; and espousing this advocacy through representation in the Philippine Assembly of 1907–1916, and in the succeeding Philippine Legislature of 1916–1935. The ranks of Nationalist politicians rose to prominence through the Commonwealth of the Philippines spanning 1935–1941, ending when political parties were replaced by a singular and monolithic KALIBAPI Party during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines.

By the second half of the century, the Nacionalista Party evolved into being main political contenders for leadership in the Philippines, in competition with its rivals, the Liberal Party and the Philippine Progressive Party. This leadership endured until the turbulent suppression of partisan politics during the Ferdinand Marcos regime. In 1978, akin to the Japanese occupation, disparate political parties were coerced to merge into a regime-controlled coalition, the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan. Preferring not to be involved, the Nacionalistas went to hibernation. Years later, in the late 1980s, the party was revived under the leadership of Salvador Laurel until the latter's passing.

The Nacionalista Party is presently led by former Senator Manny Villar, and had fielded three vice-presidential candidates either running independently or in tandem with other political parties, namely Alan Peter Cayetano, Bongbong Marcos and Antonio Trillanes, albeit unsuccessfully.[1]

Controversy over dominant-minority status

In the 2010 general election, the Nacionalista and the Nationalist People's Coalition (NPC) formed an alliance after it was approved by the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) on April 12, 2010.[12] The Nacionalistas fielded Senator Manuel Villar and running with fellow Senator Loren Legarda who is a member of the NPC. It became the dominant minority party after a resolution passed by the COMELEC. On April 21, 2010, it was blocked by the Supreme Court after a suit filed by the rival Liberal Party.[12] On May 6, 2010, the Supreme Court nullified the merger and therefore giving the Liberal Party to be the dominant minority party. It was based on a resolution by the COMELEC giving political parties to be accredited by August 17, 2009.[13]

The coalition was made to help the Nacionalista Party to help boost the presidential campaign of Senator Villar and have a chance to be the dominant minority party by the COMELEC which give the rights to poll watchers during the canvassing of votes.[14] However, it is being challenged by the Liberal Party calls the said alliance a bogus alliance and they are seeking the same party status by the COMELEC.[12] Several local races are also being challenged from both parties, therefore causing confusion in those races.[14]

Political positions

Electoral performance

Presidential elections

Year Candidate Votes % Result Outcome
1935 Manuel L. Quezon 695,332 67.99 Won Manuel L. Quezon won
1941 Manuel L. Quezon 1,340,320 81.78 Won Manuel L. Quezon won
1946 Sergio Osmeña 1,129,996 45.71 Lost Manuel Roxas (Liberal) won
1949 José P. Laurel 1,318,330 37.22 Lost Elpidio Quirino (Liberal) won
1953 Ramon Magsaysay 2,912,992 68.90 Won Ramon Magsaysay won
1957 Carlos P. Garcia 2,072,257 41.28 Won Carlos P. Garcia won
1961 Carlos P. Garcia 2,902,996 44.95 Lost Diosdado Macapagal (Liberal) won
1965 Ferdinand Marcos 3,861,324 51.94 Won Ferdinand Marcos won
1969 Ferdinand Marcos 5,017,343 61.47 Won Ferdinand Marcos won
1981 Alejo Santos 1,716,449 8.25 Lost Ferdinand Marcos (KBL) won
1986 None; Laurel's running mate was Corazon Aquino (UNIDO) 9,291,716 46.10 Disputed Corazon Aquino (UNIDO) assumed presidency
1992 Salvador Laurel 770,046 3.40 Lost Fidel V. Ramos (Lakas–NUCD) won
1998 None Joseph Estrada (LAMMP) won
2004 None; endorsed Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (Lakas–CMD) Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (Lakas–CMD) won
2010 Manuel Villar 5,573,835 15.42 Lost Benigno Aquino III (Liberal) won
2016 None Rodrigo Duterte (PDP–Laban) won
2022 None; endorsed Bongbong Marcos (PFP) Bongbong Marcos (PFP) won

Vice presidential elections

Year Candidate Votes % Result Outcome
1935 Sergio Osmeña 812,352 86.93 Won Sergio Osmeña won
1941 Sergio Osmeña 1,445,897 92.10 Won Sergio Osmeña won
1946 Eulogio Rodriguez 1,051,243 47.38 Lost Elpidio Quirino (Liberal) won
1949 Manuel Briones 1,184,215 46.08 Lost Fernando López (Liberal) won
1953 Carlos P. Garcia 2,515,265 62.90 Won Carlos P. Garcia won
1957 José Laurel Jr. 1,783,012 37.91 Lost Diosdado Macapagal (Liberal) won
1961 Gil Puyat 1,787,987 28.06 Lost Emmanuel Pelaez (Liberal) won
1965 Fernando López 3,531,550 48.48 Won Fernando López won
1969 Fernando López 5,001,737 62.75 Won Fernando López won
1981 Vice presidency abolished
1986 Salvador Laurel[n 1] 9,173,105 45.85 Disputed Salvador Laurel assumed vice presidency
1992 Eva Estrada Kalaw 255,730 1.25 Lost Joseph Estrada (NPC) won
1998 None Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (Lakas–NUCD–UMDP) won
2004 None; endorsed Noli de Castro (Independent) Noli de Castro (Independent) won
2010 None; Villar's running mate was Loren Legarda (NPC) 14,645,574 41.65 Lost Jejomar Binay (PDP–Laban) won
2016 None[n 2] Leni Robredo (Liberal) won
2022 None; endorsed Sara Duterte (Lakas–CMD) Sara Duterte (Lakas–CMD) won

Legislative elections

  1. ^ Laurel stood under the banner of the multi-party electoral alliance UNIDO.
  2. ^ Nacionalista Party members Alan Peter Cayetano, Bongbong Marcos and Antonio Trillanes stood as independent candidates without the party's endorsement; all lost.

Notable Nacionalistas

Past

Throughout their careers, many of the country's politicians, statesmen and leaders were in whole or in part Nacionalistas. Notable names include the following:

Presidents

Vice Presidents

Senators

Others

Most of these individuals embody solid political traditions of economic and political nationalism are pertinent today, even with the party's subsequent decline.

Current party officials

Some members of the House of Representatives and Senate include—but are not limited to—the following:

Nacionalista-affiliated parties

Candidates for Philippine general elections

2010

Main article: 2010 Philippine general election

Presidential ticket

For senator

2013

Main article: 2013 Philippine general election

For senator

All members ran under the administration coalition, Team PNoy.

2016

Main article: 2016 Philippine general election

For vice president

Three members ran for vice president albeit as independent candidates.

For senator

2019

Main article: 2019 Philippine general election

For senator

All candidates ran under the administration coalition, Hugpong ng Pagbabago.

2022

Main article: 2022 Philippine general election

For senator

Current members in the 18th Congress

Senate

Main article: 18th Congress of the Philippines

House of Representatives

District Representatives

Partylist allies

Nacionalista Party presidents

Term Name
1907–1935 Sergio Osmeña
1935–1944 Manuel L. Quezon
1944–1953 Sergio Osmeña
1953–1964 Eulogio Rodriguez
1964–1970 Gil Puyat
1970–1986 Jose Roy
1986–2003 Salvador Laurel
2003–present Manny Villar

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Dayley, Robert (2016). Southeast Asia In The New International Era. Avalon Publishing. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
  2. ^ a b Guillermo A. Historical Dictionary of the Philippines. Maryland, USA: Scarecrow Press. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
  3. ^ Teehankee, Julio (2016). "Weak State, Strong Presidents: Situating the Duterte Presidency in Philippine Political Time". Journal of Developing Societies. 3 (3).
  4. ^ a b Bertrand, J. (2013). Political Change in Southeast Asia. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  5. ^ a b c Berneo, N.; Yashar, D. (2016). Parties, Movements, and Democracy in the Developing World. New York: Cambridge University Press USA.
  6. ^ a b c Celoza, A. Ferdinand Marcos and the Philippines: The Political Economy of Authoritarianism. Connecticut, USA: Greenwood Publishing Group. Retrieved September 19, 2017.
  7. ^ a b Philippine Journal of Public Administration, Volumes 34–35 (1990). UP College of Public Administration. Retrieved October 19, 2017.
  8. ^ M. Troy Burnett, ed. (2020). Nationalism Today: Extreme Political Movements around the World [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 584.
  9. ^ Liow, J.; Leifer, M. (1995). Dictionary of the Modern Politics of Southeast Asia. New York: Routledge. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
  10. ^ Simbulan, D. (2005). The Modern Principalia: The Historical Evolution of the Philippine Ruling Oligarchy. Quezon City: UP Press.
  11. ^ Del Rosario, Simon G. (1973). An Integrated Course on Communism and Democracy. SGR Research & Pub.
  12. ^ a b c Alvarez, Kathrina (April 12, 2010). "NP-NPC coalition formally granted (5:15 p.m.)". Sun.Star Cebu. Retrieved April 15, 2010.
  13. ^ Torres, Tetch (May 6, 2010). "SC nullifies NP-NPC coalition". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on May 9, 2010. Retrieved May 9, 2010.
  14. ^ a b Maragay, Fel V. (March 1, 2010). "NP-NPC coalition complicates fight in the local level". SunStar. Retrieved April 15, 2010.
  15. ^ Laurel was member of the NP before 1942 and from 1945–1959. During his tenure as President, he was affiliated with KALIBAPI.
  16. ^ During the 1946 presidential election, Roxas, who is a member of the liberal-wing of the NP, formed the Liberal Party and eventually moved there.
  17. ^ Moved to the Liberal Party during the 1946 presidential election.
  18. ^ In 1978, Marcos left the NP and formed his own political party known as the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL).
  19. ^ Estrada was a member of the NP during his term as Mayor of San Juan and Senator. In 1991, he formed his own party known as the Pwersa ng Masang Pilipino (PMP).
  20. ^ Duterte was a member of the NP during his term as Mayor of Davao City, Duterte left the party in 1998, when he joined LAMMP. He won the presidency in 2016 under PDP–Laban and formed the Coalition for Change with NP.
  21. ^ Marcos was a member of NP during his term as Senator until 2016. He left the party and joined Partido Federal ng Pilipinas(PFP), which he became a chairman of the party.