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This article discusses Filipino inventions and discoveries and details the indigenous arts and techniques, cultural inventions, scientific discoveries and contributions of the people of Philippine islands — both ancient and modern state of the Philippines.

Since ancient times, the people of the Philippine archipelago (Filipino or Pinoy) have accumulated knowledge and developed technology stemming from necessities: from naval navigation knowledge, traditional shipbuilding technology, textile techniques and food processing to Architecture, indigenous arts and techniques, cultural inventions and scientific discoveries.

Fashion

A barong tagalog placed against the light, showing the translucency of the fabric

Literature and arts

Weapons

Swords and bladed weapons

Panabas is a curved-blade weapon.
Balisong
A kampilan hilt is sometimes wrapped with rattan to improve the grip. The two holes on the crossguard are where the metal "staples" (C- or U-shaped) go, as additional protection for the wielder's hand.

Firearms/projectile weapons

Two lantakas

Construction and civil engineering

Main article: Architecture of the Philippines

The model of a Torogan

Music and instruments

A lute or Kutiyapi from Mindanao bearing Ukkil motifs
A five-key bamboo version regularly used in performances by Kontra-Gapi, a modern ethnic music ensemble from the Philippines

Transportation and mobility

Main article: Transportation in the Philippines

Jeepneys around Manila

Marine vessels

The balangay replica docked at CCP Harbor Manila after its South East Asian expedition

Land transport

Food techniques

Main article: Filipino cuisine

Chicken adobo
Sinigang
a bowl of Halo-halo.
Puto wrapped in a banana leaf.
A cup of Taho

Modern technologies

Games and sports

Martial arts

The Eskrima, Arnis,[57] and Kali are umbrella terms for the traditional martial arts of the Philippines ("Filipino Martial Arts," or FMA) that emphasize weapon-based fighting with sticks, knives and other bladed weapons, and various improvised weapons. It is also known as Estoque (Spanish for rapier), Estocada (Spanish for thrust or stab) and Garrote (Spanish for club). In Luzon they may go by the name of Arnis de Mano, Pananandata (use of weapons), Sinawali (Pampanga, "to weave"), Sitbatan (Pangasinan), Didya and Kabaroan (Ilocos region). In the Visayas and Mindanao, these martial arts have been referred to as Eskrima, Kali, Kaliradman, Pagaradman and Kalirongan. Kuntaw and Silat are separate martial arts that have been practiced in the islands. It also includes hand-to-hand combat, joint locks, grappling, and weapon disarming techniques. Although in general, emphasis is put on weapons for these arts, some systems put empty hands as the primary focus and some old school systems do not teach weapons at all.[58]

For all intents and purposes, Eskrima, Arnis and Kali all refer to the same family of Filipino weapon-based martial arts and fighting systemsn fons.

Eskrima masters along with students in Cebu City

Discoveries

In urban legends

There are urban legends in the Philippines purporting supposed inventions by Filipinos. These assertions are presented as facts in some academic textbooks in history and science used by Filipino students, as well as social media, to promote Filipino exceptionalism.[62]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ baro at saya
  2. ^ Enriquez, Milagros S.; Lalic, Erlinda Dungo; Corpuz, Jaime Salvador (1999). Bulakeña: Anyo at kasaysayan ng baro't saya.
  3. ^ Scott, William Henry (1994). Barangay: Sixteenth Century Philippine Culture and Society. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 978-971-550-135-4.
  4. ^ David, Eric John Ramos (2013). Brown Skin, White Minds: Filipino-/American Postcolonial Psychology (With Commentaries). Information Age Publishing Incorporated. ISBN 9781623962081.
  5. ^ "The Hudhud Chants of the Ifugao". UNESCO. Retrieved January 1, 2011.
  6. ^ Pazzibugan, Dona. "'Pabasa' is for meditating, not loud wailing". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on November 18, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  7. ^ Raiders of the Sulu Sea (Documentary). Oakfilms3, History Channel Asia. Retrieved February 8, 2009.[permanent dead link]
  8. ^ Partington, J. R. (1999). A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. JHU Press. p. 279. ISBN 9780801859540. Retrieved December 12, 2014. malacca cannon.
  9. ^ a b Ancient Philippine Civilization. Accessed January 7, 2013.(archived from the original on December 1, 2007)
  10. ^ Ancient and Pre-Spanish Era of the Philippines Archived July 14, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Accessed September 4, 2008.
  11. ^ a b "17 Most Intense Archaeological Discoveries in Philippine History". January 26, 2023.
  12. ^ Alba, Reinerio (July 22, 2008). "National Museum Declares Maranao Torogan as National Cultural Treasure; Torogan Needs Immediate Rehabilitation". National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Archived from the original on September 7, 2014. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
  13. ^ * Clewley, John. "Pinoy Rockers". in the year 2000. In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.), World Music, Vol. 2: Latin & North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific, pp 213–217. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0.
  14. ^ Audio clips: Traditional music of the Philippines. Musée d'ethnographie de Genève. Accessed November 25, 2010.]
  15. ^ "5 Traditional Musical Instruments of the Philippines You Should Learn". Pinoy-Culture.com. Retrieved March 12, 2016.
  16. ^ de Leon, Felipe M Jr. (2006). "Gawad sa Manlilikha ng Bayan – 1993 Awardee – SAMAON SULAIMAN and the Kutyapi Artist". National Commission For Culture and the Arts. 2002. Archived from the original on October 10, 2006. Retrieved June 12, 2006.
  17. ^ Hila, Antonio C (2006). "Indigenous Music – Tuklas Sining: Essays on the Philippine Arts". Filipino Heritage.com. Tatak Pilipino. Archived from the original on December 24, 2005. Retrieved June 12, 2006.
  18. ^ Canave-Dioquino, Corazon (2006). "Philippine Music Instruments". National Commission For Culture And The Arts. Archived from the original on January 17, 2006. Retrieved June 12, 2006.
  19. ^ de Jager, Fekke (2006). "Kudyapi". Music instruments from the Philippines. Retrieved June 12, 2006.
  20. ^ de Leon, Felipe M Jr. (2006). "Gawad sa Manlilikha ng Bayan – 1993 Awardee – MASINO INTARAY and the Basal and Kulilal Ensemble". National Commission For Culture and the Arts. 2002. Archived from the original on July 16, 2006. Retrieved June 12, 2006.
  21. ^ Hila, Antonio C (2006). "Indigenous Music – Tuklas Sining: Essays on the Philippine Arts". Filipino Heritage.com. Tatak Pilipino. Archived from the original on December 24, 2005. Retrieved June 12, 2006.
  22. ^ de Jager, Fekke (2006). "Palandag". Music instruments from the Philippines. Retrieved June 12, 2006.
  23. ^ a b Brandeis, Hans (2006). "Musical Instruments for Individual Use". Music and Dance of the Bukidnon-s of Mindanao -A Short Introduction. Archived from the original on June 16, 2006. Retrieved July 7, 2006.
  24. ^ Mercurio, Philip Dominguez (2006). "Traditional Music of the Southern Philippines". PnoyAndTheCity: A center for Kulintang – A home for Pasikings. Retrieved February 25, 2006.
  25. ^ See, Yee-Seer. (2002). Gambang, Indonesian Gamelan Main Site. Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois University. http://www.seasite.niu.edu/Indonesian/Budaya_Bangsa/Gamelan/Javanese_Gamelan/counter-melody/gambang.htm Archived July 4, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, accessed March 10, 2006.
  26. ^ Mantle Hood. The Nuclear Theme as a Determinant of Pathet in Javanese Music. New York: Da Capo, 1977. Page 240-242 is a discussion of the gambang gangsa
  27. ^ Mercurio, Philip Dominguez (2006). "Traditional Music of the Southern Philippines". PnoyAndTheCity: A center for Kulintang – A home for Pasikings. Retrieved February 25, 2006.
  28. ^ a b "Karakoa".
  29. ^ Ocampo, Ambeth. (February 24, 2009). "Looking Back: 'Adobo' in many forms". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on May 23, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2010.
  30. ^ Rappaport, Rachel (2010). The Everything Healthy Slow Cooker Cookbook. Adams Media. p. 255. ISBN 9781440508486. Philippine Adobo variation.
  31. ^ Cynthia De Castro; Rene Villaroman (July 14, 2008). "ADOBO: A History of the Country's National Dish". The Asian Journal Blog. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
  32. ^ Ocampo, Ambeth R. (August 30, 2012). "Japanese origins of the Philippine 'halo-halo'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  33. ^ "Halo-Halo Graham Float Recipe". Pinoy Recipe at Iba Pa. July 24, 2019. Retrieved July 24, 2019.
  34. ^ "The Restaurant". Taldebrooklyn.com. Archived from the original on July 18, 2014. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
  35. ^ Merano, Vanjo (July 15, 2010). "Ginataang Halo-halo Recipe (Binignit)". Panlasang Pinoy.
  36. ^ "Ginataan Halo-Halo". Filipino Food Recipes. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
  37. ^ Nocheseda, Elmer I. "IN PRAISE OF SUMAN PAST". Tagalog Dictionary. Retrieved January 26, 2008.
  38. ^ Otap – Cebu Central – [ Best of Cebu ]
  39. ^ "BongBong's Piaya & Barquillos – Special Utap". Archived from the original on April 13, 2008. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  40. ^ "Sweet and Sticky Pinoy Treats: Our Top 10 Kakanin". www.spot.ph. June 22, 2010. Archived from the original on October 8, 2011. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
  41. ^ Fernando, Gilda Cordero-; Baldemor, Manuel D. (1992). Philippine food & life: Luzon. Anvil Pub. ISBN 9789712702327.
  42. ^ Recipe by Chef #318186 (May 16, 2006). "Puto Recipe - Food.com". Geniuskitchen.com. Retrieved August 10, 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  43. ^ Elchico, Alvin; Rutao, Gracie; Dizon, JV (December 24, 2010). "Filipinos go for ham, bibingka for Christmas". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on March 9, 2016. Retrieved February 29, 2024.
  44. ^ del Mundo, Angelita M. "Emerging Versions of Some Traditional Philippine Rice Food Products." Disappearing Foods: Studies in Foods and Dishes at Risk: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery. 1994
  45. ^ "How to make Taho". Archived from the original on May 3, 2007. Retrieved May 5, 2007.
  46. ^ a b "5 Coolest Pinoy Inventions You Haven't Heard of". Filipiknow.
  47. ^ "Investing in PH engineering talent". April 29, 2012.
  48. ^ Crisp, Penny & Lopez, Antonio (July 2000). "Making Good in Silicon Valley". Asiaweek. 26 (8).
  49. ^ a b Sb, Gb (October 4, 2011). "5 Filipino Technology Inventors and Inventions You Should Know : GbSb TEchBlog – Your Daily Pinoy Technology Blog". Gb-Sb.Blogspot.com. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  50. ^ "Filipino invention to help Mongolians breathe free". English.news.mn. November 12, 2012. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
  51. ^ "Philippine Inventor Turns Coconut Waste Into Environment-Saver". Terradaily.com. February 1, 2006. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
  52. ^ "5 Incredible Filipino Inventions You Might Not Know". Filipiknow.net. August 31, 2013. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  53. ^ WingZero (April 3, 2017). "Filipino Invented The First Ever Water Supplemented Stove". Wereblog. Retrieved July 2, 2019.
  54. ^ "Pinoy Inventor Made The First Ever 'Water Supplemented Stove'". The Daily Starter. March 26, 2018. Retrieved July 2, 2019.
  55. ^ "Fake News: Story About Filipino Inventor And His 'Water Supplemented Stove' Is A Scam. | Lead Stories". hoax-alert.leadstories.com. March 26, 2018. Retrieved July 2, 2019.
  56. ^ Franks, Joel (December 2, 2009). Crossing Sidelines, Crossing Cultures: Sport and Asian Pacific American Cultural Citizenship. University Press of America. p. 226. ISBN 9780761847458.
  57. ^ Wiley, Mark V. (2000). Filipino Fighting Arts: Theory and Practice. Tuttle Publishing. pp. 1–15. ISBN 0-86568-180-5.
  58. ^ Filipino Warrior Arts Research Society Macachor, Celestino S., Macachor met old practitioners who put emphasis or practiced only empty-hands forms when he was learning FMA and during research for his book with Dr. Ned Nepangue, "Cebu Eskrima: Beyond the Myth".
  59. ^ Hibionada, F. Remembering the battle of Dr. Abelardo Aguilar: Cure for millions, deprived of millions. The News Today. Retrieved September 22, 2015
  60. ^ "The Filipino Doctor Who Helped Discover Erythromycin (But Never Got Paid for It)". June 3, 2018.
  61. ^ "Josefino Comiso – Filipino Physicist". Inventors.about.com. March 5, 2014. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
  62. ^ a b c "Ang Pinaka: Ten popular Pinoy urban legends". GMA News. October 17, 2014. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
  63. ^ a b Francisco, Mikael Angelo (September 3, 2018). "4 Fake #PinoyPride stories you grew up believing". FlipScience – Top Philippine science news and features for the inquisitive Filipino. FlipScience. Retrieved May 6, 2020.

References