Physicians employing a surgical method. From Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu's Imperial Surgery (1465).
Physicians employing a surgical method. From Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu's Imperial Surgery (1465).
Clockwise from top: Al-Zahrawi, Abbas ibn Firnas, Al-Biruni, Avicenna, Averroes, Ibn al-Nafis, ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, Alhazen, Ibn Khaldun.

The following is a list of inventions made in the medieval Islamic world, especially during the Islamic Golden Age,[1][2][3][4] as well as in later states of the Age of the Islamic Gunpowders such as the Ottoman and Mughal empires.

The Islamic Golden Age was a period of cultural, economic and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the eighth century to the fourteenth century, with several contemporary scholars[who?] dating the end of the era to the fifteenth or sixteenth century.[3][4][5] This period is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786 to 809) with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, where scholars from various parts of the world with different cultural backgrounds were mandated to gather and translate all of the world's classical knowledge into the Arabic language and subsequently development in various fields of sciences began. Science and technology in the Islamic world adopted and preserved knowledge and technologies from contemporary and earlier civilizations, including Persia, Egypt, India, China, and Greco-Roman antiquity, while making numerous improvements, innovations and inventions.

List of inventions

This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items with reliable sources.

Early Caliphates

7th century
An illustrated headpiece from a mid-18th-century collection of ghazals and rubāʻīyāt, from the University of Pennsylvania library's Lawrence J. Schoenberg Collection[6]
An illustrated headpiece from a mid-18th-century collection of ghazals and rubāʻīyāt, from the University of Pennsylvania library's Lawrence J. Schoenberg Collection[6]
8th century
9th century
10th century
11th-12th centuries
13th century

Al Andalus (Islamic Spain)

9th-12th centuries
14th century

Sultanates

12th century
13th century
14th century

Ottoman Empire

14th century
15th century
16th century

Safavid Dynasty

The Rothschild Small Silk Medallion Carpet, mid-16th century, Museum of Islamic Art, Doha
The Rothschild Small Silk Medallion Carpet, mid-16th century, Museum of Islamic Art, Doha
15th century

Mughal Empire

16th century
A detailed portrait of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir holding a globe probably made by Muhammad Saleh Thattvi
A detailed portrait of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir holding a globe probably made by Muhammad Saleh Thattvi
17th century

See also

Notes

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  2. ^ Max Weber & Islam, Toby E. Huff and Wolfgang Schluchter, eds., Transaction Publishers, 1999, ISBN 1-56000-400-2, p. 53
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  4. ^ a b King, David A. (1983). "The Astronomy of the Mamluks". Isis. 74 (4): 531–55. doi:10.1086/353360. S2CID 144315162.
  5. ^ Hassan, Ahmad Y (1996). "Factors Behind the Decline of Islamic Science After the Sixteenth Century". In Sharifah Shifa Al-Attas (ed.). Islam and the Challenge of Modernity, Proceedings of the Inaugural Symposium on Islam and the Challenge of Modernity: Historical and Contemporary Contexts, Kuala Lumpur, 1–5 August 1994. International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization (ISTAC). pp. 351–99. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.
  6. ^ UPenn LJS 44
  7. ^ "Ghazal | Islamic literature". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 13 April 2019.
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  10. ^ See p. 289 of Martin, L. C. (1923), "Surveying and navigational instruments from the historical standpoint", Transactions of the Optical Society, 24 (5): 289–303, Bibcode:1923TrOS...24..289M, doi:10.1088/1475-4878/24/5/302, ISSN 1475-4878.
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