A bronze Chinese crossbow trigger mechanism with a butt plate (the wooden components have since eroded and disappeared), inlaid with silver, from either the late Warring States period (403–256 BC) or the early Han Dynasty (202 BC – AD 220)

China has been the source of many innovations, scientific discoveries and inventions.[1] This includes the Four Great Inventions: papermaking, the compass, gunpowder, and printing (both woodblock and movable type). The list below contains these and other inventions in ancient and modern China attested by archaeological or historical evidence, excluding prehistoric inventions of Neolithic and early Bronze Age China.

The historical region now known as China experienced a history involving mechanics, hydraulics and mathematics applied to horology, metallurgy, astronomy, agriculture, engineering, music theory, craftsmanship, naval architecture and warfare. Use of the plow during the Neolithic period Longshan culture (c. 3000–c. 2000 BC) allowed for high agricultural production yields and rise of Chinese civilization during the Shang Dynasty (c. 1600–c. 1050 BC).[2] Later inventions such as the multiple-tube seed drill and the heavy moldboard iron plow enabled China to sustain a much larger population through improvements in agricultural output.

By the Warring States period (403–221 BC), inhabitants of China had advanced metallurgic technology, including the blast furnace and cupola furnace, while the finery forge and puddling process were known by the Han Dynasty (202 BC–AD 220). A sophisticated economic system in imperial China gave birth to inventions such as paper money during the Song Dynasty (960–1279). The invention of gunpowder in the mid 9th century during the Tang dynasty led to an array of inventions such as the fire lance, land mine, naval mine, hand cannon, exploding cannonballs, multistage rocket and rocket bombs with aerodynamic wings and explosive payloads. Differential gears (first used in the Greek Antikythera mechanism)[3] were utilized in the south-pointing chariot for terrestrial navigation by the 3rd century during the Three Kingdoms. With the navigational aid of the 11th century compass and ability to steer at sea with the 1st century sternpost rudder, premodern Chinese sailors sailed as far as East Africa.[4][5][6] In water-powered clockworks, the premodern Chinese had used the escapement mechanism since the 8th century and the endless power-transmitting chain drive in the 11th century. They also made large mechanical puppet theaters driven by waterwheels and carriage wheels and wine-serving automatons driven by paddle wheel boats.

For the purposes of this list, inventions are regarded as technological firsts developed in China, and as such does not include foreign technologies which the Chinese acquired through contact, such as the windmill from the Middle East or the telescope from early modern Europe. It also does not include technologies developed elsewhere and later invented separately by the Chinese, such as the odometer, water wheel, and chain pump. Scientific, mathematical or natural discoveries made by the Chinese, changes in minor concepts of design or style and artistic innovations do not appear on the list.

Four Great Inventions

Main article: Four Great Inventions

The following is a list of the Four Great Inventions—as designated by Joseph Needham (1900–1995), a British scientist, author and sinologist known for his research on the history of Chinese science and technology.[7]

Fragments of hemp wrapping paper dated to the reign of Emperor Wu of Han (141–87 BC)
Fragments of hemp wrapping paper dated to the reign of Emperor Wu of Han (141–87 BC)
The Diamond Sutra, the oldest printed book, published in AD 868 during the Tang Dynasty (618–907)
The Diamond Sutra, the oldest printed book, published in AD 868 during the Tang Dynasty (618–907)

Paper

This sub-section is about paper making; for the writing material first used in ancient Egypt, see papyrus.

Although it is recorded that the Han Dynasty (202 BC – AD 220) court eunuch Cai Lun (50 AD – AD 121) invented the pulp papermaking process and established the use of new materials used in making paper, ancient padding and wrapping paper artifacts dating to the 2nd century BC have been found in China, the oldest example of pulp papermaking being a map from Fangmatan, Tianshui;[8] by the 3rd century, paper as a writing medium was in widespread use, replacing traditional but more expensive writing mediums such as strips of bamboo rolled into threaded scrolls, strips of silk, wet clay tablets hardened later in a furnace, and wooden tablets.[9][10][11][12][13] The earliest known piece of paper with writing on it was discovered in the ruins of a Chinese watchtower at Tsakhortei, Alxa League, where Han Dynasty troops had deserted their position in AD 110 following a Xiongnu attack.[14] In the paper making process established by Cai in 105, a boiled mixture of mulberry tree bark, hemp, old linens and fish nets created a pulp that was pounded into paste and stirred with water; a wooden frame sieve with a mat of sewn reeds was then dunked into the mixture, which was then shaken and then dried into sheets of paper that were bleached under the exposure of sunlight; K.S. Tom says this process was gradually improved through leaching, polishing and glazing to produce a smooth, strong paper.[11][12]

Printing

Further information: History of printing in East Asia

For the separate invention of movable type printing in medieval Europe, see printing press and Johannes Gutenberg.

Woodblock printing: The earliest specimen of woodblock printing is a single-sheet dharani sutra in Sanskrit that was printed on hemp paper between 650 and 670 AD; it was unearthed in 1974 from a Tang tomb near Xi'an.[15] A Korean miniature dharani Buddhist sutra discovered in 1966, bearing extinct Chinese writing characters used only during the reign of China's only self-ruling empress, Wu Zetian (r. 690–705), is dated no earlier than 704 and preserved in a Silla Korean temple stupa built-in 751.[16] The first printed periodical, the Kaiyuan Za Bao was made available in AD 713. However, the earliest known book printed at regular size is the Diamond Sutra made during the Tang Dynasty (618–907), a 5.18 m (17 ft) long scroll which bears the date 868 AD.[17] Joseph Needham and Tsien Tsuen-hsuin write that the cutting and printing techniques used for the delicate calligraphy of the Diamond Sutra book are much more advanced and refined than the miniature Dharani sutra printed earlier.[17]

Yuan dynasty banknote with its printing wood plate 1287.
Yuan dynasty banknote with its printing wood plate 1287.
An illustration published in Wang Zhen's (fl. 1290–1333) book of AD 1313 showing movable type characters arranged by rhyme scheme in round table compartments
An illustration published in Wang Zhen's (fl. 1290–1333) book of AD 1313 showing movable type characters arranged by rhyme scheme in round table compartments

Movable type: The polymath scientist and official Shen Kuo (1031–1095) of the Song dynasty (960–1279) was the first to describe the process of movable type printing in his Dream Pool Essays of 1088. He attributed the innovation of reusable fired clay characters to a little-known artisan named Bi Sheng (990–1051).[18][19][20][21] Bi had experimented with wooden type characters, but their use was not perfected until 1297 to 1298 with the model of the official Wang Zhen (fl. 1290–1333) of the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), who also arranged written characters by rhyme scheme on the surface of round table compartments.[19][22] It was not until 1490 with the printed works of Hua Sui (1439–1513) of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) that the Chinese perfected metal movable type characters, namely bronze.[23][24] The Qing dynasty (1644–1912) scholar Xu Zhiding of Tai'an, Shandong developed vitreous enamel movable type printing in 1718.[25]

Gunpowder

Earliest known written formula for gunpowder, from the Wujing Zongyao of 1044 AD.
Earliest known written formula for gunpowder, from the Wujing Zongyao of 1044 AD.

Evidence of gunpowder's first use in China comes from the Tang dynasty (618–907).[26] The earliest known recorded recipes for gunpowder were written by Zeng Gongliang, Ding Du and Yang Weide in the Wujing Zongyao, a military manuscript compiled in 1044 during the Song Dynasty (960–1279). Its gunpowder formulas describe the use of incendiary bombs launched from catapults, thrown down from defensive walls, or lowered down the wall by use of iron chains operated by a swape lever.[27][28][29] Bombs launched from trebuchet catapults mounted on forecastles of naval ships ensured the victory of Song over Jin forces at the Battle of Caishi in 1161, while the Mongol Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368) used gunpowder bombs during their failed invasion of Japan in 1274 and 1281.[28] During the 13th and 14th centuries, gunpowder formulas became more potent (with nitrate levels of up to 91%) and gunpowder weaponry more advanced and deadly, as evidenced in the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) military manuscript Huolongjing compiled by Jiao Yu (fl. 14th to early 15th century) and Liu Bowen (1311–1375). It was completed in 1412, a long while after Liu's death, with a preface added by the Jiao in its Nanyang publication.[30]

Compass

A model in Kaifeng of a Chinese ladle-and-bowl type compass used for geomancy in the Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD); the historical authenticity of the model has been questioned by Li Shu-hua (1954).[31]
A model in Kaifeng of a Chinese ladle-and-bowl type compass used for geomancy in the Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD); the historical authenticity of the model has been questioned by Li Shu-hua (1954).[31]
Chinese geomantic compass c. 1760 from the National Maritime Museum in London
Chinese geomantic compass c. 1760 from the National Maritime Museum in London

Although an ancient hematite artifact from the Olmec era in Mexico dating to roughly 1000 BC indicates the possible use of the lodestone compass long before it was described in China, the Olmecs did not have iron which the Chinese would discover could be magnetised by contact with lodestone.[32] Descriptions of lodestone attracting iron were made in the Guanzi, Master Lu's Spring and Autumn Annals and Huainanzi.[33][34][35] The Chinese by the Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) began using north-south oriented lodestone ladle-and-bowl shaped compasses for divination and geomancy and not yet for navigation.[36][37][38] The Lunheng, written by Han dynasty writer, scientist, and philosopher Wang Chong (27 – c. 100 AD) stated in chapter 52: "This instrument resembles a spoon and when it is placed on a plate on the ground, the handle points to the south".[39][40] There are, however, another two references under chapter 47 of the same text to the attractive power of a magnet according to Needham (1986),[41] but Li Shu-hua (1954) considers it to be lodestone, and states that there is no explicit mention of a magnet in Lunheng.[31] The Chinese polymath Shen Kuo (1031–1095) of the Song Dynasty (960–1279) was the first to accurately describe both magnetic declination (in discerning true north) and the magnetic needle compass in his Dream Pool Essays of 1088, while the Song dynasty writer Zhu Yu (fl. 12th century) was the first to mention use of the compass specifically for navigation at sea in his book published in 1119.[20][37][42][43][44][45][46] Even before this, however, the Wujing Zongyao military manuscript compiled by 1044 described a thermoremanence compass of heated iron or steel shaped as a fish and placed in a bowl of water which produced a weak magnetic force via remanence and induction; the Wujing Zongyao recorded that it was used as a pathfinder along with the mechanical south-pointing chariot.[47][48]

Prehistoric China

Main article: List of inventions and discoveries of Neolithic China

Ancient and Imperial China

Inventions which made their first appearance in late Bronze Age China after the Neolithic era, specifically during and after the Shang Dynasty (c. 1600–1050 BC), and which predate the era of modern China that began with the fall of the Qing dynasty (1644–1912), are listed below in alphabetical order.

A

Bronze mirror of the Sui Dynasty (581–618) showing the twelve divisions of the Chinese zodiac, the latter of which goes back to the Warring States period (403–221 BC) in China
Bronze mirror of the Sui Dynasty (581–618) showing the twelve divisions of the Chinese zodiac, the latter of which goes back to the Warring States period (403–221 BC) in China

B

A sample of the Shanghai Museum bamboo slips (c. 300 BC), recording part of a commentary on the Classic of Poetry
A sample of the Shanghai Museum bamboo slips (c. 300 BC), recording part of a commentary on the Classic of Poetry
Huizi currency, issued in 1160
Huizi currency, issued in 1160
An illustration of furnace bellows operated by waterwheels, from the Nong Shu, by Chinese mechanical engineer and inventor Wang Zhen, 1313 AD, during the Yuan Dynasty.
An illustration of furnace bellows operated by waterwheels, from the Nong Shu, by Chinese mechanical engineer and inventor Wang Zhen, 1313 AD, during the Yuan Dynasty.
The Spinning Wheel, by Northern Song (960–1127) artist Wang Juzheng. The Chinese invented the belt drive by the 1st century BC for silk quilling devices.[57]
The Spinning Wheel, by Northern Song (960–1127) artist Wang Juzheng. The Chinese invented the belt drive by the 1st century BC for silk quilling devices.[57]
A print illustration from an encyclopedia depicting men employing the fining process to make wrought iron and working a blast furnace by smelting iron ore to produce pig iron.
A print illustration from an encyclopedia depicting men employing the fining process to make wrought iron and working a blast furnace by smelting iron ore to produce pig iron.
Chinese river ships from Along the River During Qingming Festival, by Zhang Zeduan (1085–1145), Song Dynasty
Chinese river ships from Along the River During Qingming Festival, by Zhang Zeduan (1085–1145), Song Dynasty

C

A late 10th century grey sandstone and celadon-glazed pitcher from the Song Dynasty (960–1279); the spout is in the form of a fenghuang head.
A late 10th century grey sandstone and celadon-glazed pitcher from the Song Dynasty (960–1279); the spout is in the form of a fenghuang head.
The endless power-transmitting chain drive from Su Song's book of 1094 describing his clock tower[98]
The endless power-transmitting chain drive from Su Song's book of 1094 describing his clock tower[98]
The Xuande Emperor (r. 1425–1435) playing chuiwan with his eunuchs
The Xuande Emperor (r. 1425–1435) playing chuiwan with his eunuchs
A hand-held, trigger-operated crossbow from the 2nd century BC, Han Dynasty[99]
A hand-held, trigger-operated crossbow from the 2nd century BC, Han Dynasty[99]
A 15th-century Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) woodblock print of the Water Margin novel showing a game of cuju football being played
A 15th-century Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) woodblock print of the Water Margin novel showing a game of cuju football being played
Candidates gathering around the wall where the civil service examination results are posted. This announcement was known as "releasing the roll" (放榜). (c. 1540, by Ming Dynasty painter Qiu Ying)
Candidates gathering around the wall where the civil service examination results are posted. This announcement was known as "releasing the roll" (放榜). (c. 1540, by Ming Dynasty painter Qiu Ying)

D

Ceramic models of watchtowers from the Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) showing use of dougong brackets
Ceramic models of watchtowers from the Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) showing use of dougong brackets
A giant drawloom for figure weaving, from the Chinese Tiangong Kaiwu encyclopedia published by Ming dynasty encyclopedist and scientist Song Yingxing in 1637
A giant drawloom for figure weaving, from the Chinese Tiangong Kaiwu encyclopedia published by Ming dynasty encyclopedist and scientist Song Yingxing in 1637
Antique drilling rigs in Zigong, China
Antique drilling rigs in Zigong, China

E

F

An illustration of a bronze "thousand ball thunder cannon" from the 14th-century Ming Dynasty book Huolongjing. The cannon is an early example of medieval mobile battlefield artillery.[194]
An illustration of a bronze "thousand ball thunder cannon" from the 14th-century Ming Dynasty book Huolongjing. The cannon is an early example of medieval mobile battlefield artillery.[194]
The field mill in the Chinese book Yuanxi Qiqi Tushuk Luzui (Collected Diagrams and Explanations of the Wonderful Machines of the Far West), by German Jesuit Johann Schreck and Wang Zheng, 1627
The field mill in the Chinese book Yuanxi Qiqi Tushuk Luzui (Collected Diagrams and Explanations of the Wonderful Machines of the Far West), by German Jesuit Johann Schreck and Wang Zheng, 1627
The 'divine fire arrow screen' from the Huolongjing. A stationary arrow launcher that carries one hundred fire arrows. It is activated by a trap-like mechanism, possibly of wheellock design.
The 'divine fire arrow screen' from the Huolongjing. A stationary arrow launcher that carries one hundred fire arrows. It is activated by a trap-like mechanism, possibly of wheellock design.
Two different types of fire lances. The fire lance was an anti-personnel gunpowder weapon with a relatively short range. Considered by many to be the first proto-gun.
Two different types of fire lances. The fire lance was an anti-personnel gunpowder weapon with a relatively short range. Considered by many to be the first proto-gun.
"Angler on a Wintry Lake", painted in 1195 by Song dynasty painter Ma Yuan, featuring the oldest known depiction of a fishing reel
"Angler on a Wintry Lake", painted in 1195 by Song dynasty painter Ma Yuan, featuring the oldest known depiction of a fishing reel
Chinese flamethrower from the Wujing Zongyao manuscript of 1044, Song Dynasty
Chinese flamethrower from the Wujing Zongyao manuscript of 1044, Song Dynasty
An illustration of a fragmentation bomb from the 14th century Ming Dynasty text Huolongjing. The black dots represent iron pellets.
An illustration of a fragmentation bomb from the 14th century Ming Dynasty text Huolongjing. The black dots represent iron pellets.
Tiger tally of Western Han period
Tiger tally of Western Han period

G

Rock carving of a bodhisattva playing a guqin, Northern Wei Dynasty (386–534 AD)
Rock carving of a bodhisattva playing a guqin, Northern Wei Dynasty (386–534 AD)

H

A bronze hand cannon from the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368), one of the oldest in the world; the oldest specimen dates to about 1288, when the first textual reference to the hand cannon appears in Chinese literature.
A bronze hand cannon from the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368), one of the oldest in the world; the oldest specimen dates to about 1288, when the first textual reference to the hand cannon appears in Chinese literature.
A Sui Dynasty (581–618 AD) plough figurine pulled by a bull
A Sui Dynasty (581–618 AD) plough figurine pulled by a bull

I

A Song painting by Ma Lin, dated 1246, using India ink on silk
A Song painting by Ma Lin, dated 1246, using India ink on silk

J

A jade burial suit from the Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD), at the Museum of Chinese History, Beijing
A jade burial suit from the Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD), at the Museum of Chinese History, Beijing
Two-masted Chinese junk from the Tiangong Kaiwu published by Song Yingxing, 1637
Two-masted Chinese junk from the Tiangong Kaiwu published by Song Yingxing, 1637

K

L

The 'self-tripped trespass land mine', from the Huolongjing, 14th century
The 'self-tripped trespass land mine', from the Huolongjing, 14th century
A pair of Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD) tomb statuettes playing the game liubo
A pair of Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD) tomb statuettes playing the game liubo
Example of a Chinese printed map in a gazetteer, showing Fengshan County of Taiwan Prefecture, published in 1696; the first known printed map from China comes from a Song Dynasty (960–1279) encyclopedia of the 12th century
Example of a Chinese printed map in a gazetteer, showing Fengshan County of Taiwan Prefecture, published in 1696; the first known printed map from China comes from a Song Dynasty (960–1279) encyclopedia of the 12th century
A cross section of a Chinese hall, from the Yingzao Fashi architectural treatise published by Li Jie in 1103, during the Song Dynasty (960–1279); this book explicitly laid out an eight-graded modular system of architecture for timber halls and pavilions of different sizes
A cross section of a Chinese hall, from the Yingzao Fashi architectural treatise published by Li Jie in 1103, during the Song Dynasty (960–1279); this book explicitly laid out an eight-graded modular system of architecture for timber halls and pavilions of different sizes
A multistage rocket from the 14th-century military manuscript Huolongjing, Ming Dynasty
A multistage rocket from the 14th-century military manuscript Huolongjing, Ming Dynasty
An illustration of a handheld portable multiple rocket launcher as depicted in the 11th century book Wujing Zongyao of the Song Dynasty. The launcher is constructed using basketry.
An illustration of a handheld portable multiple rocket launcher as depicted in the 11th century book Wujing Zongyao of the Song Dynasty. The launcher is constructed using basketry.
A naval mine from the Huolongjing, mid-14th century
A naval mine from the Huolongjing, mid-14th century
Chinese playing card dated c. 1400 AD, Ming Dynasty
Chinese playing card dated c. 1400 AD, Ming Dynasty
A sancai porcelain dish from the Tang Dynasty, 8th century
A sancai porcelain dish from the Tang Dynasty, 8th century
The puddling process of smelting iron ore to make wrought iron from pig iron, the right half of the illustration (not shown) displays men working a blast furnace, Tiangong Kaiwu encyclopedia published in 1637, written by Song Yingxing (1587–1666).
The puddling process of smelting iron ore to make wrought iron from pig iron, the right half of the illustration (not shown) displays men working a blast furnace, Tiangong Kaiwu encyclopedia published in 1637, written by Song Yingxing (1587–1666).
The British scientist, historian, and sinologist Joseph Needham writes that the development of the raised-relief map in China may have been influenced by Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) incense burners and jars such as this, showing artificial mountains as a lid decoration; these were often used to depict the mythical Penglai Island.[315]
The British scientist, historian, and sinologist Joseph Needham writes that the development of the raised-relief map in China may have been influenced by Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) incense burners and jars such as this, showing artificial mountains as a lid decoration; these were often used to depict the mythical Penglai Island.[315]
A 12th-century illustration of a revolving bookcase for Buddhist scriptures as depicted in Li Jie's architectural treatise the Yingzao Fashi.
A 12th-century illustration of a revolving bookcase for Buddhist scriptures as depicted in Li Jie's architectural treatise the Yingzao Fashi.
The 'flying crow with magic fire' winged rocket bomb from the Huolongjing, mid 14th century, compiled by Liu Bowen and Jiao Yu
The 'flying crow with magic fire' winged rocket bomb from the Huolongjing, mid 14th century, compiled by Liu Bowen and Jiao Yu
The oldest known depiction of rocket arrows, from the Huolongjing. The right arrow reads 'fire arrow' (huo jian), the middle is an 'dragon shaped arrow frame' (long xing jian jia), and the left is a 'complete fire arrow' (huo jian quan shi).
The oldest known depiction of rocket arrows, from the Huolongjing. The right arrow reads 'fire arrow' (huo jian), the middle is an 'dragon shaped arrow frame' (long xing jian jia), and the left is a 'complete fire arrow' (huo jian quan shi).
A depiction of the 13th Century "long serpent" rocket launcher. The holes in the frame are designed to keep the rockets separate, from the 1510 edition of Wujing Zongyao.
A depiction of the 13th Century "long serpent" rocket launcher. The holes in the frame are designed to keep the rockets separate, from the 1510 edition of Wujing Zongyao.
A Song Dynasty painting on silk of two Chinese cargo ships accompanied by a smaller boat; notice the large stern-mounted rudder on the ship shown in the foreground
A Song Dynasty painting on silk of two Chinese cargo ships accompanied by a smaller boat; notice the large stern-mounted rudder on the ship shown in the foreground

M

N

O

P

R

S

A replica of Zhang Heng's (78–139 AD) seismometer that employed a pendulum sensitive to inertia of ground tremors; while placed in Luoyang in 133, it detected an earthquake 400 to 500 km (250 to 310 mi) away in Gansu
A replica of Zhang Heng's (78–139 AD) seismometer that employed a pendulum sensitive to inertia of ground tremors; while placed in Luoyang in 133, it detected an earthquake 400 to 500 km (250 to 310 mi) away in Gansu
A depiction demonstrating the use of the Chinese stinkpot shown in the Traité sur les feux d'artifice pour le spectacle et pour la guerre by French pyrotechnician Jean-Charles Perrinet d'Orval, 1745
A depiction demonstrating the use of the Chinese stinkpot shown in the Traité sur les feux d'artifice pour le spectacle et pour la guerre by French pyrotechnician Jean-Charles Perrinet d'Orval, 1745
A sancai-glazed horse statue from the Tang Dynasty (618–907) showing a rider's stirrup connected to the saddle
A sancai-glazed horse statue from the Tang Dynasty (618–907) showing a rider's stirrup connected to the saddle
The Luding Bridge in Sichuan, an iron-chain suspension bridge
The Luding Bridge in Sichuan, an iron-chain suspension bridge
A Chinese Song Dynasty naval tower ship with a Xuanfeng traction trebuchet catapult, taken from the Wujing Zongyao, 1044 AD
A Chinese Song Dynasty naval tower ship with a Xuanfeng traction trebuchet catapult, taken from the Wujing Zongyao, 1044 AD
Hydraulic-powered trip hammers, from a Ming Dynasty encyclopedia published in 1637 by Song Yingxing (1587–1666)
Hydraulic-powered trip hammers, from a Ming Dynasty encyclopedia published in 1637 by Song Yingxing (1587–1666)
An ornate bronze bell belonging to Duke Mu of Qin (d. 621 BC) from the Spring and Autumn period (722–481 BC)
An ornate bronze bell belonging to Duke Mu of Qin (d. 621 BC) from the Spring and Autumn period (722–481 BC)

T

W

Chinese rotary fan winnowing machine, from an encyclopedia published in 1637 by Song Yingxing
Chinese rotary fan winnowing machine, from an encyclopedia published in 1637 by Song Yingxing
The one-wheeled Chinese wheelbarrow, from the Song dynasty painter Zhang Zeduan's (1085–1145) painting Along the River During Qingming Festival, Song Dynasty.
The one-wheeled Chinese wheelbarrow, from the Song dynasty painter Zhang Zeduan's (1085–1145) painting Along the River During Qingming Festival, Song Dynasty.

X

Z

Modern (1912–present)

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Joseph Needham, Science and Civilisation in China, 1954–2008, Cambridge University Press
  2. ^ Bray (1978), 27–28.
  3. ^ Wright, M. T. (2007). "The Antikythera Mechanism reconsidered" (PDF). Interdisciplinary Science Reviews. 32 (1): 27–43. doi:10.1179/030801807X163670. S2CID 54663891. Retrieved 27 October 2021.
  4. ^ Bowman (2000), 104–105.
  5. ^ Levathes (1994), 37–38.
  6. ^ Hsu (1988), 96.
  7. ^ Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 1, p. 290.
  8. ^ Buisseret (1998), 12.
  9. ^ Needham (1985), Volume 5, Part 1, 1–2, 40–41, 122–123, 228.
  10. ^ Bowman (2000), 594.
  11. ^ a b Tom (1989), 99.
  12. ^ a b Day & McNeil (1996), 122.
  13. ^ Cotterell (2004), 11–13.
  14. ^ Cotterell (2004), 11.
  15. ^ Pan (1997), 979–980.
  16. ^ Needham and Tsien (1985), Volume 5, Part 1, 149–150.
  17. ^ a b Needham (1986), Volume 5, Part 1, 151.
  18. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 1, 201–202.
  19. ^ a b Gernet (1996), 335.
  20. ^ a b Bowman (2000), 599.
  21. ^ Day & McNeil (1996), 70.
  22. ^ Needham (1986), Volume 5, Part 1, 205–207.
  23. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 1, 212.
  24. ^ a b Bowman (2000), 601.
  25. ^ Needham (1986), Volume 5, Part 1, 203.
  26. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 8–9, 80–82.
  27. ^ Needham (1986), Volume 5, Part 7, 70–73, 120–124.
  28. ^ a b c Gernet (1996), 311.
  29. ^ Day & McNeil (1996), 785.
  30. ^ Needham (1986), Volume 5, Part 7, 24–25, 345–346.
  31. ^ a b Li Shu-hua (1954), 176, 180.
  32. ^ Carlson (1975), 753–760.
  33. ^ Blanc (1985), 125, 128, 132–133, 136.
  34. ^ Knoblock (2001), 218.
  35. ^ Rickett (1998), 426.
  36. ^ Carlson (1975), 755.
  37. ^ a b Gernet (1962), 77.
  38. ^ Tom (1989), 98–99.
  39. ^ Lacheisserie (2005), 5
  40. ^ Aczel (2002), 80.
  41. ^ Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 1, see 261 footnote. f for ch. 52 on ladle and 232 footnote. d for ch. 47 on magnet (c.f. Lunheng ch. 52 & ch. 47).
  42. ^ Sivin (1995), III, 21–22.
  43. ^ Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 1, 279.
  44. ^ Elisseeff (2000), 296.
  45. ^ Gernet (1996), 328.
  46. ^ a b c Day & McNeil (1996), 636.
  47. ^ Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 1, 252.
  48. ^ Sivin (1995), III, 21.
  49. ^ Omura (2003), 15.
  50. ^ Omura (2003), 19 & 22.
  51. ^ Williams (1904), 131.
  52. ^ Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 2, 30 & 479 footnote e.
  53. ^ Crespigny (2007), 1050.
  54. ^ Morton & Lewis (2005), 70.
  55. ^ Loewe (1968), 107.
  56. ^ a b Bowman (2000), 595.
  57. ^ a b Needham (1988), Volume 5, Part 9, 207–208.
  58. ^ Ebrey, Walthall, and Palais (2006), 156.
  59. ^ a b Bowman (2000), 105.
  60. ^ a b Gernet (1962), 80.
  61. ^ Ch'en (1965), 615–621.
  62. ^ Gernet (1962), 80–81.
  63. ^ Wagner (2001), 77–80.
  64. ^ Crespigny (2007), 184.
  65. ^ Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 2, 370–376.
  66. ^ Day & McNeil (1996), 225.
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