Egyptian inventions and discoveries are objects, processes or techniques which owe their existence or first known written account either partially or entirely to an Egyptian person.

Ancient Egypt

Government and Economy

Tablet of one of the earliest recorded treaties in history, Treaty of Kadesh, at the Istanbul Archaeology Museum
Tablet of one of the earliest recorded treaties in history, Treaty of Kadesh, at the Istanbul Archaeology Museum

Warfare

Reconstruction of Buhen fortress
Reconstruction of Buhen fortress

Agriculture and Animal Husbandry

Transport

Egyptian sailing ship, ca. 1422–1411 BCE
Egyptian sailing ship, ca. 1422–1411 BCE

Metals, Elements and Materials

Medicine

Discoveries

Inventions

Prosthetic toe from ancient Egypt
Prosthetic toe from ancient Egypt
Inscription detailing ancient Egyptian medical instruments, including bone saws, suction cups, knives and scalpels, retractors, scales, lances, chisels and dental tools.
Inscription detailing ancient Egyptian medical instruments, including bone saws, suction cups, knives and scalpels, retractors, scales, lances, chisels and dental tools.

Innovations

Mathematics

Algebra

Arithmetic values thought to have been represented by parts of the Eye of Horus
Arithmetic values thought to have been represented by parts of the Eye of Horus
D54
or
D55

Areas and Volumes

Measurement

Cubit rod from the Turin Museum.
Cubit rod from the Turin Museum.

Science

Astronomy

World's oldest sundial, from Egypt's Valley of the Kings (c. 1500 BC)
World's oldest sundial, from Egypt's Valley of the Kings (c. 1500 BC)

Tools and machines

Papyrus (P. BM EA 10591 recto column IX, beginning of lines 13–17)
Papyrus (P. BM EA 10591 recto column IX, beginning of lines 13–17)
One of four official letters to vizier Khay copied onto a limestone ostracon, in Egyptian Hieratic
One of four official letters to vizier Khay copied onto a limestone ostracon, in Egyptian Hieratic
False door of Nykara, c. 2408 BC, painted limestone, 168 x 111.5 × 6 cm, Cleveland Museum of Art
False door of Nykara, c. 2408 BC, painted limestone, 168 x 111.5 × 6 cm, Cleveland Museum of Art

Furniture

Furniture became common first in Ancient Egypt during the Naqada culture.[184] During that period a wide variety of furniture pieces were invented and used.

Arts and Architecture

Architecture

Columns with Hathoric capitals
Columns with Hathoric capitals
Pylon of the Temple of Luxor with the remaining obelisk (of two) in front (the second is in the Place de la Concorde in Paris).
Pylon of the Temple of Luxor with the remaining obelisk (of two) in front (the second is in the Place de la Concorde in Paris).
Illustrations of various examples of ancient Egyptian cornices, all of them having cavettos
Illustrations of various examples of ancient Egyptian cornices, all of them having cavettos

Crafts

Painting on papyrus
Painting on papyrus
Hieroglyphs: ankh, basket, Eye of Horus, Sun Disk-(Gard. N5)
Hieroglyphs: ankh, basket, Eye of Horus, Sun Disk-(Gard. N5)

Music and Dance

Nefertari, wife of Ramesses II, holding a sistrum
Nefertari, wife of Ramesses II, holding a sistrum
Silver and gold plated trumpet and its wooden mute from the tomb of Tutankhamun (1326–1336 BC)
Silver and gold plated trumpet and its wooden mute from the tomb of Tutankhamun (1326–1336 BC)

Literature

A raised-relief depiction of Amenemhat I accompanied by deities; the death of Amenemhat I is reported by his son Senusret I in the Story of Sinuhe.
A raised-relief depiction of Amenemhat I accompanied by deities; the death of Amenemhat I is reported by his son Senusret I in the Story of Sinuhe.

Sports

Archeologist's drawing of items found in 1895 in an ancient tomb in Naqada, Egypt, thought to resemble the more modern game of skittles. The archeologist conjectured as to the particular arrangement of the items found.[215]
Archeologist's drawing of items found in 1895 in an ancient tomb in Naqada, Egypt, thought to resemble the more modern game of skittles. The archeologist conjectured as to the particular arrangement of the items found.[215]
Engravings at the Abusir necropolis showing scenes of archery, wrestling, and stick fighting
Engravings at the Abusir necropolis showing scenes of archery, wrestling, and stick fighting

Cuisine

Fruits of Balanites aegyptiaca from Saqqara. Mastaba of Perneb, 5th dynasty of Egypt. MET.
Fruits of Balanites aegyptiaca from Saqqara. Mastaba of Perneb, 5th dynasty of Egypt. MET.

Clothing and Cosmetics

Others

Hieroglyphs on stela in Louvre, circa 1321 BC
Hieroglyphs on stela in Louvre, circa 1321 BC
A specimen of Proto-Sinaitic script, one of the earliest (if not the very first) phonemic scripts
A specimen of Proto-Sinaitic script, one of the earliest (if not the very first) phonemic scripts
Senet gaming board inscribed for Amenhotep III with separate sliding drawer, c. 1390–1353 BC
Senet gaming board inscribed for Amenhotep III with separate sliding drawer, c. 1390–1353 BC
A detail from the Narmer Palette, with the oldest known depiction of vexilloids.
A detail from the Narmer Palette, with the oldest known depiction of vexilloids.
Designs on some of the labels or token from Abydos, carbon-dated to circa 3400–3200 BC and among the earliest form of writing in Egypt.[290] They are virtually similar to contemporary clay tags from Uruk, Mesopotamia.[291]
Designs on some of the labels or token from Abydos, carbon-dated to circa 3400–3200 BC and among the earliest form of writing in Egypt.[290] They are virtually similar to contemporary clay tags from Uruk, Mesopotamia.[291]

Graeco-Roman Egypt

Hero of Alexandria

A triangle with sides a, b, and c.
A triangle with sides a, b, and c.

Pappus of Alexandria

Ptolemy

.

Others

The earliest known surviving pair of socks, created by naalbinding. Dating from 300 to 500, these were excavated from Oxyrhynchus on the Nile in Egypt. The split toes were designed for use with sandals. On display in the Victoria and Albert museum, reference 2085&A-1900.
The earliest known surviving pair of socks, created by naalbinding. Dating from 300 to 500, these were excavated from Oxyrhynchus on the Nile in Egypt. The split toes were designed for use with sandals. On display in the Victoria and Albert museum, reference 2085&A-1900.

Religion

Islamic Egypt

Modern Egypt

Metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET)
The PWCT visual programming language.
The PWCT visual programming language.
Restoration of Mansourasaurus.
Restoration of Mansourasaurus.

Notes

  1. ^ Allegedly built so that the circle whose radius is equal to the height of the pyramid has a circumference equal to the perimeter of the base
  2. ^ "Smy, or thickened milk, both human and animal, is often mentioned in medical prescriptions."[238]

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